Publications by authors named "Farhad Islami"

150 Publications

Global burden of cancer in 2020 attributable to alcohol consumption: a population-based study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Aug;22(8):1071-1080

Cancer Surveillance Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Alcohol use is causally linked to multiple cancers. We present global, regional, and national estimates of alcohol-attributable cancer burden in 2020 to inform alcohol policy and cancer control across different settings globally.

Methods: In this population-based study, population attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated using a theoretical minimum-risk exposure of lifetime abstention and 2010 alcohol consumption estimates from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (assuming a 10-year latency period between alcohol consumption and cancer diagnosis), combined with corresponding relative risk estimates from systematic literature reviews as part of the WCRF Continuous Update Project, were applied to cancer incidence data from GLOBOCAN 2020 to estimate new cancer cases attributable to alcohol. We also calculated the contribution of moderate (<20 g per day), risky (20-60 g per day), and heavy (>60 g per day) drinking to the total alcohol-attributable cancer burden, as well as the contribution by 10 g per day increment (up to a maximum of 150 g). 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were estimated using a Monte Carlo-like approach.

Findings: Globally, an estimated 741 300 (95% UI 558 500-951 200), or 4·1% (3·1-5·3), of all new cases of cancer in 2020 were attributable to alcohol consumption. Males accounted for 568 700 (76·7%; 95% UI 422 500-731 100) of total alcohol-attributable cancer cases, and cancers of the oesophagus (189 700 cases [110 900-274 600]), liver (154 700 cases [43 700-281 500]), and breast (98 300 cases [68 200-130 500]) contributed the most cases. PAFs were lowest in northern Africa (0·3% [95% UI 0·1-3·3]) and western Asia (0·7% [0·5-1·2]), and highest in eastern Asia (5·7% [3·6-7·9]) and central and eastern Europe (5·6% [4·6-6·6]). The largest burden of alcohol-attributable cancers was represented by heavy drinking (346 400 [46·7%; 95% UI 227 900-489 400] cases) and risky drinking (291 800 [39·4%; 227 700-333 100] cases), whereas moderate drinking contributed 103 100 (13·9%; 82 600-207 200) cases, and drinking up to 10 g per day contributed 41 300 (35 400-145 800) cases.

Interpretation: Our findings highlight the need for effective policy and interventions to increase awareness of cancer risks associated with alcohol use and decrease overall alcohol consumption to prevent the burden of alcohol-attributable cancers.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00279-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324483PMC
August 2021

Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, Part 1: National Cancer Statistics.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: The American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer incidence and mortality and trends by cancer type, sex, age group, and racial/ethnic group in the United States. In this report, we also examine trends in stage-specific survival for melanoma of the skin (melanoma).

Methods: Incidence data for all cancers from 2001 through 2017 and survival data for melanoma cases diagnosed during 2001-2014 and followed up through 2016 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- and National Cancer Institute-funded population-based cancer registry programs compiled by the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Data on cancer deaths from 2001 through 2018 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics' National Vital Statistics System. Trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates and 2-year relative survival were estimated by joinpoint analysis, and trends in incidence and mortality were expressed as average annual percent change (AAPC) during the most recent 5 years (2013-2017 for incidence and 2014-2018 for mortality).

Results: Overall cancer incidence rates (per 100,000 population) for all ages during 2013-2017 were 487.4 among males and 422.4 among females. During this period, incidence rates remained stable among males but slightly increased in females (AAPC = 0.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1% to 0.2%). Overall cancer death rates (per 100,000 population) during 2014-2018 were 185.5 among males and 133.5 among females. During this period, overall death rates decreased in both males (AAPC = -2.2%; 95% CI = -2.5% to - 1.9%) and females (AAPC = -1.7%; 95% CI = -2.1% to - 1.4%); death rates decreased for 11 of the 19 most common cancers among males and for 14 of the 20 most common cancers among females, but increased for 5 cancers in each sex. During 2014-2018, the declines in death rates accelerated for lung cancer and melanoma, slowed down for colorectal and female breast cancers, and leveled off for prostate cancer. Among children younger than age 15 years and adolescents and young adults aged 15-39 years, cancer death rates continued to decrease in contrast to the increasing incidence rates. Two-year relative survival for distant-stage skin melanoma was stable for those diagnosed during 2001-2009 but increased by 3.1% (95% CI = 2.8% to 3.5%) per year for those diagnosed during 2009-2014, with comparable trends among males and females.

Conclusions: Cancer death rates in the United States continue to decline overall and for many cancer types, with the decline accelerated for lung cancer and melanoma. For several other major cancers, however, death rates continue to increase or previous declines in rates have slowed or ceased. Moreover, overall incidence rates continue to increase among females, children, and adolescents and young adults. These findings inform efforts related to prevention, early detection, and treatment and for broad and equitable implementation of effective interventions, especially among under-resourced populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab131DOI Listing
July 2021

Updated Review of Major Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Test Use in the United States in 2018 and 2019, with a Focus on Smoking Cessation.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jul 19;30(7):1287-1299. Epub 2021 May 19.

