Publications by authors named "Fares E M Ali"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of cytokine storm and systemic inflammation on liver impairment patients infected by SARS-CoV-2: Prospective therapeutic challenges.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(15):1531-1552

Pre-graduated students, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut 71524, Egypt.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a devastating worldwide pandemic infection caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome namely coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is associated with a high spreading and mortality rate. On the date this review was written, SARS-CoV-2 infected about 96 million people and killed about 2 million people. Several arguments disclosed the high mortality of COVID-19 due to acute respiratory distress syndrome or change in the amount of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression or cytokine storm strength production. In a similar pattern, hepatic impairment patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibited overexpression of ACE2 receptors and cytokine storm overwhelming, which worsens the hepatic impairment and increases the mortality rate. In this review, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on hepatic impairment conditions we overviewed. Besides, we focused on the recent studies that indicated cytokine storm as well as ACE2 as the main factors for high COVID-19 spreading and mortality while hinting at the potential therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058655PMC
April 2021

Regulation of IL-6/STAT-3/Wnt axis by nifuroxazide dampens colon ulcer in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis model: Novel mechanistic insight.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 29;276:119433. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, 71515, Egypt.

Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common intestinal problem characterized by the diffusion of colon inflammation and immunity dysregulation. Nifuroxazide, a potent STAT-3 inhibitor, exhibits diverse pharmacological properties. The present study aimed to elucidate a novel anti-colitis mechanism of nifuroxazide against the acetic acid-induced UC model.

Methods: Rats were grouped into control (received vehicle), UC (2 ml of 5% acetic acid by intrarectal infusion), UC plus sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg/day, P.O.), UC plus nifuroxazide (25 mg/kg/day, P.O.), and UC plus nifuroxazide (50 mg/kg/day, P.O.) and lasted for 6 days.

Results: The present study revealed that nifuroxazide significantly reduced UC measures, hematological changes, and histological alteration. In addition, treatment with nifuroxazide significantly down-regulated serum CRP as well as the colonic expressions of MPO, IL-6, TNF-α, TLR-4, NF-κB-p65, JAK1, STAT-3, DKK1 in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, our results showed that the colonic Wnt expression was up-regulated with nifuroxazide treatment. In a dose-dependent manner, nifuroxazide markedly alleviated acetic acid-induced cellular infiltration and improved ulcer healing by increasing intestinal epithelial cell regeneration.

Significance: Our results collectively indicate that nifuroxazide is an effective anti-colitis agent through regulation of colon inflammation and proliferation via modulation IL-6/STAT-3/Wnt signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119433DOI Listing
July 2021

Trans-ferulic acid ameliorates cisplatin-induced testicular damage via suppression of TLR4, P38-MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Testicular damage has been described as a common side effect of cisplatin (CDDP), which limits its clinical uses. Since oxidative injury and inflammatory response are the most pathological impact, estimation of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents like trans-ferulic acid (TFA) could protect against CDDP-induced testicular damage. In the current investigation, rats were assigned into four groups: normal, TFA (50 mg/kg/day, P.O), CDDP (10 mg/kg) as single intraperitoneal (I.P) injection at the end of the 5th day, and TFA+CDDP where TFA was administered 5 days before CDDP injection and 5 days after. Interestingly, TFA significantly restored testosterone levels and abrogated oxidative stress injury. Additionally, TFA effectively suppressed inflammatory cytokines. It also counteracted the inflammation via downregulation of TLR4 and IRF3, P38-MAPK, NF-κB-p65, JAK1, STAT3, ERK1, and ERK2. Besides, TFA can modulate AKT and p-AKT protein expressions. In parallel, TFA mitigated the histopathological aberration of the testis and prevented spermatogenesis disruption. On the other hand, TFA augmented the in vitro CDDP cytotoxicity on Caco-2 and MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, TFA enhanced the cytotoxic effect of CDDP via apoptosis induction in both the early and late stages of apoptosis. Collectively, TFA exhibited a potential protective effect against CDDP-induced testicular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress as well as TLR4/IRF3/INF-γ, P38-MAPK/NF-κB-p65/TNF-α, and JAK1/STAT-3/ERK1/2 inflammatory signaling pathways with enhancing its in vitro cytotoxic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13544-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Roflumilast protects from cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in male rats and enhances its cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cell line. Role of NF-κB-p65, cAMP/PKA and Nrf2/HO-1, NQO1 signaling.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 20;151:112133. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

