Publications by authors named "Farhad Shahsavar"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA) and Maternal KIR Genes: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2020 05 1;24(2):197-213. Epub 2020 May 1.

Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Natural killer cells (NKs) are the most important cells in the fetomaternal immune tolerance induced through interaction of maternal killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and fetal human leucocyte antigens (HLA). Hence, we intend to perform a meta-analysis on the role of maternal KIR genes diversity in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The present paper is a meta-analysis of previous genetic association studies and our previous original study. The results showed that KIR3DL1 was a significantly protecting factor for RSA (p=0.044; OR=0.833 [0.698-0.995]; fixed effect model). KIR2DS2 (p=0.034; OR=1.195 [1.013-1.408]; fixed effect model) and KIR2DS3 (p=0.013; OR=1.246 [1.047-1.483]; fixed effect model) were significantly risk factors for RSA. For KIR2DS1 there was a high heterogeneity and publication bias. Briefly, the inhibitory gene KIR3DL1 was a protecting factor, and the activating genes KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS3 were risk factors for RSA. However, the effect sizes were not suitable. We suggest further studies on different causes of pregnancy loss, to find the role of KIR2DS1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20190067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169921PMC
May 2020

An introduction to the role of immunology in medical anthropology and molecular epidemiology.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 28;109:2203-2209. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Medical anthropology is a multi-disciplinary approach to the medical sciences and humanities. Immunology is of the basic medical sciences dealing with anthropology as a science which involves in recognition of self and non-self. We performed this review paper to introduce the role of immunology in medical anthropology and molecular epidemiology. This narrative review was based on the authors' original experience and current literature. We discussed about human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their disease associations. Bioinformatics and biostatistics help us to use this topic in evidence-based medicine. Immunogenetics is an important part of the molecular anthropology being a part of medical anthropology in turn. There were different notions of the integration of immunology and medical anthropology including environmental, ecological and cultural effects, historical and philosophical approaches, immunological biomarkers in different patients, and immunogenetics. Such studies can be used in pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine especially for immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.11.085DOI Listing
January 2019

Association of vitamin D level and vitamin D deficiency with risk of preeclampsia: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Apr;57(2):241-247

Department of Immunology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Because of the immune modulatory effects of vitamin D3 in preeclampsia, we intend to have a systematic review and meta-analysis on association of both 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) level (parametric approach) and 25-OHD deficiency (non-parametric approach) with preeclampsia. As well, for the parametric part, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve model.

Materials And Methods: We used Web of Science, PubMed and Science Direct data bases through searching in titles. Google Scholar search engine was used in order to find missing papers. Finally 23 studies were imported. Both random and fixed models were reported.

Results: Based on the forest plot, lower levels of 25-OHD were significantly associated with risk of preeclampsia (fixed and random P < 0.001). Based on the forest plot, vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD < 20 ng/ml) was significantly associated with risk of preeclampsia (fixed P < 0.0001; random P = 0.0029; fixed OR = 1.33; random OR = 1.54). Based on ROC curve results, we found 2 cutoffs of 10.60 and 20.05 ng/ml.

Conclusion: Women with vitamin D deficiency at cutoff 20 ng/ml are more at risk of preeclampsia. This association can be specific up to 90% at 10.60 ng/ml cutoff. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency is necessary before pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2018.02.013DOI Listing
April 2018

Mannose-Binding Lectin () gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis among the Lur population of Lorestan Province of Iran.

Genom Data 2017 Jun 4;12:146-150. Epub 2017 May 4.

Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Host genetic variability is an important determinant of the risk of developing TB in humans. Although the association between polymorphisms and TB has been studied in various populations, the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate mannose-binding lectin () gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a Lur population of Iran.

Methods: In this case-control study, four functional gene polymorphisms (, , and ) were genotyped by using PCR Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique in a Lur population living in Lorestan Province, consisting of 100 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) age and sex matched 100 healthy controls (HCs). Association analyses were performed with the SPSS 21 statistical software.

