Publications by authors named "Fariborz Bahrehmand"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of The Relationship among The Levels of SIRT1 and SIRT3 with Oxidative Stress and DNA Fragmentation in Asthenoteratozoospermic Men.

Int J Fertil Steril 2021 Apr 11;15(2):135-140. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in etiology of DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation in sperm, leading to infertility in men. The silent information regulators SIRT1 and SIRT3 are members of the sirtuins protein family known to be involved in cancer genetics, aging and oxidative stress responses. The aim ofthis study is to determine the correlation between SIRT1 and SIRT3 with antioxidants, oxidative stress biomarkers, and DNA fragmentation in the semen of asthenoteratozoospermic and normozoospermic men.

Materials And Methods: In this case-control study, after spermogram analysis the specimens were divided into two groups, normozospermic (n=40) and asthenoteratozoospermic (n=40), according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Sperm DNA fragmentation was evaluatedusing the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test.Catalase activity was measured using the Aebi spectrophotometeric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activitywere measured by using commercially available colorimetric assays. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure SIRT1 and SIRT3 protein levels of seminal plasma. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in seminal plasma was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: The asthenoteratozoospermic group had significantly lower catalase and SOD activities and TAC levels in comparison with the normozoospermic group (P<0.001).The percentage of DNA fragmentation and MDA level in the asthenoteratozoospermic group were remarkably higher than in the normozoospermic group. The SIRT1 and SIRT3 protein levels in seminal plasmawere remarkably lower in asthenoteratozoospermic group than the normozoospermic group (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that SIRT1 and SIRT3 protein levels are negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in semen. The low levels of SIRT1 and SIRT3 in asthenoteratozoospermic men may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, and lipid peroxidation that eventually result in immotile and immature spermatozoa (asthenoteratozoospermia).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/IJFS.2020.134692DOI Listing
April 2021

Activities and polymorphisms of MMP-2 and MMP-9, smoking, diabetes and risk of prostate cancer.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Dec 9;47(12):9373-9383. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 858 Madison Ave, Memphis, TN, 48163, USA.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of zinc dependent enzymes that are involved in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. The role of MMP-2 and -9 genetic polymorphism in different malignancies has been the subject of numerous studies. The present research has attempted to discover any positive correlation between MMP-2 and MMP-9 SNPs and prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with a history of either diabetes or smoking habits. 112 PCa-patients and 150 unrelated healthy-controls that matched for age and sex were selected for present case-control study. MMP-2 -1575G/A and MMP-9 -1562 C/T polymorphisms detected by PCR-RFLP, serum tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), testosterone, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free-prostate-specific-antigen (fPSA), and fPSA/PSA levels were detected by ELISA and enzyme assay, respectively. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were measured by gelatin-zymography. Covariates were considered as age, status of cigarette smoking, and a possible history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The frequency of -1575 MMP-2 A/A + A/G and -1562 MMP-9 C/T + T/T genotypes were higher in PCa-patients with DM (74.3%,p = 0.003) and with smoking habits (72.5%,p = 0.005). These genotypes were associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer in smokers (3.52-folds) and in individuals with history of DM (4.34-folds). A significant positive association was found between level of TIMPs (TIMP -1 and TIMP-2) and BMI in PCa-patients and also between testosterone levels and MMP-9 activity in healthy control subjects. For the first time, this study demonstrated that activities of MMP-2 -1575G/A and MMP-9 -1562C/T variants in association with smoking and diabetes are considered significant risk factors for PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05968-5DOI Listing
December 2020

Assessment of (A140D) and (N142D) Gene Polymorphisms in Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Apr;9(1):8-13

Medical Biology Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) protect cells from oxidative stress (OS). In humans, the GST omega class contains two expressed genes, and . Because OS is involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between A140D (rs4925) and N142D (rs156697) polymorphisms in PCOS patients.

Methods: 175 PCOS patients and 161 healthy controls were selected among women in Kermanshah province, Iran. and were genotyped using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and PCR-RFLP, respectively.

Results: For , the DD genotype and the D allele led to 2.17- (= 0.02) and 1.5-fold (P= 0.01) increases, respectively, in the odds ratios for PCOS. No significant difference was found between control and patient groups for the N142D genotype or allele frequency. GSTO1 and GSTO2 genotype interaction analysis showed that individuals with the AD or DD genotypes and the GSTO2 NN or DN genotypes had a 1.53-fold (= 0.007) increase in PCOS risk over AA and GSTO2 DD individuals.