Cisplatin (CIS)-induced testicular injury is a major obstacle in its application as antineoplastic agent. In this study, we investigated the protective effect and mechanism of roflumilast (ROF), a PDE4 inhibitor, against CIS-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Besides, the cytotoxic effect of CIS, with and without ROF, was evaluated on PC3 cell line. ROF reversed CIS-induced abnormalities in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and ameliorated CIS-induced alterations in testicular and epidydimal weights and restored normal testicular structure. Moreover, ROF increased intracellular cAMP level, PKA and HO-1 activities and Nrf2, NQO-1 and HO-1 gene expression, improved testicular oxidative stress parameters (TBARS, NO, GSH levels, and CAT activity) and inflammatory mediators (IL-1β and TNF-α, and NF-κβ p65gene expression) and reduced the proapoptotic proteins, caspase-3, Bax and increased Bcl-2. Lastly, in vitro analyses showed that ROF augmented the anticancer efficacy of CIS and enhanced the increase in gene expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1 and the inhibition of gene expression of NF-κβ p65 induced by CIS and enhanced its apoptotic effect in PC3 cells. Conclusively, PDE4 inhibition with induction of Nrf2/HO-1, NQO-1 is a potential therapeutic approach to protect male reproductive system from the detrimental effects with augmenting, the antineoplastic effect of CIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112133DOI Listing
May 2021

Targeting KEAP1/Nrf2, AKT, and PPAR-γ signals as a potential protective mechanism of diosmin against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 17;275:119349. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt.

Aim: Gentamicin (GM) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic effectively used for severe/life-threatening infections. However, the clinical application of GM is limited by nephrotoxic side effects. Diosmin (DS) is a flavonoid with a wide range of bioactivities. However, its therapeutic potential in GM-induced nephrotoxicity remains unclear.

Methods: Rats received GM (100 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days either separately or in combination with oral DS (50 mg/kg).

Results: GM injection disrupted kidney function along with oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. Also, GM significantly decreased renal nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCLC), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase3 (SOD-3), protein kinase B (AKT), and p-AKT expressions along with Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) up-regulation. On the contrary, DS administration significantly attenuated GM-induced kidney dysfunction and restored kidney oxidant/antioxidant status. In addition, co-treatment with DS plus GM significantly enhanced Nrf2, GCLC, HO-1, SOD3, AKT, and p-AKT expressions along with KEAP1 down-regulation. Additionally, GM-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in the expressions of renal peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and this reduction was alleviated by DS treatment. Furthermore, histopathological findings demonstrated that DS significantly reduced the GM-induced histological abrasions. Besides, an in-silico study was conducted to confirm our biochemical results. Interestingly, in-silico results strongly supported our biochemical investigation by studying the binding affinity of DS to KEAP1, AKT, and PPAR-γ proteins.