Surveillance & Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Cancer prevention and early detection efforts are central to reducing cancer burden. Herein, we present estimates of cancer risk factors and screening tests in 2018 and 2019 among US adults, with a focus on smoking cessation. Cigarette smoking reached a historic low in 2019 (14.2%) partly because 61.7% (54.9 million) of all persons who had ever smoked had quit. Yet, the quit ratio was <45% among lower-income, uninsured, and Medicaid-insured persons, and was <55% among Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, lower-educated, lesbian, gay or bisexual, and recent immigrant persons, and in 12 of 17 Southern states. Obesity levels remain high (2017-2018: 42.4%) and were disproportionately higher among Black (56.9%) and Hispanic (43.7%) women. HPV vaccination in adolescents 13 to 17 years remains underutilized and over 40% were not up-to-date in 2019. Cancer screening prevalence was suboptimal in 2018 (colorectal cancer ≥50 years: 65.6%; breast ≥45 years: 63.2%; cervical 21-65 years: 83.7%), especially among uninsured adults (colorectal: 29.8%; breast: 31.1%). This snapshot of cancer prevention and early detection measures was mixed, and substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities persisted. However, gains could be accelerated with targeted interventions to increase smoking cessation in under-resourced populations, stem the obesity epidemic, and improve screening and HPV vaccination coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1754DOI Listing
July 2021

Oral Health and Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers in a Large Prospective Study from a High-risk Region: Golestan Cohort Study.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2021 Jul 17;14(7):709-718. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Tooth loss and periodontal disease have been associated with several cancers, and poor oral health may be an important risk factor for upper gastrointestinal (UGI, i.e., esophageal and gastric) cancers. We assessed the relationship between oral health and UGI cancers using a large prospective study of over 50,000 adults living in Golestan Province, Iran, a high-incidence area for these cancers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between three different measures of oral health [frequency of tooth brushing; number of missing teeth; and the sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)] and UGI cancers. During a median follow-up duration of 13 years, there were 794 incident UGI cancers (396 esophageal and 398 gastric cancers). Daily tooth brushing was associated with a decreased risk of developing both esophageal (HR = 0.670; 95% CI: 0.486-0.924) and gastric (HR = 0.741; 95% CI: 0.544-1.01) cancers (combined UGI cancer HR = 0.697; 95% CI: 0.558-0.871) compared with never brushing. Tooth loss in excess of the loess smoothed, age- and sex-specific median number of teeth lost was significantly associated with esophageal (HR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.08-2.47) and gastric cancers (HR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05-2.38). There were some adverse associations between DMFT and UGI cancers but most were not statistically significant. These results suggest increased risk of developing UGI cancers among individuals with poor oral health, and those who do not perform regular oral hygiene. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Poor oral health is associated with the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers, and oral hygiene practices may help prevent these cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295188PMC
July 2021

Long-term opiate use and risk of cardiovascular mortality: results from the Golestan Cohort Study.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Mar;28(1):98-106

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Shariati Hospital, North Kargar Avenue, Tehran 14117-13135, Iran.

Aims: Tens of millions of people worldwide use opiates but little is known about their potential role in causing cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to study the association of long-term opiate use with cardiovascular mortality and whether this association is independent of the known risk factors.

Methods And Results: In the population-based Golestan Cohort Study-50 045 Iranian participants, 40-75 years, 58% women-we used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HRs, 95% CIs) for the association of opiate use (at least once a week for a period of 6 months) with cardiovascular mortality, adjusting for potential confounders-i.e. age, sex, education, wealth, residential place, marital status, ethnicity, and tobacco and alcohol use. To show independent association, the models were further adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, waist and hip circumferences, physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, aspirin and statin use, and history of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. In total, 8487 participants (72.2% men) were opiate users for a median (IQR) of 10 (4-20) years. During 548 940 person-years-median of 11.3 years, >99% success follow-up-3079 cardiovascular deaths occurred, with substantially higher rates in opiate users than non-users (1005 vs. 478 deaths/100 000 person-years). Opiate use was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, with adjusted HR (95% CI) of 1.63 (1.49-1.79). Overall 10.9% of cardiovascular deaths were attributable to opiate use. The association was independent of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

Conclusion: Long-term opiate use was associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality independent of the traditional risk factors. Further research, particularly on mechanisms of action, is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133380PMC
March 2021

Cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking in 152 U.S. metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas, 2013-2017.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Mar 26;32(3):311-316. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Data Science Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: There are limited data on the burden of cancer attributable to cigarette smoking by metropolitan areas to inform local tobacco control policies in the USA. We estimated the proportion of cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking (or population attributable fraction [PAF]) in 152 U.S. metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs).

Methods: Smoking-related PAFs for cancer mortality in ages ≥ 30 years in 2013-2017 were estimated using cross-sectional age-, sex-, and MMSA-specific cigarette smoking prevalence and cancer mortality data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the U.S. Cancer Statistics Database, respectively.

Results: Overall smoking-related PAFs of cancer ranged from 8.8% (95% CI, 6.3-11.9%) to 35.7% (33.3-37.9%); MMSAs with the highest PAFs were in the South region and Appalachia. PAFs also substantially varied across MMSAs within regions or states. In the Northeast, for example, the PAF ranged from 24.2% (23.7-24.7%) to 33.7% (31.3-36.2%).