Conclusion: The A140D polymorphism is a risk factor for PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/rbmb.9.1.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424423PMC
April 2020

Association between CYP19A

Int J Mol Cell Med 2019 20;8(2):162-168. Epub 2019 Jul 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common skin disease that causes physical and psychological problems for the affected individual. In addition to systemic changes in hormone levels, overproduction of local steroids, especially androgens are associated with AV. Cytochrome (CYP) 19 is involved in the synthesis of estrogens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of CYP19A
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/IJMCM.BUMS.8.2.162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081083PMC
July 2019

The Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (G>A) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (C677T) Gene Variants and the Serum Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, Insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment in Patients with .

Iran J Pathol 2020 ;15(1):23-29

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background & Objective: To find an association between gene variants of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with the risk of acne vulgaris (AV).

Methods: In a case-control study, we investigated 150 AV patients and 148 healthy individuals (aged 18-25 years) for the IGF-1 G>A and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, as well as the serum levels of IGF-1, insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The serum biochemical parameters and the genotypes of IGF-1 G>A and MTHFR C677T were detected by using appropriate kits and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods, respectively.

Results: The frequencies of IGF-1 and the MTHFR polymorphisms were not significantly different comparing patients and controls. The serum level of IGF-1 was 179.8±72.8 µg/L in AV patients compared to 164.6±63.7 µg/L in controls (=0.056). The serum level of insulin in female patients was significantly higher than controls. The HOMA was 3.54±5.6 in patients compared to 1.16±1.4 (<0.001) in controls. Significantly higher levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in female patients than controls. However, the level of estradiol was significantly lower in female patients than in controls. In females, the presence of the MTHFR T allele was associated with significantly higher levels of FBS and LDL-C, as well as a significantly lower level of estradiol compared to those carriers of the C allele.

Conclusion: We found the absence of an association between IGF-1 and MTHFR polymorphisms with the risk of AV. However, increased insulin, IGF-1, and HOMA levels in AV patients indicated the effect of insulin and insulin resistance in the risk of AV and its severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/IJP.2019.105695.2098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995677PMC
January 2020

Association of AHSG gene polymorphisms with serum Fetuin-A levels in individuals with cardiovascular calcification in west of Iran.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Mar 30;47(3):1809-1820. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, PO-Box: 6714869914, Kermanshah, Iran.

Fetuin-A (AHSG) is a multifunctional secretory protein and acts as an ectopic valve and artery calcification inhibitor. We assessed the correlation between serum levels of Fetuin-A and both exon 6 (248 C/T) and exon 7 (256 C/G) mutations in patients with coronary artery calcification (CAC), mitral annular calcification (MAC), and aortic valve calcification (AVC). 184 patients and 184 healthy individuals as control group were included. The genetic variants of rs4917 and rs4918 for the AHSG gene were determined by PCR-RFLP and T-ARMS PCR techniques. Fetuin-A levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS), urea, creatinine, calcium phosphorus, and lipid profile were measured. Fetuin-A levels were remarkedly lower in individuals with AVC, MAC, and CAC comparing to the control group (p < 0.001). The CT + TT genotypes and the T allele (AHSG Thr248Met) were associated with the risk of calcification of heart valves and coronary artery by 1.31 and 1.27 times in the patient group, respectively. The frequency of CT genotype and T allele was considerably higher in the patient group comparing to the control group. Patients with T allele (CT + TT) had higher levels of FBS, urea, low-density lipoproteins (LDL)-C, phosphorus, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while decreased levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-C, calcium and fetuin-A in comparison to control group. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between serum FBS, urea, creatinine, HDL-C, calcium with fetuin-A, and a negative correlation between phosphorous level, SBP, and DBP with fetuin-A. T allele in rs4917 Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the risk allele of calcification of heart valves and coronary arteries and fetuin-A levels correlates negatively with the occurrence of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05275-zDOI Listing
March 2020