Significance: DS could be a promising protective agent against GM-induced nephrotoxicity through targeting of KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE, AKT, and PPAR-γ signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119349DOI Listing
June 2021

Nephroprotective effect of umbelliferone against cisplatin-induced kidney damage is mediated by regulation of NRF2, cytoglobin, SIRT1/FOXO-3, and NF- kB-p65 signaling pathways.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 May 1;35(5):e22738. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Cisplatin (Cis) is one of the most potent and effective broad-spectrum antitumor drugs, but its use is limited due to nephrotoxicity. The current study investigated the renoprotective effect of umbelliferone (UMB) on Cis-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Renal injury was induced by a single injection of Cis (7 mg/kg, ip). Our results exhibited that the injection of Cis significantly disrupted renal function biomarkers as well as KIM-1 expression. The expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-kB-p65, and IKKβ were elevated along with downregulation of IkBα expression. Also, Cis disrupted cellular oxidant/antioxidant balance through the reduction of glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content. On the contrary, the levels of renal function biomarkers, cytokines, NF-kB-p65, IkBα, IKKβ, and oxidant/antioxidant status have been improved after UMB treatment. Mechanistically, rats administered Cis only exhibited a significant decrease in NRF2 and cytoglobin expressions as well as the CREB, SIRT1, FOXO-3, and PPAR-γ genes. Treatment with UMB significantly upregulated NRF2 and cytoglobin proteins, as well as effectively increased the expression of CREB, SIRT1, FOXO-3, PPAR-γ, and NRF2 genes. Histopathological findings strongly supported our biochemical results, as evidenced by attenuation of renal hemorrhage, cast diffusion, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Interestingly, UMB significantly enhanced Cis cytotoxicity in both HL-60 and HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our results demonstrated that UMB can protect against Cis-induced nephrotoxicity in normal rats along with the enhancement of its in vitro antitumor activity. These findings suggested that UMB could be used as a potential adjuvant therapy in Cis chemotherapeutic protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22738DOI Listing
May 2021

Umbelliferone attenuates gentamicin-induced renal toxicity by suppression of TLR-4/NF-κB-p65/NLRP-3 and JAK1/STAT-3 signaling pathways.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 30;28(9):11558-11571. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Nephrotoxicity is the most common adverse effect of gentamicin (GNT). This study aimed to investigate the possible nephroprotective effect of umbelliferone (UMB), against GNT-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats were allocated into the control group; UMB group (50 mg/kg/day, P.O. for 15 days); GNT group (100 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 8 days); and GNT + UMB group. By the end of the experimental period, serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid as well as urine KIM-1 and urine albumin/creatinine ratio were evaluated to estimate kidney function. Moreover, tissue samples were collected for assessment of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, TLR-4, p38 MAPK, NF-κB-p65, NLRP-3, IkBα, TNF-α, IL-1β, JAK1, STAT-3, p-STAT, and cleaved caspase-3. In support, the histopathological examination of renal tissues was performed. UMB improves kidney function through regulation of renal serum biomarkers, with alleviations of histological abrasions induced by GNT. Besides, UMB downregulates renal protein expressions of ERK1/ERK2, TLR-4, and p38MAPK, with subsequent suppression of NF-κB-p65/NLRP-3 inflammasome and JAK1/STAT-3 pathways as well as cleaved caspase-3. In parallel, UMB induced IkBα upregulation. Collectively, UMB markedly amended all GNT-induced renal changes. These nephroprotective outcomes could be attributed to its ability to impede TLR-4/NF-κB-p65/NLRP-3 inflammasome and JAK1/STAT-3 pathways activation, as well as to its anti-inflammatory property.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11416-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Hepatoprotective effect of rebamipide against methotrexate-induced hepatic intoxication: role of Nrf2/GSK-3β, NF-κβ-p65/JAK1/STAT3, and PUMA/Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathways.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2020 Oct 29;42(5):493-503. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

Objectives: The fact that methotrexate (MTX) is hepatotoxic is an important reason to limit its clinical use. Rebamipide (REB) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and is useful for the treatment of gastro-duodenal ulcers. This study investigated the impact and protective mechanisms of REB against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Materials And Methods: Animals were divided into four groups of six rats each: a control group, REB group (REB 100 mg/kg/day, orally), MTX control group (20 mg/kg, single i.p.), and MTX + REB group.