Results: We found that () genotype polymorphism significantly was associated with increased susceptibility to TB (35% in patients vs. 22% in controls, P = 0.0417, OR = 1.909, %95 CI = 1.020-3.573). Additionally, allele showed a significant association with increased risk of TB (56.5% in patients vs. 46% in controls, P = 0.0357, OR = 1.525, %95 CI = 1.028-2.262). Also, the distribution of allele in patients was significantly lower frequency in TB patients compared to controls (43.5% vs. 54%, P = 0.0357, OR = 0.656, %95 CI = 0.442-0.973). However, the allelic and genotypic frequencies of , and polymorphisms were not significantly different between the patients and the controls. We couldn't detect any significant differences between haplotypes among TB patients and healthy controls.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that genotype and allele may increase the susceptibility to pulmonary TB in the Lur population of Iran, although allele may decrease the susceptibility to pulmonary TB in this population. We suggest that it is necessary to further more studies with larger sample size and other ethnic population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2017.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5432655PMC
June 2017

A genomic study on distribution of () and alleles in Lak population of Iran.

Genom Data 2017 Mar 10;11:3-6. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran; Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Anthropological studies based on the highly polymorphic gene, (), provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as infertility treatment, designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine and allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak/lᴂk/individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with that previously described in Iranian population. Commercial HLA-Type kits from BAG (Lich, Germany) company were used for determination of the and allele frequencies in genomic DNA, based on polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) assay. The differences between the populations in distribution of and alleles were estimated by chi-squared test with Yate's correction. The most frequent alleles were *24 (20%), *02 (18%), *03 (12%) and *11 (10%), and the most frequent alleles were *35 (24%), *51 (16%), *18 (6%) and *38 (6%) in Lak population. *66 (1%), *74(1%) and *48 (1%), *55(1%) were the least observed frequencies in Lak population. Our results based on and allele frequencies showed that Lak population possesses the previously reported general features of Iranians but still with unique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2016.11.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5122700PMC
March 2017

Prevalence of Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog-breakpoint cluster region fusions and correlation with peripheral blood parameters in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients in Lorestan Province, Iran.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2016 Oct-Dec;6(4):271-275

Student Researcher, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Context: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a chronic malignancy of myeloid linage associated with a significant increase in granulocytes in bone marrow and peripheral blood. CML diagnosis is based on detection of Philadelphia chromosome and "Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog" (ABL)-"breakpoint cluster region protein" fusions (ABL-BCR fusions).

Aims: In this study, patients with CML morphology were studied according to ABL-BCR fusions and the relationship between the fusions and peripheral blood cell changes was examined.

Materials And Methods: All patients suspected to chronic myeloproliferative disorders in Lorestan Province visiting subspecialist hematology clinics who were confirmed by oncologist were studied over a period of 5 years. After completing basic data questionnaire, blood samples were obtained with informed consent from the patients. Blood cell count and morphology were investigated and RNA was extracted from blood samples. cDNA was synthesized from RNA and ABL-BCR fusions including b3a2 and b2a2 (protein 210 kd or p210), e1a2 (protein 190 kdor p190), and e19a2 (protein 230 kdor p230) were studied by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Coexistence of e1a2 and b2a2 (p210/p190) fusions was also studied. The prevalence of mutations and their correlation with the blood parameters were statistically analyzed.

Results: Of 58 patients positive for ABL-BCR fusion, 18 (30.5%) had b2a2 fusion, 37 (62.71%) had b3a2 fusion and three (3.08%) had e1a2 fusion. Coexistence of e1a2 and b2a2 (p210/p190) was not observed. There was no significant correlation between ABL-BCR fusions and white blood cell count, platelet count, and hemoglobin concentration.

Conclusions: The ABL-BCR fusions in Lorestan Province were similar to other studies in Iran, and b3a2 fusion had the highest prevalence in the studied patients studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-516X.192591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5108105PMC
November 2016

Colorectal cancer and the genes in the human genome: A meta-analysis.