The impaired gene expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK), a key metabolic enzyme in leukocytes of newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Dec 18;46(6):6353-6360. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The disturbed immune homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of an array of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with a pivotal role in immunometabolism process, also plays a regulatory function in the immune system. This study aims to evaluate the alteration of AMPK gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes of RA patients and its effects on disease severity as well as plasma levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. 60 RA patients, including 30 newly diagnosed and 30 patients whose disease were under controlled with the combinational disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD), as well as 30 healthy subjects, were enrolled in our study. The gene expression of AMPK was evaluated using real-time PCR method. The plasma concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were measured using sandwich ELISA. The gene expression of AMPK was significantly lower in the newly diagnosed RA patients in comparison with the control group (P = 0.049). Inversely, in RA patients who received DMARD therapy, the gene expression of AMPK was significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.003). There was no significant correlation between AMPK gene expression and plasma levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1. The plasma levels of TGF-β1 was significantly higher in both newly diagnosed and under-treatment patients compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.001). The impaired gene expression of AMPK in peripheral blood leukocytes and elevated levels of plasma TGF-β1 can be contributed in RA pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-05078-xDOI Listing
December 2019

Vitamin D-binding protein and vitamin D receptor genotypes and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with development of aortic and mitral valve calcification and coronary artery diseases.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Oct 29;46(5):5225-5236. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

To assess the association between vitamin D-Binding Protein (VDBP rs7041T>G) and vitamin D receptor (VDR rs1544410G>A) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases in population from west of Iran. Two hundred forty-nine individuals with cardiovascular disease (92 with aortic and Mitral Valves Calcification (AMVC) and 157 with Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD) that their diseases were confirmed by echocardiography and angiography and unrelated 182 healthy controls (gender and age-matched) were selected for this case-control study. The VDR 1544410G>A, and VDBP 7041T>G genotyping were detected by PCR-RFLP, serum vitamin D and lipid concentrations were measured by ELISA and enzyme assay, respectively. The VDR rs1544410G>A gene is a strong risk factor for CAD (OR = 1.28, p = 0.002) and the dominant genotype (T/G+G/G) of VDBP 7041 T>G SNP plays a protective role (OR = 0.67, p = 0.003) in AMVC development in studied population. In addition, lower level of vitamin D strongly increased the risk of CAD (15 ± 11.02 vs. 21.3 ± 18 μg/L, p = 0.043) and AMVC (12.1 ± 13.1 vs.21.3 ± 18 μg/L, p = 0.014) development in individuals carrying T/T genotype of VDBP 7041 T>G gene polymorphism. There was a strong interaction between A allele VDR rs1544410 and G allele of VDBP rs7041 genes in a protective role (OR = 0.74, p = 0.044) in AMVC patients). CAD and AMVC patients were deficient in vitamin D, i.e. their level of vitamin D was strongly lower than that in the control group. Our findings for the first time indicated that there is a strong association between vitamin D deficiency, lipid profile and the VDR rs1544410G>A and rs7T41>G VDBP genes polymorphisms. These interactions may be one of the important factors for CAD and AMVC incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04979-1DOI Listing
October 2019

Cytochrome P450 (CYP450,2D6*A), N-Acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2*7, A) and Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1 3435 T) Alleles Collectively Increase Risk of Ulcerative Colitis.

Arch Iran Med 2018 11 1;21(11):530-535. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: Discovering the association between genetic variations of metabolizing enzymes with idiopathic diseases such as ulcerative colitis (UC) may not only be an auxiliary agent in diagnosis but also could be an effective pharmacotherapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present case-control study was to determine the association of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6 *4), N-acteyltransferase-2 (NAT2*7) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) 3435 C/T genotypes with UC susceptibility and thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) enzyme activity.

Methods: TPMT activity was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and genotypes for the 3 mentioned polymorphisms were determined in 215 unrelated UC patients and 212 unrelated healthy controls by polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in a Kurdish population from Iran.

Results: CYP2D6*4 A allele, NAT2*7 A and MDR1 3435 C/T alleles act synergistically to increase the risk of UC by 3.49 times. The frequency of the A allele of CYP2D6*4 was significantly higher in UC patients (12.6%) compared to control subjects (8.5%, P = 0.046) that significantly increased the risk of UC by 1.56-fold (P = 0.047). The frequencies of NAT2*7 genotypes and alleles were similar in both studied groups.

