Publications by authors named "Faramarz Fallahi"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Correlation between MMP-9 and MMP-9/ TIMPs Complex with Pulmonary Function in Sulfur Mustard Exposed Civilians: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Feb;20(2):74-82

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteinases and have the vigorous capacity to degrade all parts of the extracellular matrix. MMP enzymes strongly participate in physiological processes such as normal tissue remodeling and wound healing and in pathology of pulmonary diseases. They are released in response to environmental stimuli such as toxins and regulated by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical toxic which can cause severe permanent damages to lung tissues. The aim of this study was assessing the possible role of MMP-9 and TIMPs in SM-induced lung symptoms and signs in exposed patients 20 years after exposure.

Methods: Totally, 372 male volunteers with a history of SM- exposure and 128 age- and sex-matched unexposed controls participated and were divided into three groups: normal, mild and moderate-severe. All participants underwent clinical evaluation and pulmonary function tests and serum concentrations of MMP-9 and its inhibitors were measured using the ELISA technique.

Results: Serum level of MMP-9 was increased in the SM exposed group who had moderate-severe pulmonary complications compared with the SM exposed with normal lung (2.321 ± 2.836 vs. 1.546 ± 2.176, P = 0.001) while only the MMP-9/TIMP-4 complex was elevated in the SM exposed with normal lung individuals compared to its corresponding control group (85 ± 265 vs. 82 ± 222, P = 0.025). Although MMP-9 and its inhibitors did not show any correlation with spirometry findings, elevated circulating MMP-9 was detected in SM exposed patients with chronic chough and hemoptysis (P = 0.013 and P = 0.013 respectively).

Conclusion: High level of tissue disruption and remodeling mediators could influence lung structure in long-term after SM-exposure. The correlation of clinical evaluation with these factors efficiently helps us to identify important effectors.
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February 2017

Psychometric Evaluation of the Sex After Myocardial Infarction Knowledge Test in Iranian Context.

Perspect Psychiatr Care 2018 Apr 16;54(2):126-133. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Faramarz Fallahi is Cardiologist and Associate Professor, Medicine Faculty, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To translate, adapt, and assess the psychometric properties of the Sex After MI Knowledge Test in Iranian context (where MI is myocardial infarction).

Design And Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was performed. The sample comprised 250 patients with MI. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to extract three indicators.

Findings: The Sex After MI Knowledge Test indicated good reproducibility (Cronbach's α = .76, Intraclass correlation (ICC) = 0.729, CI = 0.7280-0.781, p < .001 ICC: Intraclass correlation). Nonnormed and normed fit indices (FI) were 0.89, and incremental and comparative FIs were 0.90. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) and adjusted GFI were below the criteria. After a varimax rotation, the first six items of the instrument explained 58.71% of total variance.

Practice Implications: The instrument showed acceptable psychometric properties in terms of construct validity and internal consistency. The instrument might be used to stimulate conversations patients with MI regarding sexual knowledge and concerns.
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April 2018

Relationship Between Palpitation and Mental Health.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Mar 1;18(3):e22615. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Division of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: 'Palpitation' is one of the most common complaints in patients referring to cardiologists. In modern medicine era, these patients suffer from much distress and some cases are known to be difficult to treat. Although the clinician's first duty is obviously to search for an organic basis for this symptom, the diagnostic evaluation is frequently unrevealing. However, clinical experience suggests that psychiatric causes are relatively common.

Objectives: This research aimed to screen for mental disorders in patients complaining of palpitation and healthy persons in order to perform a preliminary comparison between them.

Patients And Methods: This is a case-control study to screen mental disorders. The target population consisted of adult volunteers with benign palpitation and their matched healthy persons. They were referred during a 10-month-period to the cardiology outpatient's clinic of Mostafa Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran. Sampling was accidental and eventually 110 participants comprised the sample size. The measuring tool was GHQ-28 (28-item general health questionnaire) and the main variable was the questionnaire score obtained from the Likert scoring method.

Results: Comparing two groups showed that the number of participants with the scores more than cut-off point in palpitation group was significantly more than healthy person group (85.4% vs. 43.6% with P < 0.001). Also the total score of GHQ-28 and scores of its subscale (somatization, anxiety, and social dysfunction) in patients complaining of palpitation were significantly more than those of the healthy participants (34.2 vs. 25.7, 8.9 vs. 6.4, 9.4 vs. 6.4, and 12.3 vs. 10.8, respectively with P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.007, respectively).

Conclusions: Palpitation is the most common symptom in psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and somatization disorders. According to the results of this study, psychiatric causes have an important role in Iranian patients complaining of palpitations (benign form). Considering this fact may lead to a more effective treatment of benign palpitations.
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March 2016

Percutaneous aortic valve implantation in bicuspid aortic valve: A case report.