Genom Data 2016 Dec 1;10:118-126. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of inflammation-based cancers and is occurred due to growth and spread of cancer cells in colon and/or rectum. Previously genetic association of cell cycle genes, both proto-oncogenes and the tumor suppressors has been proved. But there were few studies about association of immune related genes such as . Thus we intend to perform a meta-analysis to find the association of different genes of and susceptibility to be affected by colorectal cancer. The overall population of the four studies investigated in our meta-analysis was 953 individuals (470 individuals with colorectal cancer and 483 individuals in control groups). After the analyses, we concluded that colorectal cancer is affected by and also there were no protecting gene. This result shows the inflammatory basis of this cancer. In other words, in contrast to leukemia and blood cancers, colorectal cancers seem to be affected by hyper activity of natural killer-cells (NKs). Whys and therefore of this paradox, is suggested to be investigated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2016.10.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5099266PMC
December 2016

Multiple sclerosis is accompanied by lack of gene: A meta-analysis.

Genom Data 2016 Dec 28;10:75-78. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which we can recognize destruction of the myelin that is around nerve cells of brain and spinal cord called as oligodendrocytes. Both genetic and environmental factors play roles in MS. One of these genes is the -- () which expressed on surface of natural killer cells (NKs). These genes have loci (not locus) in human genome, so they inherit as haplotypes. The results of previous studies show that different genes of may affect both susceptibility and resistance to such autoimmune disorders that their pathogenesis in MS is still unclear. Since NKs play key roles in immune tolerance, we intend to perform a meta-analysis for the correlation of genes and MS. We used the software comprehensive meta-analysis for data of totally 568 MS patients and 280 controls. Among the 14 genes of in the human genome, lack of is accompanied by MS. No gene found to be a risk factor for MS. Further studies on other molecules of NKs like CD94 and NKG2a is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2016.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5054263PMC
December 2016

Distribution of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles in Lak population of Iran.

Hum Immunol 2016 Jul 14;77(7):580-3. Epub 2016 May 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most polymorphic loci in the human genome and encode the highly polymorphic molecules critically involved in immune responses. Anthropological studies based on highly polymorphic HLA genes provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with those previously described in four other Iranian populations. Commercial HLA-Type kits were used for determination of the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 allele frequencies. Differences between populations in the distribution of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles were estimated by χ2 test with Yate's correction and Fisher's exact test. The most frequent HLA-DRB1 alleles were (*)1103=4 (23%), (*)1502 (9.5%), (*)0701 (9%), (*)0301 (8.5%), (*)1101 (7.5%) and (*)1501 (6%) while HLA-DQB1(*)0301 (40%), (*)0201 (15%), (*)0502 (10.5%), (*)0303 (10%), (*)0602=3 (9.5%), and (*)0501 (7.5%) were the most frequent alleles in Lak population. HLA-DRB1(*)0409, (*)0804, (*)1102, (*)1112, (*)1405, and HLA-DQB1(*)0503, (*)0604 were the least observed frequencies in Lak population. Our results based on HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 allele frequencies showed that the Lak population possesses the previously reported general features of the Lur and Kurd populations but still with unique, decreased or increased frequencies of several alleles. In other words, the Lak population is close to Lurs Khorramabadi and Kurd but far from Lurs Kohkiloyeh/Boyerahmad and Bakhtiari.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2016.05.011DOI Listing
July 2016

A Novel Platinum-based Compound with Preferential Cytotoxic Activity against a Panel of Cancer Cell Lines.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2016 ;16(3):393-403

Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Cisplatin as a platinum (Pt)-based chemotherapeutic compound is commonly applied for the treatment of several types of cancer. Nonetheless, drug resistance and severe adverse effects have been observed upon using cisplatin. Here, we have explored the cytotoxicity of novel Pt-based compounds on several cancer cell lines.

Methods: Five synthetic Pt compounds as well as cisplatin were investigated by XTT assay to determine their cytotoxicity against cell lines originated from prostate, ovary, and breast cancers at different time periods at various concentrations. Additionally, the apoptosis rate in cell lines was determined using flow cytometry. Binding to DNA was investigated through spectrophotometric and viscometric studies.