Conclusion: The proportion of cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking is considerable in each MMSA, with as many as 4 in 10 cancer deaths attributable to smoking in the South region and Appalachia. Broad and equitable implementation and enforcement of proven tobacco control interventions at all government levels could avert many cancer deaths across the USA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01385-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Proportion of cancer cases and deaths attributable to alcohol consumption by US state, 2013-2016.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 04 19;71(Pt A):101893. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Data Science Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for several cancer types, but there are no contemporary published estimates of the state-level burden of cancer attributed to alcoholic beverage consumption. Such estimates are needed to inform public policy and cancer control efforts. We estimated the proportion and number of incident cancer cases and cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption by sex in adults aged ≥30 years in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013-2016.

Methods: Age-, sex-, and state-specific cancer incidence and mortality data (2013-2016) were obtained from the US Cancer Statistics database. State-level, self-reported age and sex stratified alcohol consumption prevalence was estimated using the 2003-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys and adjusted with state sales data.

Results: The proportion of alcohol-attributable incident cancer cases ranged from 2.9 % (95 % confidence interval: 2.7 %-3.1 %) in Utah to 6.7 % (6.4 %-7.0 %) in Delaware among men and women combined, from 2.7 % (2.5 %-3.0 %) in Utah to 6.3 % (5.9 %-6.7 %) in Hawaii among men, and from 2.7 % (2.4 %-3.0 %) in Utah to 7.7 % (7.2 %-8.3 %) in Delaware among women. The proportion of alcohol-attributable cancer deaths also varied considerably across states: from 1.9 % to 4.5 % among men and women combined, from 2.1% to 5.0% among men, and from 1.4 % to 4.4 % among women. Nationally, alcohol consumption accounted for 75,199 cancer cases and 18,947 cancer deaths annually.

Conclusion: Alcohol consumption accounts for a considerable proportion of cancer incidence and mortality in all states. Implementing state-level policies and cancer control efforts to reduce alcohol consumption could reduce this cancer burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2021.101893DOI Listing
April 2021

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Lost Earnings From Cancer Deaths in the United States.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Oct 3;4(5):pkaa038. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Little is known about disparities in economic burden due to premature cancer deaths by race or ethnicity in the United States. This study aimed to compare person-years of life lost (PYLLs) and lost earnings due to premature cancer deaths by race/ethnicity.

Methods: PYLLs were calculated using recent national cancer death and life expectancy data. PYLLs were combined with annual median earnings to generate lost earnings. We compared PYLLs and lost earnings among individuals who died at age 16-84 years due to cancer by racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic [NH] White, NH Black, NH Asian or Pacific Islander, and Hispanic).

Results: In 2015, PYLLs due to all premature cancer deaths were 6 512 810 for NH Whites, 1 196 709 for NH Blacks, 279 721 for NH Asian or Pacific Islanders, and 665 968 for Hispanics, translating to age-standardized lost earning rates (per 100 000 person-years) of $34.9 million, $43.5 million, $22.2 million, and $24.5 million, respectively. NH Blacks had higher age-standardized PYLL and lost earning rates than NH Whites for 13 of 19 selected cancer sites. If age-specific PYLL and lost earning rates for NH Blacks were the same as those of NH Whites, 241 334 PYLLs and $3.2 billion lost earnings (22.6% of the total lost earnings among NH Blacks) would have been avoided. Disparities were also observed for average PYLLs and lost earnings per cancer death for all cancers combined and 18 of 19 cancer sites.

Conclusions: Improving equal access to effective cancer prevention, screening, and treatment will be important in reducing the disproportional economic burden associated with racial/ethnic disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583153PMC
October 2020

Changes in Black-White Difference in Lung Cancer Incidence among Young Adults.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Aug 20;4(4):pkaa055. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Data Science, Office of the Chief Medical and Scientific Officer, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: We previously reported that lung cancer incidence between Blacks and Whites younger than 40 years of age converged in women and approached convergence in men. Whether this pattern has continued in contemporary young birth cohorts is unclear.

Methods: We examined 5-year age-specific lung cancer incidence in Blacks and Whites younger than 55 years of age by sex and calculated the Black-to-White incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and smoking prevalence ratios by birth cohort using nationwide incidence data from 1997 to 2016 and smoking data from 1970 to 2016 from the National Health Interview Survey.

Results: Five-year age-specific incidence decreased in successive Black and White men born since circa 1947 and women born since circa 1957, with the declines steeper in Blacks than Whites. Consequently, the Black-to-White IRRs became unity in men born 1967-1972 and reversed in women born since circa 1967. For example, the Black-to-White IRRs in ages 40-44 years born between 1957 and 1972 declined from 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.82 to 2.03) to 1.03 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.13) in men and from 1.32 (95% CI = 1.24 to 1.40) to 0.71 (95% CI = 0.64 to 0.78) in women. Similarly, the historically higher sex-specific smoking prevalence in Blacks than Whites disappeared in men and reversed in women born since circa 1965. The exception to these patterns is that the incidence became higher in Black men than White men born circa 1977-1982.

Conclusions: The historically higher lung cancer incidence in young Blacks than young Whites in the United States has disappeared in men and reversed in women, coinciding with smoking patterns, though incidence again became higher in Black men than White men born circa 1977-1982.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440250PMC
August 2020

Household Fuel Use and the Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancers: The Golestan Cohort Study.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 06 17;128(6):67002. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Three billion people burn nonclean fuels for household purposes. Limited evidence suggests a link between household fuel use and gastrointestinal (GI) cancers.