Results: The administration of MTX induced marked hepatic injury in the form of hepatocyte inflammatory swelling, degeneration, apoptosis, and focal necrosis. In parallel, our biochemical investigations revealed a marked hepatic dysfunction associated with the disturbance of the oxidant/antioxidant balance in the group treated with only MTX. Moreover, MTX led to the down-regulation of the hepatic Nrf2 and Bcl-2 expressions along with a marked elevation in the hepatic NF-κβ-p65, GSK-3β, JAK1, STAT3, PUMA, and Bax expressions. On the other hand, co-treatment with REB significantly ameliorated the aforementioned histopathological, biochemical, and molecular defects caused by MTX treatment.

Conclusion: the outcomes of the present study showed REB's ability to protect from hepatic injury induced by MTX, possibly through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. These effects could be attributed to REB's ability to modulate, at least in part, the Nrf2/GSK-3β,NF-κβ-p65/JAK1/STAT3, and PUMA/Bax/Bcl-2signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923973.2020.1811307DOI Listing
October 2020

Rebamipide potentially mitigates methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation: A molecular and histochemical study.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 03 17;304(3):647-661. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

Methotrexate (MTX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent; nevertheless, the nephrotoxicity associated with its use has limited its clinical use. Rebamipide (REB) is a gastro-protective agent with diverse promising biological activities. Here, we investigated the renoprotective effects of REB against MTX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: the normal control group, the REB group (100 mg kg day , PO, for 12 days), the MTX group (which received a single injection of 20 mg/kg, ip), and the REB + MTX group (which received 100 mg kg day REB for 7 days before and 5 days after being injected with 20 mg/kg MTX). Interestingly, MTX triggered kidney injury, characterized by renal dysfunction along with histopathological alterations. Moreover, increased reactive oxygen species level and inflammatory response were detected in the kidney of MTX-treated rats. However, REB prevented MTX-induced oxidative kidney injury and boosted an antioxidant balance. Mechanistically, REB markedly activated the NRF-2 protein and upregulated the expression of both SIRT-1 and FOXO-3 genes. Additionally, REB administration strongly inhibited the inflammatory response by downregulating both NF-κB-p65 and TLR-4. Finally, the coadministration of REB and MTX activated the mTOR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Simultaneously, REB treatment attenuated the reduction in glomerular size, the widening of the capsular spaces, and the tubular cell damage due to MTX administration. Taken together, these results indicate the potential of REB as adjuvant therapy to prevent nephrotoxicity in patients receiving MTX treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24482DOI Listing
March 2021

Ursodeoxycholic acid abrogates gentamicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats: Role of NF-κB-p65/TNF-α, Bax/Bcl-xl/Caspase-3, and eNOS/iNOS pathways.

Life Sci 2020 Aug 8;254:117760. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Aim: The present study focused on the possible underlying protective mechanisms of UDCA against GNT-induced hepatic injury.

Methods: For achieving this goal, adult male rats were allocated into 4 groups: normal control (received vehicle), GNT (100 mg/kg, i.p. for 8 days), UDCA (60 mg/kg, P.O. for 15 days), and GNT + UDCA (received UDCA for 15 days and GNT started from the 7th day and lasted for 8 days).

Results: The results revealed that UDCA significantly improved GNT-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammatory response. Interestingly, UDCA inhibited apoptosis by marked down-regulation of the Bax gene, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-3 protein expressions while the level of Bcl-xL gene significantly increased. Moreover, UDCA strongly inhibited the inflammatory response through the down-regulation of both NF-κB-p65 and TNF-α accompanied by IL-10 elevation. Furthermore, the obtained results ended with the restored of mitochondria function that confirmed by electron microscopy. Histological analysis showed that UDCA remarkably ameliorated the histopathological changes induced by GNT.