ARYA Atheroscler 2015 May;11(3):204-7

Tehran Heart Center AND Department of Echocardiography, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was known as an alternative technique for treatment of severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique is controversial in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Here, we report TAVI for severe AS in a BAV setting in a patient with serious lung disease.

Case Report: A 68-year-old woman with a history of coronary artery bypass graft, BAV and severe AS, asthma, who had repeatedly denied any suggestion for open heart surgery, was our volunteer candidate for TAVI. The peak and mean pressure gradient decreased from 53 and 43 mm Hg to 13and 6 mm Hg respectively.

Conclusion: TAVI could be a viable option for highly selected patients with AS and BAV who have a prohibitive risk for open heart surgery.
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May 2015

Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety.

J Ethnopharmacol 2015 Apr 11;164:378-84. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Division of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), Melissa officinalis L. is commonly regarded as an effective therapy for heart palpitations.

Objective: Heart palpitation is a common complaint that is often benign and associated with a marked distress that makes the condition difficult to treat. Herbal medicines provide an alternative to conventional drugs for treating various kinds of diseases. This study was done as a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dried extract of M. officinalis on adults suffering from benign palpitations.

Materials And Methods: Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned as outpatients to a 14 day treatment with 500 mg twice a day of lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves (or placebo). Participants in the tests, physicians and researchers were blind to group assignments. Both primary and secondary outcomes were patient-reported. Primary outcomes were obtained from two measures: mean frequency of palpitation episodes per week, derived from patients׳ diaries, and mean intensity of palpitation estimated through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in a self-report questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression) were evaluated as secondary outcomes by General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), before and after intervention.

Results: Fifty-five volunteers out of 71 recruited study subjects completed the trial. Results showed that 14-day of treatment with lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves reduced frequency of palpitation episodes and significantly reduced the number of anxious patients in comparison to the placebo (P=0.0001, P=0.004 resp.). Also, M. officinalis extract showed no indication of any serious side effects.

Conclusion: Lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves may be a proper and safe herbal drug for the treatment of benign palpitations.
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April 2015

A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Razavi's Dietary Pattern on the Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Mar 5;16(3):e14601. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Department of Maaref, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Metabolic syndrome can cause cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the affected subjects. With 20 to 30% prevalence rate among the adult population of most countries, it is considered a pandemic problem. The guidelines currently available on the management of the specific components of metabolic syndrome highlight some lifestyle changes such as enhanced physical activity and weight reduction. Adherence to Mediterranean-style diet has been shown to be associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome in some clinical studies.

Objectives: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect Razavi dietary pattern, on metabolic syndrome. This is the first study performed to address this issue.

Patients And Methods: Seventy five eligible subjects with metabolic syndrome were recruited into a single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial to determine the effect of Razavi diet on metabolic syndrome. Intervention was carried out by educating the Razavi diet in the experimental group while giving no dietary recommendations to the control group. The level of physical activity was similar between the two groups. Features of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the criteria of the Iranian National Committee of Obesity were assessed after two months.

Results: The net reduction in the waist circumference (-2.85), weight (-1.44) and BMI (-0.58) in test group was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than the control. Decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar and triglycerides were observed but were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The results suggest that Razavi diet can improve some components of metabolic syndrome leading to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
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March 2014

A clinicopathological approach to sulfur mustard-induced organ complications: a major review.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2013 Oct 16;32(4):304-24. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Context: Sulfur mustard (SM), with an old manufacturing history still remains as potential threat due to easy production and extensive effects.

Objectives: Increasing studies on SM indicates the interest of researchers to this subject. Almost all human body organs are at risk for complications of SM. This study offers organ-by-organ information on the effects of SM in animals and humans.

Methods: The data sources were literature reviews since 1919 as well as our studies during the Iraq-Iran war. The search items were SM and its all other nomenclatures in relation to, in vivo, in vitro, humans, animals, eye, ocular, ophthalmic, lungs, pulmonary, skin, cutaneous, organs and systemic. Amongst more than 1890 SM-related articles, 257 more relevant clinicopathologic papers were selected for this review.

Results: SM induces a vast range of damages in nearly all organs. Acute SM intoxication warrants immediate approach. Among chronic lesions, delayed keratitis and blindness, bronchiolitis obliterans and respiratory distress, skin pruritus, dryness and cancers are the most commonly observed clinical sequelae.