Objectives: We investigated the relationship between indoor burning of biomass, kerosene, and natural gas with the subsequent risk of GI cancers.

Methods: During the period 2004-2008, a total of 50,045 Iranian individuals 40-75 years of age were recruited to this prospective population-based cohort. Upon enrollment, validated data were collected on demographics, lifestyle, and exposures, including detailed data on lifetime household use of different fuels and stoves. The participants were followed through August 2018 with loss.

Results: During the follow-up, 962 participants developed GI cancers. In comparison with using predominantly gas in the recent 20-y period, using predominantly biomass was associated with higher risks of esophageal [hazard ratio (HR): 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 3.50], and gastric HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.31) cancers, whereas using predominantly kerosene was associated with higher risk of esophageal cancer (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.10). Lifetime duration of biomass burning for both cooking and house heating (exclusive biomass usage) using heating-stoves without chimney was associated with higher risk of GI cancers combined (10-y HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21), esophageal (10-y HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.30), gastric (10-y HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and colon (10-y HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.54) cancers. The risks of GI cancers combined, esophageal cancer, and gastric cancer were lower when biomass was burned using chimney-equipped heating-stoves (strata difference , 0.003, and 0.094, respectively). Duration of exclusive kerosene burning using heating-stoves without chimney was associated with higher risk of GI cancers combined (10-y HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.11), and esophageal cancer (10-y HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26).

Discussion: Household burning of biomass or kerosene, especially without a chimney, was associated with higher risk of some digestive cancers. Using chimney-equipped stoves and replacing these fuels with natural gas may be useful interventions to reduce the burden of GI cancers worldwide. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5907.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP5907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299082PMC
June 2020

The changing landscape of cancer in the USA - opportunities for advancing prevention and treatment.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2020 10 28;17(10):631-649. Epub 2020 May 28.

Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

The cancer landscape of the USA is continually evolving owing to changing risk factor patterns and disease classifications, improvements in detection and treatment, and demographic changes, such as ageing and population growth. Monitoring the burden of cancer, including incidence and mortality, is a key tool for assessing progress, identifying emerging trends and setting priorities to reduce the burden. In this Perspective, we describe trends in cancer incidence and mortality in the USA overall, and for major cancer types, and describe the main contributing factors, including risk factors, screening, treatment and access to care. When relevant, we provide information based on sex and common classifications of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and geographical region. We then discuss the implications of the patterns of cancer incidence and mortality for cancer research, prevention and care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41571-020-0378-yDOI Listing
October 2020

Prostate Cancer Incidence 5 Years After US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations Against Screening.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 01;113(1):64-71

Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Previous studies reported that prostate cancer incidence rates in the United States declined for local-stage disease and increased for regional- and distant-stage disease following the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for men aged 75 years and older in 2008 and for all men in 2012. It is unknown, however, whether these patterns persisted through 2016.

Methods: Based on the US Cancer Statistics Public Use Research Database, we examined temporal trends in invasive prostate cancer incidence from 2005 to 2016 in men aged 50 years and older stratified by stage (local, regional, and distant), age group (50-74 years and 75 years and older), and race and ethnicity (all races and ethnicities, non-Hispanic Whites, and non-Hispanic Blacks) with joinpoint regression models to estimate annual percent changes. Tests of statistical significance are 2-sided (P < .05).

Results: For all races and ethnicities combined, incidence for local-stage disease declined beginning in 2007 in men aged 50-74 years and 75 years and older, although the decline stabilized during 2013-2016 in men aged 75 years and older. Incidence decreased by 6.4% (95% CI = 4.9%-9% to 7.9%) per year from 2007 to 2016 in men aged 50-74 years and by 10.7% (95% CI = 6.2% to 15.0%) per year from 2007 to 2013 in men aged 75 years and older. In contrast, incidence for regional- and distant-stage disease increased in both age groups during the study period. For example, distant-stage incidence in men aged 75 years and older increased by 5.2% (95% CI = 4.2% to 6.1%) per year from 2010 to 2016.

Conclusions: Regional- and distant-stage prostate cancer incidence continue to increase in the United States in men aged 50 years and older, and future studies are needed to identify reasons for the rising trends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781461PMC
January 2021

Smoking Water-Pipe, Opium Use and Prevalence of Heart Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Baseline Data from the Pars Cohort Study, Southern Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2020 05 1;23(5):289-295. Epub 2020 May 1.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Associations between hookah and opium use and an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) have been suggested in a few studies, but more research is needed on the nature of these associations. We aimed to investigate the association between hookah and opium use and the prevalence of IHD in a population with relatively high prevalence of these exposures in Iran.

Methods: Using baseline data from the Pars Cohort Study (PCS), a prospective study of individuals aged 40-75 years in Fars province, southern Iran, we calculated adjusted and crude odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the independent association of hookah and opium use with prevalence of IHD.

Results: Of 9248 participants, 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9) had self-reported IHD. Prevalence of ever use of hookah and opium was 48.9% (95% CI: 44.6, 53.6) and 10.2% (95% CI: 8.3, 12.5) among those with IHD, and 37.0% (95% CI: 35.7, 38.3) and 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5, 8.7) among those without IHD, respectively. Adjusted OR for the association with prevalence of IHD was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.46) for hookah use and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.24) for opium abuse. No dose-response association was found between hookah and prevalence of IHD.