Results: With the exception of one compound, all of the Pt-complexes effectively killed the prostate cancer cell lines (i.e. PC-3 and DU 145). One compound, [Pt(2,2'- dipyridylamine)Cl4].DMF, was chosen as the most potent compound due to its high selective cytotoxic activity and its cytotoxicity was further tested and compared with that of cisplatin on SKOV-3, Caov-4, MDA-MB-231, and MCF7 cell lines. [Pt(2,2'-dipyridylamine)Cl4].DMF had a higher selective cytotoxic capacity in comparison with cisplatin at higher concentrations and longer culture periods. Furthermore, as related to apoptosis induction, treatment with [Pt(2,2'-dipyridylamine)Cl4 ].DMF was significantly more effective than that of cisplatin in five out of six examined cell lines. [Pt(2,2'-dipyridylamine)Cl4].DMF was shown to intercalate into DNA.

Conclusions: The current study introduced a novel Pt-based complex with highly selective and potent in vitro anti-tumor impacts superior to those of cisplatin, a conventional chemotherapeutic agent. [Pt (2,2'-dipyridylamine)Cl4].DMF could be regarded as a promising antitumor agent in future investigations.
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November 2016

A Novel Platinum-based Compound with Preferential Cytotoxic Activity against a Panel of Cancer Cell Lines

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2016 02;16(3):393 - 403

Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Cisplatin as a platinum (Pt)-based chemotherapeutic compound is commonly applied for the treatment of several types of cancer. Nonetheless, drug resistance and severe adverse effects have been observed upon using cisplatin. Here, we have explored the cytotoxicity of novel Pt-based compounds on several cancer cell lines.

Methods: Five synthetic Pt compounds as well as cisplatin were investigated by XTT assay to determine their cytotoxicity against cell lines originated from prostate, ovary, and breast cancers at different time periods at various concentrations. Additionally, the apoptosis rate in cell lines was determined using flow cytometry. Binding to DNA was investigated through spectrophotometric and viscometric studies.

Results: With the exception of one compound, all of the Pt-complexes effectively killed the prostate cancer cell lines (i.e. PC-3 and DU 145). One compound, [Pt(2,2'- dipyridylamine)Cl4].DMF, was chosen as the most potent compound due to its high selective cytotoxic activity and its cytotoxicity was further tested and compared with that of cisplatin on SKOV-3, Caov-4, MDA-MB-231, and MCF7 cell lines. [Pt(2,2'-dipyridylamine)Cl4].DMF had a higher selective cytotoxic capacity in comparison with cisplatin at higher concentrations and longer culture periods. Furthermore, as related to apoptosis induction, treatment with [Pt(2,2'-dipyridylamine)Cl4 ].DMF was significantly more effective than that of cisplatin in five out of six examined cell lines. [Pt(2,2'-dipyridylamine)Cl4].DMF was shown to intercalate into DNA.

Conclusions: The current study introduced a novel Pt-based complex with highly selective and potent in vitro anti-tumor impacts superior to those of cisplatin, a conventional chemotherapeutic agent. [Pt (2,2'-dipyridylamine)Cl4].DMF could be regarded as a promising anti-tumor agent in future investigations.
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February 2016

Small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 M55V polymorphism is not associated with diabetic nephropathy in Iranian type 2 diabetes patients.

Indian J Hum Genet 2013 Apr;19(2):179-82

Department of Immunology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Introduction: We studied the impact of small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 (SUMO4) M55V polymorphism on susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Iranian type 2 diabetes patients.

Materials And Methods: The patient group consisted of 50 Iranian type 2 diabetes patients with nephropathy, and the control group consisted of 50 Iranian type 2 diabetes patients without nephropathy. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for the M55V.