Conclusion: The most important outcome of this study is that for the first time we demonstrated the simultaneous presence of TMDR1, A CYP2D6*4 and A NAT2*7 alleles robustly increased the risk of developing UC by 3.49-fold. The current study suggests that CYP2D6*4 and MDR1 3435 C/T gene polymorphisms may be risk factors for UC susceptibility.
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November 2018

Association between activity and genotypes of paraoxonase1 LM (rs854560) increases the disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis through oxidative stress.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Feb 1;46(1):741-749. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered as a long-term autoimmune disorder. Gene polymorphism and oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. We aimed to determine the association between PON-1L55M polymorphism and its effects on inflammatory markers such as anti-cytroline circulated-peptide (CCP)-antibodies, C-reactive protein (CRP), neopterin serum concentration, arylesterase (ARE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities and total-antioxidant-capacity (TAC) level with the activity of disease in RA patients. This case-control study consisted of 419 RA patients and 397 gender-age-matched unrelated healthy controls from the west of Iran. PON1-L55M polymorphism was detected by real-time-PCR. The TAC level, serum BuChE and ARE activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Anti-CCP-antibody and CRP were measured by ELISA and neopterin level was detected by HPLC. The PON1-M55 allele was associated with increased risk of the RA in cases with moderate or high activity (OR = 1.43, p = 0.023) and also in cases with the presence of anti-CCP antibody (OR = 1.51, p = 0.009). Synergistic effects of PON1 M55 and Q192 alleles resulted in 2.14 times (p = 0.021) increased disease activity among RA patients with moderate or high activity of the disease. RA patients carried both M (PON1 L55M) and Q alleles (PON1Q192R) had higher concentrations of neopterin (p = 0.003), anti-CCP-antibody (p < 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.026) and significantly lower TAC level (p < 0.001) and ARE (p < 0.001) activity compared to controls. The current study suggests there might be a relationship between genetic and activity of PON. Also, the PON1L55M and PON1Q192R could act in synergy to increase the risk of RA and enhance the level of oxidative stress markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-018-4530-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (rs106180) and angiotensin type 1 receptor A C (rs106165) genotypes and psoriasis: Correlation with cellular immunity, lipid profile, and oxidative stress markers.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key circulating enzyme converting angiotensin (Ang) I to the vasoactive peptide Ang II. The exact role of ACE insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism (rs106180) in psoriasis is not clear. We aimed to examine whether the ACE I/D and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) A C-polymorphisms (rs106165), lipid profile, and stress oxidative are associated with susceptibility to psoriasis. One hundred patients with psoriasis and 100 sex- and age-matched unrelated healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. ACE I/D and AT1R A C polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively, malondialdehyde (MDA) was detected by the high-performance liquid chromatography, serum arylesterase (ARE) activity of paraoxonase and catalase activities were detected by the spectrophotometry, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and vascular adhesion protein (VAP)-1 were measured by ELISA. The presence of C allele of AT1R A C and I allele of ACE considerably increased the risk of psoriasis by 6.42-fold (P < 0.001). The distribution of II-genotype of ACE was significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in control group and increased the risk of disease by 3.11-times (P = 0.023). The higher levels of MDA in patients and the higher activity of SOD, ARE, and CAT was observed in healthy controls with I/D+I/I-genotype of ACE I/D. This study for the first time demonstrated that the ACE I/D and AT1R A C genes polymorphisms robustly increases the risk of developing psoriasis in population from west of Iran. In addition, these individuals had significantly higher VAP-1 and MDA concentration and lower enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant-status, suggesting that psoriatic patients carrying C allele of AT1R polymorphism may be more susceptible to cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction compared with A allele.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27569DOI Listing
October 2018

Association between the -11377 C/G and -11391 G/A polymorphisms of adiponectin gene and adiponectin levels with susceptibility to type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in population from the west of Iran, correlation with lipid profile.