Conclusion: Hookah and opium abuse were associated with prevalent IHD in this study. Although more research is needed on these associations, particularly in prospective settings, reducing hookah and opium use could potentially reduce IHD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.17DOI Listing
May 2020

Opium use and subsequent incidence of cancer: results from the Golestan Cohort Study.

Lancet Glob Health 2020 05;8(5):e649-e660

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Digestive Disease Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence is emerging for a role of opiates in various cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between regular opium use and cancer incidence.

Methods: This study was done in a population-based cohort of 50 045 individuals aged 40-75 years from northeast Iran. Data on participant demographics, diet, lifestyle, opium use, and different exposures were collected upon enrolment using validated questionnaires. We used proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs for the association between opium use and different cancer types.

Findings: During a median 10 years of follow-up, 1833 participants were diagnosed with cancer. Use of opium was associated with an increased risk of developing all cancers combined (HR 1·40, 95% CI 1·24-1·58), gastrointestinal cancers (1·31, 1·11-1·55), and respiratory cancers (2·28, 1·58-3·30) in a dose-dependent manner (p<0·001). For site-specific cancers, use of opium was associated with an increased risk of developing oesophageal (1·38, 1·06-1·80), gastric (1·36, 1·03-1·79), lung (2·21, 1·44-3·39), bladder (2·86, 1·47-5·55), and laryngeal (2·53, 1·21-5·29) cancers in a dose-dependent manner (p<0·05). Only high-dose opium use was associated with pancreatic cancer (2·66, 1·23-5·74). Ingestion of opium (but not smoking opium) was associated with brain (2·15, 1·00-4·63) and liver (2·46, 1·23-4·95) cancers in a dose-dependent manner (p<0·01). We observed consistent associations among ever and never tobacco users, men and women, and individuals with lower and higher socioeconomic status.

Interpretation: Opium users have a significantly higher risk of developing cancers in different organs of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems and the CNS. The results of this analysis show that regular use of opiates might increase the risk of a range of cancer types.

Funding: World Cancer Research Fund International, Cancer Research UK, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, US National Cancer Institute, International Agency for Research on Cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30059-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196888PMC
May 2020

Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, part I: National cancer statistics.

Cancer 2020 05 12;126(10):2225-2249. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, Springfield, Illinois.

Background: The American Cancer Society, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States.

Methods: Data on new cancer diagnoses during 2001 through 2016 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded and National Cancer Institute-funded population-based cancer registry programs and compiled by the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Data on cancer deaths during 2001 through 2017 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics' National Vital Statistics System. Trends in incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancer types by sex, racial/ethnic group, and age were estimated by joinpoint analysis and characterized by the average annual percent change during the most recent 5 years (2012-2016 for incidence and 2013-2017 for mortality).

Results: Overall, cancer incidence rates decreased 0.6% on average per year during 2012 through 2016, but trends differed by sex, racial/ethnic group, and cancer type. Among males, cancer incidence rates were stable overall and among non-Hispanic white males but decreased in other racial/ethnic groups; rates increased for 5 of the 17 most common cancers, were stable for 7 cancers (including prostate), and decreased for 5 cancers (including lung and bronchus [lung] and colorectal). Among females, cancer incidence rates increased during 2012 to 2016 in all racial/ethnic groups, increasing on average 0.2% per year; rates increased for 8 of the 18 most common cancers (including breast), were stable for 6 cancers (including colorectal), and decreased for 4 cancers (including lung). Overall, cancer death rates decreased 1.5% on average per year during 2013 to 2017, decreasing 1.8% per year among males and 1.4% per year among females. During 2013 to 2017, cancer death rates decreased for all cancers combined among both males and females in each racial/ethnic group, for 11 of the 19 most common cancers among males (including lung and colorectal), and for 14 of the 20 most common cancers among females (including lung, colorectal, and breast). The largest declines in death rates were observed for melanoma of the skin (decreasing 6.1% per year among males and 6.3% among females) and lung (decreasing 4.8% per year among males and 3.7% among females). Among children younger than 15 years, cancer incidence rates increased an average of 0.8% per year during 2012 to 2016, and cancer death rates decreased an average of 1.4% per year during 2013 to 2017. Among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 39 years, cancer incidence rates increased an average of 0.9% per year during 2012 to 2016, and cancer death rates decreased an average of 1.0% per year during 2013 to 2017.

Conclusions: Although overall cancer death rates continue to decline, incidence rates are leveling off among males and are increasing slightly among females. These trends reflect population changes in cancer risk factors, screening test use, diagnostic practices, and treatment advances. Many cancers can be prevented or treated effectively if they are found early. Population-based cancer incidence and mortality data can be used to inform efforts to decrease the cancer burden in the United States and regularly monitor progress toward goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299151PMC
May 2020

Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, part II: Progress toward Healthy People 2020 objectives for 4 common cancers.

Cancer 2020 05 12;126(10):2250-2266. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States and to address a special topic of interest. Part I of this report focuses on national cancer statistics, and part 2 characterizes progress in achieving select Healthy People 2020 cancer objectives.

Methods: For this report, the authors selected objectives-including death rates, cancer screening, and major risk factors-related to 4 common cancers (lung, colorectal, female breast, and prostate). Baseline values, recent values, and the percentage change from baseline to recent values were examined overall and by select sociodemographic characteristics. Data from national surveillance systems were obtained from the Healthy People 2020 website.