Significance: UDCA may be a promising agent that can be used to prevent hepatotoxicity observed in GNT treatment. This effect could be attributed to, at least in part, the ability of UDCA to modulate NF-κB-p65/TNF-α, Bax/Bcl-xl/Caspase-3, and eNOS/iNOS signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117760DOI Listing
August 2020

The Impact of Royal Jelly against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Hepatocyte Damage in Rats: The Role of Cytoglobin, Nrf-2/HO-1/COX-4, and P38-MAPK/NF-κB-p65/TNF-α Signaling Pathways.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 ;14(1):88-100

Pharmacy student, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al- Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, 71524, Egypt.

Objective: The present study was conducted to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism as well as the potential hepatoprotective effects of royal jelly (RJ) against hepatic ischemia/ reperfusion (IR) injury.

Methods: Rats were assigned into four groups; sham (received vehicle), IR (30 minutes ischemia and 45 minutes reperfusion), sham pretreated with RJ (200 mg/kg P.O.), and IR pretreated with RJ (200 mg/kg P.O.). The experiment lasted for 28 days.

Results: Hepatic IR significantly induced hepatic dysfunctions, as manifested by elevation of serum transaminases, ALP and LDH levels. Moreover, hepatic IR caused a significant up-regulation of P38-MAPK, NF-κB-p65, TNF-α and MDA levels along with marked down-regulation of Nrf-2, HO-1, COX-4, cytoglobin, IκBa, IL-10, GSH, GST and SOD levels. Additionally, marked histopathological changes were observed after hepatic IR injury. On the contrary, pretreatment with RJ significantly improved hepatic functions along with the alleviation of histopathological changes. Moreover, RJ restored oxidant/antioxidant balance as well as hepatic expressions of Nrf- 2, HO-1, COX-4, and cytoglobin. Simultaneously, RJ significantly mitigated the inflammatory response by down-regulation of P38-MAPK, NF-κB-p65, TNF-α expression.

Conclusion: The present results revealed that RJ has successfully protected the liver against hepatic IR injury through modulation of cytoglobin, Nrf-2/HO-1/COX-4, and P38-MAPK/NF-κB-p65/TNF- α signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467213666200514223829DOI Listing
January 2021

Diosmin enhances the anti-angiogenic activity of sildenafil and pentoxifylline against hepatopulmonary syndrome via regulation of TNF-α/VEGF, IGF-1/PI3K/AKT, and FGF-1/ANG-2 signaling pathways.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Apr 9;873:173008. Epub 2020 Feb 9.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, 71524, Egypt. Electronic address:

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe complication of hepatic cirrhosis, which is characterized by hypoxia, intrapulmonary vasodilation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of diosmin (DS) on selected phosphodiesterase inhibitors against chronic bile duct ligation (CBDL)-induced HPS. Experimentally, Wistar Albino rats were used and HPS was induced by CBDL for 28 days. DS (100 mg/kg, daily, P.O.), sildenafil (Sild; 10 mg/kg, twice daily, P.O.), and pentoxifylline (PTX; 50 mg/kg, daily, P.O.) were evaluated either alone or in combinations for their anti-angiogenic activity. CBDL significantly altered oxidative stress biomarkers and up-regulated pulmonary mRNA expressions of VEGF, IGF-1, ET-1, iNOS, eNOS, and ANG-2 as well as the protein expressions of vWF, FGF-1, PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, TGF-β, HYP, MPO activity and circulating TNF-α. Treatment with DS, Sild, PTX, and their combinations significantly attenuated molecular and cellular changes due to CBDL. Improvement of histopathological changes was also observed after drug treatment which further supported our results. Furthermore, DS combination with Sild or PTX exhibited an improvement in HPS in comparison to each drug alone. Collectively, DS can augment the anti-angiogenic activity of Sild and PTX during HPS through regulation of TNF-α/VEGF, IGF-1/PI3K/AKT, and FGF-1/ANG-2 signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173008DOI Listing
April 2020