Results: The frequency of SUMO4 AA, AG, and GG genotypes were 23%, 18%, and 9% in the patient group and 10%, 22%, and 18% in the control group. There was no significant difference in frequency of SUMO4 genotypes in patients compared to controls.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that SUMO4 M55V polymorphism is not associated with diabetic nephropathy in Iranian type 2 diabetes patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6866.116121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758724PMC
April 2013

Association of KIR3DS1+HLA-B Bw4Ile80 combination with susceptibility to tuberculosis in Lur population of Iran.

Iran J Immunol 2012 Mar;9(1):39-47

Department of Immunology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, e-mail:

Background: Natural killer (NK) cells are the effector cells of innate immunity that respond to infection and tumor. Interactions between killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules regulate NK cells responses to eliminate infected and transformed cells.

Objective: To investigate the impact of KIR genes, HLA ligand genes, and KIR-HLA combinations on susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in Lur population of Iran.

Methods: The genomic DNA of 50 patients with TB from Lorestan province of Iran was genotyped for sixteen KIR genes and their five major HLA class I ligands were determined by a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) assay. The results were compared with those of 200 healthy unrelated Iranian individuals.

Results: In Lur population of Iran, a significant decrease in frequency of KIR3DS1 was found in TB patients compared to control group (24% vs. 44.5%, OR=0.394, CI=0.194-0.798, p=0.013). Also, among the three activating genes that may use HLA class I molecules as their ligands, a significant decrease was shown in frequency of KIR3DS1 with HLA-B Bw4Ile80 ligand in TB patients compared to control group (4% vs. 23%, OR=0.14, CI=0.033-0.596, p=0.004).

Conclusion: These findings imply a genetic imbalance between activating and inhibitory KIR genes and KIR-HLA combinations in Lur TB patients. Low level of activating KIR3DS1 and its combination with HLA-B Bw4Ile80 ligand might have an influence on the susceptibility to TB in Lur population of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv9i1A3DOI Listing
March 2012

Study of KIR expression and HLA ligands in CD56+ lymphocytes of drug resistant tuberculosis patients.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2011 Sep;10(3):189-94

Department of Immunology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Analysis of receptor-ligand interactions in the context of diseases necessitates to understand how HLA-KIR genotypes function in diseases. Although CD56+ lymphocytes are derived from multiple lineages, they share a functional association with immunosurviellance and antimicrobial responses. The present study aimed to determine whether KIR phenotype in CD56 lymphocytes and corresponding HLA-class 1 ligands are associated with multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We compared the frequencies of HLA-C and HLA-BW4 genes, the expression of KIRs 2DL1/2DS1, 2DL2/2DL3, 3DL1, and 2DS4 and the combinations of HLA/KIR in 32 Nifamycin and Isoniazid-resistant TB with those in 68 drug non resistant (NR) sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients. PCR-SSP and flow cytometry were performed for HLA and KIRs typing, respectively. We showed no significant differences between inhibitory or activating KIRs as well as HLA ligands in MDR TB patients compared with NR-TB . The combinations of inhibitory KIR-HLA ligands in MDR-TB were much more prevalent, but not statistically significant than in NR patients (p=0.07). The frequency of MDR patients with all HLA-C and HLA-BW4 ligands was higher than NR-TB (p<0.009). Conversely, the percentage of MDR patients having only one kind of HLA gene was significantly lower than NR-TB (p<0.01). We conclude that the expression of inhibitory KIRs with corresponding HLA ligands genes, and/or co-existence of three HLA class 1 ligands for inhibitory KIRs may be associated with drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/010.03/ijaai.189194DOI Listing
September 2011

Inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor KIR3DL1 in combination with HLA-B Bw4iso protect against ankylosing spondylitis.

Iran J Immunol 2010 Jun;7(2):88-95

Department of Immunology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The HLA class I molecules serve as ligands for both T cell receptors and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs).

Objective: We investigated the HLA-C and HLA-Bw4 alleles as well as KIRs expression on CD56 positive lymphocytes to evaluate whether these genes and molecules could influence Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) susceptibility, alone or in combination.