Results: Targets for death rates were met overall and in most sociodemographic groups, but not among males, blacks, or individuals in rural areas, although these groups did experience larger decreases in rates compared with other groups. During 2007 through 2017, cancer death rates decreased 15% overall, ranging from -4% (rural) to -22% (metropolitan). Targets for breast and colorectal cancer screening were not yet met overall or in any sociodemographic groups except those with the highest educational attainment, whereas lung cancer screening was generally low (<10%). Targets were not yet met overall for cigarette smoking, recent smoking cessation, excessive alcohol use, or obesity but were met for secondhand smoke exposure and physical activity. Some sociodemographic groups did not meet targets or had less improvement than others toward reaching objectives.

Conclusions: Monitoring trends in cancer risk factors, screening test use, and mortality can help assess the progress made toward decreasing the cancer burden in the United States. Although many interventions to reduce cancer risk factors and promote healthy behaviors are proven to work, they may not be equitably applied or work well in every community. Implementing cancer prevention and control interventions that are sustainable, focused, and culturally appropriate may boost success in communities with the greatest need, ensuring that all Americans can access a path to long, healthy, cancer-free lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223723PMC
May 2020

Cutaneous melanomas attributable to ultraviolet radiation exposure by state.

Int J Cancer 2020 09 17;147(5):1385-1390. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

Information on cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) burden attributable to ultraviolet (UV) radiation by state could inform state and local public health policies to mitigate the burden. We estimated numbers, proportions and age-standardized incidence rates of malignant melanomas attributable to UV radiation in each US state by calculating the difference between observed melanomas during 2011-2015 and expected cases based on historically low incidence rates among whites in Connecticut from 1942 to 1954. The low melanoma burden in Connecticut during this period likely reflected UV exposure accumulated in the 1930s or earlier, when exposure was likely minimized by clothing style and limited recreational exposure. The estimated number of melanoma cases attributable to UV exposure during 2011-2015 in the United States was 338,701, or 91.0% of the total cases (372,335); 94.3% (319,412) of UV-attributable cases occurred in non-Hispanic whites. By state, the attributable proportion among non-Hispanic whites ranged from 87.6% in the District of Columbia to 97.3% in Hawaii. The attributable age-standardized rate (per 100,000) among non-Hispanic whites ranged from 15.1 (95% CI, 13.4-16.7) in Alaska to 65.1 (95% CI, 61.4-68.9) in Hawaii and was ≥23.3 in half of states. Considerable proportions and incidence rates of melanoma attributable to UV radiation in all states underscores the need for broad implementation or enforcement of preventive measures across states, with priority for states with higher burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32921DOI Listing
September 2020

Geographic and sociodemographic differences in cervical cancer screening modalities.

Prev Med 2020 Feb 3;133:106014. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Intramural Research Department, American Cancer Society, United States of America.

Cervical cancer screening recommendations for women aged 30-65 years include co-testing (high-risk human papillomavirus [hrHPV] with Pap testing) every five years or Pap testing alone every three years. Geographic variations of these different screening modalities across the United States have not been examined. We selected 82,426 non-pregnant women aged 30-65 years from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with data on sociodemographics, hysterectomy, and cervical cancer screening, representing 42 states and the District of Columbia. Logistic regression models with predicted marginal probabilities were used to calculate state-level prevalence estimates of recent cervical cancer screening and uptake of co-testing, Pap testing, and hrHPV testing among those who were recently screened. Analysis was conducted in 2018-2019. Recent screening prevalence ranged from 80.0% (Idaho) to 92.2% (Massachusetts), with more state-level geographic variability in co-testing than Pap testing alone. Uptake of co-testing ranged from 27.5% (Utah) to 49.9% (District of Columbia); compared to the national estimate, co-testing was lower in 12 states and higher in six states. Overall, Midwestern and Southern states had the lowest uptake of co-testing whereas Northeastern states had the highest. Sociodemographic, healthcare, and behavioral factors accounted for some but not all state-level variation in co-testing. There was substantial state-level variability in co-testing prevalence, which was lowest in Midwestern and Southern states; the variation was not entirely explained by individual sociodemographic, healthcare, and behavioral factors. Future studies should monitor the impact of geographic variations in screening modalities on state-level differences in cervical cancer incidence, survival, and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106014DOI Listing
February 2020

The Association Between Body Mass Index and Pancreatic Cancer: Variation by Age at Body Mass Index Assessment.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 02;189(2):108-115

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in epidemiologic studies. However, BMI has usually been assessed at older ages, potentially underestimating the full impact of excess weight. We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among 963,317 adults who were aged 30-89 years at their enrollment in Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. During follow-up through 2014, a total of 8,354 participants died of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios per 5 BMI units, calculated using proportional hazards regression, declined steadily with age at BMI assessment, from 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.33) in persons aged 30-49 years at enrollment to 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.26) in those aged 70-89 years at enrollment (P for trend = 0.005). On the basis of a hazard ratio of 1.25 per 5 BMI units at age 45 years, we estimated that 28% of US pancreatic cancer deaths among persons born in 1970-1974 will be attributable to BMI ≥25.0-nearly twice the equivalent proportion of those born in the 1930s, a birth cohort with much lower BMI in middle age. These results suggest that BMI before age 50 years is more strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk than BMI at older ages, and they underscore the importance of avoiding excess weight gain before middle age for preventing this highly fatal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz230DOI Listing
February 2020