J Cell Biochem 2019 03 11;120(3):3574-3582. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Adipose tissue, an endocrine organ, secretes bioactive factors including adiponectin. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that enhances insulin sensitivity through increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibition of hepatic glucose production. We assessed the association of the adiponectin promoter region polymorphisms -11391 G/A and -11377 C/G with susceptibility to type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus in the population of west Iran. Also, we investigated the effect of adiponectin level and lipid profile on T1DM and T2DM development. In this case-control study, we recruited 189 patients with diabetes (100 T2DM and 89 T1DM) and 161 sex and age-matched unrelated healthy controls. Adiponectin mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and the protein level was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Other biochemical parameters were determined by routine laboratory methods. The G allele of adiponectin gene at -11377 position (C/G) significantly increased the risk of T1DM. With respect to genotype models, codominant (2.97 times), dominant (3.6-fold), and over-codominant (2.9-fold) patients with T1DM who carried -11377 C > G single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly susceptible to the development of the disease. A significantly higher level of adiponectin in T1DM was oberved compared with the control group. In contrast, patients with T2DM had lower adiponectin levels compared with healthy controls. The genotype distributions of -11391 G/A polymorphisms were the same for patients with diabetes and control groups. The presence of G allele at -11377 C/G adiponectin gene significantly increased serum adiponectin level and may be a risk factor for T1DM susceptibility among the western Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27634DOI Listing
March 2019

Synergism between apolipoprotein E Ɛ4 allele and paraoxonase (PON1) 55-M allele is associated with risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Clin Rheumatol 2018 Apr 22;37(4):971-977. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Daneshgah Avenue, PO Box 6714869914, Kermanshah, Iran.

Evidences indicate that abnormal lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation can affect the progression of complications in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) play important role in lipid metabolism and protection of lipid peroxidation. The polymorphisms of ApoE and paraoxonase (PON1) L55M (Met < Leu) allele genes lead to disorders in lipid metabolism and are related to atherosclerosis. This study is the first investigation to examine the possible association between ApoE and PON1-L55M polymorphisms and correlation with serum arylesterase (ARE) activities of PON, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), neopterin, and lipid lipoprotein in SLE patients from Iranian western population. The present case-control study consisted of 107 SLE patients and 101 gender- and age-matched, unrelated, healthy controls from Iran's western population. The ApoE and PON1-L55M genotypes were identified using PCR-RFLP method. The serum level of MDA, neopterin, lipid levels, and ARE activity were determined by HPLC, commercial kits, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Our results showed that ApoE ε4 and PON1-55M alleles act synergistically to increase the risk of SLE by 1.47 times (p = 0.038). We found that the frequency of ApoE Ɛ3/Ɛ4 genotype was higher in SLE patients (11.2%) compared with control subjects (5%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.087). This study for the first time not only demonstrates that ApoE Ɛ4 and PON-55M alleles synergistically increase the risk of SLE but also reveals that serum levels of MDA, neopterin, and LDL-C are high in SLE patients. This information may be in value for evaluating SLE progression and in the elucidation of the mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-017-3859-3DOI Listing
April 2018

Genetic Variants of Pre-microRNAs A-499G(rs3746444) and T-196a2C(rs11614913) with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Investigated with Thiopurine-S-Methyltransferase (TPMT) Activity.

Clin Lab 2017 Oct;63(10):1683-1690

Background: Abnormal expression and different splicing of miRNAs are involved in several human inflammatory disorders. It has been suggested that gene variants of miRNAs may be associated with increased risk of ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to evaluate the association of two SNPs (miRNA-A-499G(rs3746444) and miRNA-T196a2C(rs11614913)) with the risk of UC and monitor their effect on thiopurine-S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity in Kurdish population of Iran.

Methods: This case-control study was performed on 210 UC patients and 212 healthy individuals. Genotyping assay was performed using PCR-RFLP and the TPMT-activity was measured via non-extraction-HPLC method.

Results: We found that the existence of GG genotypes and G allele of miRNA-A-499G SNPs significantly increased the risk of UC by 1.76 and 1.32 times, respectively. The distribution of GG genotype (23.8% vs. 16%, χ2 = 4.2, p = 0.041) and G allele (46.4% vs. 39.4%, χ2 = 4, p = 0.046) of miRNA-A-499G, were significantly higher in UC patients compared to control group. Our results indicate that miRNA SNPs (miRNA-T-196a2C and miRNA-A-499G) have no significant effect on TPMT activity of studied population.