Perindopril Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Via Regulation of NF-κB-p65/TLR-4, JAK1/STAT-3, Nrf-2, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathways.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2020 07 6;303(7):1935-1949. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) is an inevitable clinical problem for surgical procedures such as liver transplantation and liver resection. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of perindopril (PER) against hepatic IR injury. Thirty-two rats were used and randomly allocated into four groups. Sham control group was subjected to sham operation and received saline only, IR group was subjected to IR and received vehicle, PER group was pretreated with PER (one milligram per kilogram per day i.p. for 10 consecutive days), and IR+PER group was pretreated with PER then subjected to IR. Liver function biomarkers (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress (glutathione, malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase) and inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and inteleukin-10 [IL-10]), mRNA expression of NF-κB-p65 and TLR-4, as well as protein expression of JAK1, STAT-3, PI3K, mTOR, Akt, and Nrf-2 were investigated concomitantly with histopathological examination. The results indicated that, hepatic IR induced a significant alteration in liver function biomarkers and structure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. At the molecular level, up-regulation of NF-κB-p65, TLR-4, JAK1, and STAT-3 concomitantly with down-regulation of Nrf-2, IL-10, PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were observed. These disturbances were alleviated by pretreatment of IR rats with PER in concomitant with hepatic structural improvement. Conclusively, the protective effect of PER presumably may be relevant to its ability to reduce oxidative stress, ameliorate the inflammatory processes, and modify the related signaling pathways. Anat Rec, 2019. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy Anat Rec, 303:1935-1949, 2020. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24292DOI Listing
July 2020

Coenzyme Q protects hepatocytes from ischemia reperfusion-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress via regulation of Bax/Bcl-2/PUMA and Nrf-2/FOXO-3/Sirt-1 signaling pathways.

Tissue Cell 2019 Oct 23;60:1-13. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, 71524, Egypt.

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and regarded as a strong anti-oxidant agent. In this study, we focused on the mechanistic insights involved in the hepato-protective effects of CoQ against hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. Our results revealed that CoQ significantly improved hepatic dysfunctions and oxidative stress caused by IR injury. Interestingly, as compared to IR subjected rat, CoQ inhibited apoptosis by marked down-regulation of both Bax and PUMA genes while the level of Bcl-2 gene was significantly increased. Moreover, CoQ up-regulated PI3K, Akt and mTOR protein expressions while it inhibited the expression of both GSK-3β and β-catenin. Additionally, CoQ restored oxidant/antioxidant balance via marked activated Nrf-2 protein as well as up-regulation of both Sirt-1 and FOXO-3 genes. Moreover, CoQ strongly inhibited inflammatory response through down-regulation of NF-κB-p65 and decrease both JAK1 and STAT-3 protein expressions with a subsequent modulating circulating inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, histopathological analysis showed that CoQ remarkably ameliorated the histopathological damage induced by IR injury. Taken together, our results suggested and proved that CoQ provided a hepato-protection against hepatic IR injury via inhibition of apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation and their closed related pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2019.07.007DOI Listing
October 2019

Reno-protective effects of ursodeoxycholic acid against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity through modulation of NF-κB, eNOS and caspase-3 expressions.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Nov 4;374(2):367-387. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

Gentamicin (GNT) is a potent aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. We aim to investigate the potential protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) against GNT-induced nephrotoxicity. In this study, 24 male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. Control group received 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose orally for 15 days, GNT group received GNT 100 mg/kg/day i.p. for 8 days, UDCA group received UDCA orally for 15 consecutive days at a dose of 60 mg/kg/day suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose and UDCA-pretreated group received UDCA orally for 7 days then co-administered with GNT i.p. for 8 days at the same fore-mentioned doses. Serum levels of kidney function parameters (urea, creatinine, uric acid and albumin) were measured. Renal tissues were used to evaluate oxidative stress markers; malonaldehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mRNA levels. Immunohistochemical expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and caspase-3 and histological and ultrastructural examination were performed. Treatment with GNT increased the serum levels of renal function parameters and renal MDA, NF-κB and KIM-1 mRNA levels, while it decreased GSH and SOD activities. Marked immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3 was observed after GNT administration while it decreased eNOS expression. Histological and ultrastructural alterations were also evident in renal corpuscles and tubules. In contrast, pretreatment with UDCA reversed changes caused by GNT administration. These results suggest that UDCA ameliorates GNT-induced kidney injury via inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-018-2886-yDOI Listing
November 2018