Methods: We typed 40 AS patients and 40 normal controls for HLA-C asn⁸⁰ (group 1) and HLA-C lys⁸⁰ (group 2), HLA-B Bw4(thero), HLA-B Bw4(iso) and HLA-A Bw4 alleles by PCR-SSP method. We also assessed the expression of KIR2DL1/2DS1, KIR2DL2/2DL3, KIR3DL1 and KIR2DS4 by flow cytometry. The Pearson chi-square or Fisher exact test was performed for statistical analysis.

Results: The frequency of HLA-B Bw4(iso) but not HLA-B Bw4(thero) and HLA-A Bw4, ligand for the inhibitory KIR3DL1, was significantly reduced in AS patients as compared with controls (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in gene carrier frequencies of HLA-C group 1 and 2 between AS and controls. Although no differences were found in the expression of KIR receptors between AS and normal subjects, we found that expression of KIR3DL1 in the presence of HLA Bw4-B(iso) gene was reduced in patients with AS compared to healthy controls (p<0.009).

Conclusion: We conclude that HLA-B Bw4(iso), the ligand of inhibitory KIR3DL1, with and without the expression of KIR3DL1 might be involved in protection against AS. Our results suggest that besides the HLA and KIR genotype, expression levels of KIRs may be involved in the pathogenesis of AS disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv7i2A4DOI Listing
June 2010

Phenotypic study of natural killer cell subsets in ankylosing spondylitis patients.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2009 Dec;8(4):193-8

Department of Immunology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

It has been demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells play a role in regulation of autoimmunity. They play a protective role in several rodent disease models. In this study we aimed to compare the immunophenotypic features of NK cells in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) with normal subjects with regard to CD56 and CD16 molecules. This study was carried out on 30 AS patients and 33 normal volunteer donors. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested by flow cytometry detecting the intensity of CD56 and CD16 surface molecules. The percentage of positive cells and their subsets were then calculated and statistically analyzed using SPSS software. A significant increase was found in CD56+ CD16+ (P < or = 0.009), and also in the subset of CD56 dim CD16+ (P < or = 0.02), but not in CD56 bright CD16+ (P=0.3) NK cells in AS patients compared to controls. We conclude that these results may indicate that NK and their subset ratios play a role in AS pathogenesis. Moreover, determination of NK subsets in combination with clinical features may be useful for AS diagnosis. However, further studies using large samples together with determination of relevant cytokines are recommended to verify the exact role of NK in AS disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/08.04/ijaai.193198DOI Listing
December 2009

KIR2DS3 is associated with protection against acute myeloid leukemia.

Iran J Immunol 2010 Mar;7(1):8-17

Division of Transplant Immunology and Immunogenetics, Department of Immunology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Interaction between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules is important for regulation of natural killer (NK) cell function.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of compound KIR-HLA genotype on susceptibility to acute leukemia.

Methods: Cohorts of Iranian patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n=40) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL; n=38) were genotyped for seventeen KIR genes and their three major HLA class I ligand groups (C1, C2, Bw4) by a combined polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) assay. The results were compared with those of 200 healthy control individuals.

Results: We found a significantly decreased frequency of KIR2DS3 in AML patients compared to control group (12.5% vs. 38%, odds ratio=0.23, p=0.0018). Also, the KIR3DS1 was less common in AML group than controls (27.5% vs. 44.5%, p=0.0465, not significant after correction). Other analyses including KIR genotypes, distribution and balance of inhibitory and activating KIR+HLA combinations, and co-inheritance of activating KIR genes with inhibitory KIR+HLA pairs were not significantly different between leukemia patients and the control group. However, in AML patients a trend toward less activating and more inhibitory KIR-HLA state was observed. Interestingly, this situation was not found in ALL patients and inhibition enhancement through increase of HLA ligands and inhibitory combinations was the main feature in this group.

Conclusion: Our findings may suggest a mechanism for escape of leukemic cells from NK cell immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv7i1A2DOI Listing
March 2010