Conclusions: Our results, for the first time, demonstrate that the GG genotype and G allele of miRNA-A-499G significantly increase the risk of UC. However, miRNA SNPs showed no significant effect on TPMT activity in studied population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2017.170502DOI Listing
October 2017

A Practical Non-Extraction Direct Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Acta Med Iran 2017 Jun;55(6):360-367

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Thiopurine drugs remain pivotal therapies for the wide varieties of diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) phenotype, the main metabolizing enzyme of thiopurine-drugs, was studied. This is for the first time that TPMT activity is measured in Iranian IBD patients. We used an improved direct liquid chromatography assay without need for solvent extraction and minimize excess labor handling making it ideal for use in routine referral medical centers. TPMT activity in whole blood was determined by a non-extraction HPLC method. We evaluated 427 individuals including 215 IBD patients and 212 unrelated healthy individuals as control group from Iran's western population. TPMT phenotyping of this study demonstrated no frequency for deficient, 2.8 % for low and 97.2% for normal activity, which is different with results of other studies. There was a significant negative correlation between TPMT activities as calculated based on nmol/grHb/h and the Hb-levels in IBD and control groups (r= -0.54, P<0.001 and r= -0.27, P<0.001), respectively. Interestingly a significant positive correlation between Hb levels and TPMT-activities were seen when the activity calculated in mU/L in IBD patients and control subjects (r=0.14, P=0.05 and r=0.43, P<0.001), respectively. We strongly suggest the use of international unit (mU/L) is more appropriate than nmol6MTG/grHb/h for expressing TPMT-activity in IBD patients. In addition, in comparison with other providers of TPMT test activity and centers around the world the risk of toxicity is much lower after utilizing thiopurine drugs for IBD patients in this region.
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June 2017

Whole-Blood Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase Genotype and Phenotype Concordance in Iranian Kurdish Ulcerative Colitis (UC) Patients.

Clin Lab 2017 May;63(5):947-954

Background: Thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT), a drug-metabolizing enzyme, catalyzes methylation and consequently, the metabolism of thiopurine compounds used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Individuals who are homozygous recessive or have extremely low TPMT activity need to avoid thiopurines because of concern for significant leukopenia. The aim of this research was to determine TPMT phenotypes and genotypes in IBD patients to predict the risk of thiopurine toxicity before treatment.

Methods: The present case-control study consisted of 210 ulcerative colitis patients and 212 unrelated healthy controls from the population of western Iran. TPMT phenotype and genotype were determined by HPLC and allele specific PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively.

Results: TPMT phenotyping and genotyping were compatible and demonstrated no frequency for deficient, 2.2% for low, and 97.8% for normal-activity which is different compared with the results of other studies. There was a significant negative correlation between TPMT activities as calculated based on nmol6MTG/gHb/h and the Hb levels in both UC (r = -0.54, p < 0.001) and control groups (r = -0.27, p < 0.001). Interestingly, a significant positive correlation between Hb levels and TPMT activities was seen when the enzyme activity was calculated in mU/L in both UC patients (r = 0.14, p = 0.05) and in control subjects (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). The overall concordance rate between TPMT phenotypes and genotypes of mutants to alleles (9 out of 422), based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, yielded a sensitivity of 94.7% and specificity of 90% for mU/L and a sensitivity of 85.6% and specificity of 90% for nmol6MTG/gHb/h.

Conclusions: The use of mU/L is more appropriate than nmol6MTG/gHb/h for expressing TPMT activity, and there is better correlation between genotypes and phenotypes of TPMT based on mU/L. The frequency of known mutant TPMT alleles in western Iran (Kurd population) is low suggesting low risk of thiopurine drug toxicity in IBD patients from this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2017.161201DOI Listing
May 2017

Association between GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 variants and the risk of end stage renal disease.

Ren Fail 2016 Oct 8;38(9):1455-1461. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

d Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry , University of Tennessee Health Science Center , Memphis , TN , USA.

Introduction: There are some evidences indicating DNA damage by oxidant and mutant agents has an essential role in the chronic renal failure and end stage renal disease (ESRD). To investigate the possible association of GSTs variants with ESRD, we investigated the frequency of GST- T1, M1, and P1 genotypes, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with ESRD.