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Copper Concentrations in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Curr Med Chem 2020 ;27(37):6373-6383

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Mo i Rana, Norway

Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm, comprising 16% of all women's cancers worldwide. Research of Copper (Cu) concentrations in various body specimens have suggested an association between Cu levels and breast cancer risks. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarize the results of published studies and examine this association. We searched the databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and the reference lists of relevant publications. The Standardized Mean Differences (SMDs) between Cu levels in cancer cases and controls and corresponding Confidence Intervals (CIs), as well as I2 statistics, were calculated to examine heterogeneity. Following the specimens used in the original studies, the Cu concentrations were examined in three subgroups: serum or plasma, breast tissue, and scalp hair. We identified 1711 relevant studies published from 1984 to 2017. There was no statistically significant difference between breast cancer cases and controls for Cu levels assayed in any studied specimen; the SMD (95% CI) was -0.01 (-1.06 - 1.03; P = 0.98) for blood or serum, 0.51 (-0.70 - 1.73; P = 0.41) for breast tissue, and -0.88 (-3.42 - 1.65; P = 0.50) for hair samples. However, the heterogeneity between studies was very high (P < 0.001) in all subgroups. We did not find evidence for publication bias (P = 0.91). The results of this meta-analysis do not support an association between Cu levels and breast cancer. However, due to high heterogeneity in the results of original studies, this conclusion needs to be confirmed by well-designed prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867326666190918120209DOI Listing
January 2021

Author's reply to comment on "A prospective study of tea drinking temperature…" by Islami et al.

Int J Cancer 2019 11 13;145(10):2888-2889. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32600DOI Listing
November 2019

National and State Estimates of Lost Earnings From Cancer Deaths in the United States.

JAMA Oncol 2019 Sep 12;5(9):e191460. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Information on the economic burden of cancer mortality can serve as a tool in setting policies and prioritizing resources for cancer prevention and control. However, contemporary data are lacking for the United States nationally and by state.

Objective: To estimate lost earnings due to death from cancer overall and for the major cancers in the United States nationally and by state.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Person-years of life lost (PYLL) were calculated using numbers of cancer deaths and life expectancy data in individuals aged 16 to 84 years who died from cancer in the United States in 2015. The annual median earnings in the United States were used to assign a monetary value for each PYLL by age and sex. Cancer mortality and life expectancy data were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and annual median earnings from the US Census Bureau's 2016 Current Population Survey's March Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Data analysis was performed from October 22, 2018, to February 25, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Lost earnings due to cancer death, represented as estimated future wages in the absence of premature death.

Results: A total of 8 739 939 person-years of life were lost to cancer death in persons aged 16 to 84 years in the United States in 2015, translating to lost earnings of $94.4 billion (95% CI, $91.7 billion-$97.3 billion). For individual cancer sites, lost earnings were highest for lung cancer ($21.3 billion), followed by colorectal ($9.4 billion), female breast ($6.2 billion), and pancreatic ($6.1 billion) cancer. Age-standardized lost earning rates per 100 000 were lowest in the West and highest in the South, ranging from $19.6 million (95% CI, $19.1 million-$20.2 million) in Utah to $35.3 million ($34.4 million-$36.3 million) in Kentucky. Approximately 2.4 million PYLL and $27.7 billion (95% CI, $26.9 billion-$28.5 billion) in lost earnings (29.3% of total that occurred in 2015) would have been avoided in 2015 if all states had the same age-specific PYLL or lost earning rates as Utah.

Conclusions And Relevance: Our findings indicate large state variation in the economic burden of cancer and suggest the potential for substantial financial benefit through delivery of effective cancer prevention, screening, and treatment to minimize premature cancer mortality in all states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.1460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6613311PMC
September 2019

The American Cancer Society 2035 challenge goal on cancer mortality reduction.

CA Cancer J Clin 2019 09 8;69(5):351-362. Epub 2019 May 8.

Chief Medical Officer (Former), American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

A summary evaluation of the 2015 American Cancer Society (ACS) challenge goal showed that overall US mortality from all cancers combined declined 26% over the period from 1990 to 2015. Recent research suggests that US cancer mortality can still be lowered considerably by applying known interventions broadly and equitably. The ACS Board of Directors, therefore, commissioned ACS researchers to determine challenge goals for reductions in cancer mortality by 2035. A statistical model was used to estimate the average annual percent decline in overall cancer death rates among the US general population and among college-educated Americans during the most recent period. Then, the average annual percent decline in the overall cancer death rates of college graduates was applied to the death rates in the general population to project future rates in the United States beginning in 2020. If overall cancer death rates from 2020 through 2035 nationally decline at the pace of those of college graduates, then death rates in 2035 in the United States will drop by 38.3% from the 2015 level and by 54.4% from the 1990 level. On the basis of these results, the ACS 2035 challenge goal was set as a 40% reduction from the 2015 level. Achieving this goal could lead to approximately 1.3 million fewer cancer deaths than would have occurred from 2020 through 2035 and 122,500 fewer cancer deaths in 2035 alone. The results also show that reducing the prevalence of risk factors and achieving optimal adherence to evidence-based screening guidelines by 2025 could lead to a 33.5% reduction in the overall cancer death rate by 2035, attaining 85% of the challenge goal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.21564DOI Listing
September 2019

Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: results from the Golestan Cohort Study.