Hepatoprotective effects of diosmin and/or sildenafil against cholestatic liver cirrhosis: The role of Keap-1/Nrf-2 and P-MAPK/NF-κB/iNOS signaling pathway.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Oct 17;120:294-304. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, 71524, Egypt.

The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effects of diosmin (DS) and/or sildenafil against bile duct ligation (BDL). In order to achieve this goal, BDL was performed to induce liver cirrhosis, DS (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and sildenafil (10 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o.) were administrated alone or in combination 24 h after the surgical operation and lasted for 4 weeks. Liver function biomarkers, fibrotic markers, oxidative stress markers, mRNA expression of NF-κB-p65, P-MAPK, Nrf-2, and Keap-1, as well as protein expression of cytoglobin, NF-κB-p65, Nrf-2, iNOS and eNOS were investigated concomitantly with histopathological study. The results revealed that, 4 weeks of BDL induced a significant alteration in liver functions, fibrotic and oxidative stress markers. Furthermore, up-regulation of NF-κB-p65, P-MAPK, Keap-1 and iNOS concomitantly with down-regulation of Nrf-2, cytoglobin and eNOS expressions were observed after BDL. DS and/or sildenafil treatment significantly alleviated the disturbance induced by BDL. These findings were further supported by the improvement in histopathological features. Additionally, co-administration of DS and sildenafil were found to significantly improved liver defects due to BDL as compared to the individual drugs. It can be concluded that, DS and sildenafil exhibit hepatoprotective effects through modulation of Keap-1/Nrf-2 and P-MAPK/NF-κB/iNOS pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.07.027DOI Listing
October 2018

Targeting Keap-1/Nrf-2 pathway and cytoglobin as a potential protective mechanism of diosmin and pentoxifylline against cholestatic liver cirrhosis.

Life Sci 2018 Aug 28;207:50-60. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut 71524, Egypt.

Aim: The effects of diosmin (DS), pentoxifylline (PTX) and their combination on inflammatory response, oxidant/antioxidant balance, cytoglobin and cirrhotic reaction during bile duct ligation (BDL) were investigated and explored.

Main Methods: Fifty adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly allocated to five groups as following, sham: received vehicle only, BDL: subjected to common BDL without treatment, BDL plus DS: received 100 mg/kg/day orally, BDL plus PTX: received 50 mg/kg/day orally, BDL plus DS plus PTX: received DS and PTX in the same manner. The test period lasted 28 days, liver tissues and blood samples were collected to investigate biochemical markers (liver function biomarkers, oxidative stress markers, and antifibrotic markers), mRNA expression of Nrf-2, Keap-1, NF-κB-p65 and p38-MAPK by real-time PCR, protein expression of cytoglobin and NF-κB-p65 by western blot and iNOS and eNOS by immunohistochemistry. Histopathological study was performed to confirm our results.

Key Findings: Chronic BDL induced a significant alteration in liver functions, oxidative stress and fibrotic markers. Furthermore, unfavorable effects on gene and protein expression were observed after BDL. Histopathological findings of this group showed parallel effects. DS, PTX and their combination treatment significantly ameliorated the disturbance that occurred due to BDL. Similar findings were observed in liver histopathology.

Significance: DS and PTX could mitigate liver cirrhosis through modulation of Keap-1/Nrf-2/GSH and NF-κB-p65/p38-MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, we demonstrated that the hepatoprotective effect of DS and PTX is mediated by up-regulation of cytoglobin with inhibition of fibrotic reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.05.048DOI Listing
August 2018