Materials And Methods: The present case-control study consisted of 136 ESRD patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis and 137 gender- and age-matched, unrelated healthy controls from the population of west of Iran. The GST- T1, M1, and P1 genotypes were determined in all individuals using multiplex-PCR and PCR-RFLP. The level of MDA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: We found that GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes (GSTT1-/GSTM1-) increased the risk of ESRD by 1.8 times (p < 0.001) and the increased risk of ESRD for GSTM-null (T1+-M1-) genotype was 3.04 times (p = 0.002). ESRD patients carriers the GST (GSTM1-null + GSTT1-null + GST-null) genotypes compared to GST normal genotype increased the risk of ESRD by 3.3 (p < 0.001) times. ESRD patients carriers of GST-null, GSTM1-null, and GSTT1-null genotypes had greater MDA concentration compared with the same genotypes of control subjects. Our results indicated that the GST-null allele (GSTT1-null/GSTM1-null) is a risk factor for ESRD and carriers of this allele have high levels of MDA.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that oxidative stress, impairment of the antioxidant system and abnormal lipid metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of ESRD and its related complications. These data suggest that patients with ESRD are more susceptible to vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2016.1214054DOI Listing
October 2016

Association between butyrylcholinesterase activity and phenotypes, paraoxonase192 rs662 gene polymorphism and their enzymatic activity with severity of rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with systemic inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, preliminary report.

Clin Biochem 2015 Jan 30;48(1-2):63-9. Epub 2014 Aug 30.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Objectives: Evidences indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation are important processes in the development of destructive synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The two major bioscavenger enzymes that are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress are human-butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1). Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the relation of BuChE phenotypes and PON-1 Q192R polymorphism with inflammatory markers such as anti-cytroline circulated peptide (CCP)-antibodies, CRP, neopterin, DAS28-CRP in RA patients.

Design And Methods: In this study, we examined association of BuChE-phenotypes and activity, PON192rs662 (Q192R) polymorphism and its arylesterase activity (ARE) with systemic-inflammatory-markers and oxidative stress. The present case-control study consisted of 419-RA patients and 398 gender-age-matched unrelated healthy controls from west population of Iran. PON192rs662 polymorphism was detected by real-time-PCR. BuChE phenotype, TAC level, serum BuChE and ARE activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Anti-CCP-antibody and CRP were measured by ELISA and neopterin level was detected by HPLC. We used the EULAR activity criteria to measure DAS28-CRP.

Results: We found that PON-1-Q192R was associated with severity of RA [remission-to-low and moderate-to-high in dominant Q/Q+Q/R vs. R/R: OR=2.27, p<0.001; codominant Q/Q vs. R/R: OR=1.65, p<0.001 and Q/R vs. R/R: OR=2.12, p=0.003; recessive Q/Q vs. R/R+Q/R: OR=1.79, p=0.032; and allele Q vs. R: OR=1.68, p<0.001] and presence of anti-CCP-antibody (codominant model Q/Q vs. R/R: OR=1.28, p=0.042). The carriers of Q/Q genotype PON-1-Q192R and BuChE non-UU-phenotype had higher ARE activity, serum levels of neopterin, anti-CCP antibody titer and number of tender-joint and lower activity of BuChE and serum level of TAC than that of R/R genotype and BuChE-UU-phenotype.

Conclusions: The current findings demonstrate for the first time that there is a link between systemic inflammatory markers, oxidative stress, the PON192rs662-Q allele and BuChE-non-UU-phenotype and their corresponding enzymatic activity which may be considered as a risk factor for the severity of RA for a population in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2014.08.016DOI Listing
January 2015

Paraoxonase (PON1) 55 polymorphism and association with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013 Jul 9;12(3):211-9. Epub 2013 Jul 9.

Molecular Diagnostic Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a serum HDL-bound enzyme that hydrolyzes a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters including lipid peroxides, preventing LDL oxidation. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at greater risk of oxidative stress, which is associated with abnormal plasma lipid metabolism. In this study, association of PON-55 polymorphism with serum arylesterase (ARE) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), neopterin, lipids and lipoproteins levels in SLE patients and the development of hypertension was investigated. The present case-control study consisted of 109 SLE patients with and without high blood pressure (BP) and 103 healthy controls from the population in the west of Iran. PON-55 Met<Leu polymorphism was detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), serum ARE activity, MDA, neoptrin, lipid and apolipoprotein levels were determined by spectrophotometery and HPLC and enzyme assay, respectively. The presence of PON-55 M/M genotype was found to be associated with SLE and the development of high BP. The SLE patients with PON-M (M/L+M/M) allele had significantly lower serum ARE activity, but higher neoptrin and LDL-C than the carriers of corresponding genotypes in control group. The ARE activity was positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively correlated with LDL-C and MDA levels in SLE patients. Whereas, in SLE patients with high BP, ARE activity was only found to be negatively correlated with MDA concentration. These data suggest that PON-55 M/M genotype is a risk factor for SLE. The carriers of this allele have high levels of MDA, neopterin and LDL-C, thus, they are more likely to develop hypertension.
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July 2013