Int J Epidemiol 2019 12;48(6):1824-1838

Departments of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To evaluate the association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS).

Methods: A total of 50 045 participants aged 40 years or older were recruited from Golestan Province, Iran, from 2004 to 2008 and followed for a mean of 10.64 years. The DASH diet score was calculated for each individual based on food groups. The primary outcome measure was death from any cause.

Results: During 517 326 person-years of follow-up, 6763 deaths were reported. After adjustment for potential confounders, DASH diet score was inversely associated with risk of death from all causes and cancers [hazard ratio (HR): 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 0.98; and HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.90, respectively]. A higher DASH diet score was associated with lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer mortality in men (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.99). A greater adherence to DASH diet was also associated with lower other-cancer mortality in women (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.99). No association between DASH diet score and cardiovascular disease mortality was observed, except that those dying of cardiovascular disease were younger than 50 years of age and smokers.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that maintaining a diet similar to the DASH diet is independently associated with reducing the risk of total death, cancers, and especially gastrointestinal cancers in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929526PMC
December 2019

Iran in transition.

Lancet 2019 05 28;393(10184):1984-2005. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Being the second-largest country in the Middle East, Iran has a long history of civilisation during which several dynasties have been overthrown and established and health-related structures have been reorganised. Iran has had the replacement of traditional practices with modern medical treatments, emergence of multiple pioneer scientists and physicians with great contributions to the advancement of science, environmental and ecological changes in addition to large-scale natural disasters, epidemics of multiple communicable diseases, and the shift towards non-communicable diseases in recent decades. Given the lessons learnt from political instabilities in the past centuries and the approaches undertaken to overcome health challenges at the time, Iran has emerged as it is today. Iran is now a country with a population exceeding 80 million, mainly inhabiting urban regions, and has an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, malignancies, mental disorders, substance abuse, and road injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33197-0DOI Listing
May 2019

Trends in cervical cancer incidence rates by age, race/ethnicity, histological subtype, and stage at diagnosis in the United States.

Prev Med 2019 06 16;123:316-323. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Recent trends of cervical cancer incidence by histology and age in the United States (U.S.) have not been reported. We examined contemporary trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) incidence rates in the U.S. by age group, race/ethnicity, and stage at diagnosis after accounting for hysterectomy. Incidence data (1999-2015) were obtained from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Incidence Analytic Database. Hysterectomy prevalence was estimated using National Health Interview Survey data (2000-2015). Overall SCC incidence rates continued to decrease in all racial/ethnic groups except among non-Hispanic whites in whom rates stabilized in the 2010s, largely driven by stable trends in ages <50 years and a slower pace of decrease in ages 50-59 years. After a stable trend between 1999 and 2002, AC incidence rates among non-Hispanic whites rose during 2002-2015 (1.3% per year), mostly due to increases in ages 40-49 (4.4% annually since 2004) and 50-59 years (5.5% annually since 2011). Overall AC incidence rates during 1999-2015 decreased in blacks and Hispanics but were stable in Asian/Pacific Islanders; in all these race/ethnicities, rates were generally stable in ages <50 years but decreasing in older ages. Rates of distant stage cervical SCC and AC among non-Hispanic whites increased in several age groups but were generally stable in non-whites. Increasing or stabilized incidence trends for AC and attenuation of earlier declines for SCC in several subpopulations underscore the importance of intensifying efforts to reverse the increasing trends and further reduce the burden of cervical cancer in the U.S.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.04.010DOI Listing
June 2019

Reply to Comment on "A prospective study of tea drinking temperature.. " by Islami et al.

Int J Cancer 2019 09 8;145(5):1446-1447. Epub 2019 May 8.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32342DOI Listing
September 2019

Temporal trends in liver cancer mortality by educational attainment in the United States, 2000-2015.

Cancer 2019 06 8;125(12):2089-2098. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Liver cancer is the most rapidly rising cause of cancer death in the United States. However, it is unclear whether the mortality trend differs by socioeconomic and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status.

Methods: Joinpoint analyses and Poisson regression modeling were performed to examine trends in death rates from liver cancer by education and HCV infection status among persons aged 25 to 74 years from 2000 to 2015. Disparities in liver cancer mortality were measured as a relative index of inequality by education.

Results: From 2000 to 2015, the overall liver cancer death rate (per 100,000 persons) increased from 7.5 to 11.2 in men and from 2.8 to 3.8 in women. The increase was generally steeper in less educated groups for women and was confined to persons with ≤15 years of education for men. Consequently, the relative disparity increased until 2006 and then levelled off in women, whereas it continued to increase from 3.49 (95% CI, 3.08-3.97) to 7.74 (95% CI, 7.13-8.40) in men, with the increase more pronounced for HCV-related liver cancer than HCV-unrelated liver cancer.

Conclusions: The increases in liver cancer death rates in the United States have largely been confined to less educated persons, especially among men. Enhanced and targeted efforts are needed to halt and reverse the undue growing burden of liver cancer in lower socioeconomic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32023DOI Listing
June 2019
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