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity is associated with the risk of preeclampsia: influence on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative stress.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Nov 23;26(16):1590-4. Epub 2013 May 23.

Medical Biology Research Center .

Objective: To determine the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and phenotypes in preeclampsia and its possible association with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative stress in preeclamptic women.

Methods: In a case-control study, 101 pregnant women with normal pregnancy and 198 women with preeclampsia from Western Iran were studied. The serum BChE activity and phenotypes were measured using spectrophotometric method. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were identified using PCR-RFLP. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by HPLC and commercial kits, respectively.

Results: The BChE activity and the frequency of non-usual BChE phenotype in preeclamptic women were significantly lower and higher, respectively compared to controls. There was a higher BChE activity in the presence of APOE ε3ε4 compared to ε3ε3 genotype in preeclamptic women. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between BChE activity and the levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC) and TAC. However, there was a negative but significant correlation between BChE activity and MDA level.

Conclusions: Our study for the first time indicated that BChE activity might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia through influence on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2013.795534DOI Listing
November 2013

The angiotensin converting enzyme D allele is an independent risk factor for early onset coronary artery disease.

Clin Biochem 2010 Oct 23;43(15):1189-94. Epub 2010 Jul 23.

Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objective: The role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in early onset coronary artery disease age < 55years (ECAD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of this ACE(I/D) gene polymorphism on the risk of premature CAD in patients from western Iran.

Methods: The ACE(I/D) genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP in 323 individuals undergoing their first coronary angiography. Patients were placed into two groups: ECAD and late onset CAD age ≥ 55years (LCAD).

Results: We found a statistically significant association of the ACE D allele, as homozygous or ACE ID plus DD genotypes (ID+DD), only in the ECAD subjects OR=1.35, p=0.015, OR=3.27, p=0.014, and OR=2.8, p=0.013, respectively. In addition, there was a significant association after adjustment for the absence of history of diabetes, presence of normolipidemia and absence of history of blood pressure [OR 1.38, p=0.017 and 2.35, p=0.02]. Our results indicated that the ACE D allele is a risk factor for early onset of CAD even after correcting for conventional risk factors. The incidence of triple vessel disease was significantly higher in individuals carrying ACE(D/D) genotype in ECAD patients compared to those who carried ACE(I/I) genotype (OR 3.38; p=0.019; 57.5% vs. 42.5%; p=0.013).

Conclusion: The presence of D allele of ACE can be important independent risk factor in the onset of CAD patients less than 55 years old in a west population of Iran. Larger collaborative studies are needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2010.07.010DOI Listing
October 2010

The beta-globin gene haplotypes associated with Hb D-Los Angeles [beta121(GH4)Glu --> Gln] in Western Iran.

Hemoglobin 2006 ;30(1):39-44

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Hb D-Los Angeles is characterized by the substitution of glutamine for glutamic acid at position 121 of the beta-globin chain. The present investigation is the first study on the beta-globin gene haplotypes associated with beta-D-Los Angeles in Western Iran. Thirty two individuals from 11 unrelated families from Western Iran were studied. The Hb D-Los Angeles status of all cases was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with EcoRl. The haplotype of the beta-globin gene cluster was determined by a PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) procedure. The haplotype background of the betaA chromosomes was also determined in 35 normal subjects from the same geographic region. The beta-globin gene haplotype analysis demonstrated that all beta-D-Los Angeles genes (23 genes) were in linkage disequilibrium with haplotype I [+----++]. Among the 70 betaA chromosomes, 30 chromosomes (42.9%) were associated with haplotype I. The present study indicates the unicentric origin of the beta-D-Los Angeles gene in Western Iran. It seems that this mutation may have occurred at the same chromosomal background common in the local population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630260500454105DOI Listing
July 2006