Conclusion: Ocular involvements in a number of patients progress toward a severe, rapid onset form of keratitis. Progressive deterioration of respiratory tract leads to "mustard lung". Skin problems continue as chronic frustrating pruritus on old scars with susceptibility to skin cancers. Due to the multiple acute and chronic morbidities created by SM exposure, uses of multiple drugs by several routes of administrations are warranted.
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October 2013

Chemokines, MMP-9 and PMN elastase in spontaneous sputum of sulfur mustard exposed civilians: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov 28;17(3):958-63. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Chemokines play an important role in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of chemokines, MMP-9, and PMN elastase in spontaneous sputum and serum of patients 20 years after SM exposure. In context of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS) 40 male volunteers with a history of SM exposure in June 1987 and complain of excessive sputum were recruited. The volunteers were clinically examined and their history was collected by internists. Sputum and serum levels of IL-8, fractalkine, MCP-1, RANTES, MMP-9, and PMN elastase were measured using ELISA kits (R&D System). Spirometries were performed on all the participants. Sputum level of fractalkine was significantly lower in the hospitalized group (N=16, Median=1.05; IQR=0.41-2.62) than non-hospitalized group (N=18, 4.031; IQR=0.947-8.203) (p=0.042). However, serum levels of fractalkine were higher in the hospitalized group (Mean±SD=2.08±5.09) than in the non-hospitalized (Mean±SD=0.53±0.87) group (T-test, p=0.03). Serum levels of PMN-elastase were also higher in the hospitalized group (Mean±SD; 64,794.43±26,820.08) than in the non-hospitalized group (Mean±SD=44,049.33±17,675.85) (p=0.017). There was no relationship between the cytokines and the studied factors in sputum and the GOLD classification, but the serum levels of fractalkine and MMP-9 were significantly higher in the more severe (grades 3-4) group. There was no significant correlation between sputum and serum levels of measured inflammatory mediators and pulmonary complications in the patients who were exposed to SM 20 years earlier. Pathophysiologic process involved in SM induced pulmonary problems might be different from those in other chronic pulmonary diseases such as COPD and asthma.
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November 2013

Citrus flavonoid naringenin improves aortic reactivity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

Indian J Pharmacol 2012 May;44(3):382-6

Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, School of Medicine and Neurophysiology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: Cardiovascular disorders continue to constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of naringenin was investigated on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Male diabetic rats (n=32) were divided into control, naringenin-treated control, diabetic, and naringenin-treated diabetic groups of eight animals each. The latter group received naringenin for 5 weeks at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day after diabetes induction. The contractile responses to potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained from aortic rings. Meanwhile, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial vasodilator factors in response to ACh were evaluated using N (G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO), respectively.

Results: Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to KCl and PE was significantly (P<0.05) lower in naringenin-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was significantly (P<0.05-0.01) higher in naringenin-treated diabetic rats as compared to diabetic ones and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly (P<0.001) attenuated the observed response.

Conclusion: Chronic treatment of diabetic rats with naringenin could prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity in diabetic rats through nitric oxide and endothelium integrity is necessary for this beneficial effect.
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May 2012

Serum albumin and paraoxonase activity in Iranian veterans 20 years after sulfur mustard exposure.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2012 Aug 2;34(4):706-13. Epub 2012 Jan 2.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

Sulfur mustard, a chemical warfare agent, has short- and long-term effects on various organs including respiratory system. Its late toxic effects on biological macromolecules among exposed veterans have not been well studied. We performed a study to determine paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and phenotype distribution as well as its correlation with albumin level in 289 male veterans with severe pulmonary complications who had exposure to sulfur mustard 20 years ago and in 66 age and ethnic matched healthy male subjects as controls. Serum albumin levels were lower in the veterans compared to controls (P < 0.001). Mean basal PON1 activity was 91.61 ± 44.80 U/mL in the veteran group versus 110.27 ± 50.23 U/mL in controls (P = 0.005). Arylesterase activity was not significantly different between the two groups. Paraoxonase to arylesterase activity ratio was significantly lower in the veterans as compared to controls (P = 0.005), mainly indicative of decreased PON1 activity rather the enzyme level. Significant reduction was found in serum albumin and PON1 activity with disease severity. Moreover, decreased high active BB (high activity) phenotype and increased intermediate active AB (moderate activity) phenotype were found in the veterans. This condition may lead to long-term accumulation of reactive oxygen metabolites resulting in a pro-oxidation milieu, which in turn can lead to increased peroxide levels and decreased antioxidant PON1 activity. In conclusion, lower serum PON1 activity and albumin might contribute to morbidity and occurrence of other complications such as atherosclerosis and rapid aging in the veterans suffering from late toxic effects of sulfur mustard.
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August 2012

Serum levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in the long term pulmonary complications induced by sulfur mustard: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

Int Immunopharmacol 2009 Dec 11;9(13-14):1482-8. Epub 2009 Sep 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a blistering chemical agent which has short and long term toxicity against many organs. The respiratory tract is one of the main targets, and is the most disabling long term complication of SM. Inflammatory mediators especially IL-8 and IL-6 play the primary role in the various chronic pulmonary diseases. Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS) was designed to evaluate immunological and molecular parameters in SM exposed people 20 years after exposure. In the present study, the association of the serum levels of IL-8, IL-6, C reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) with long term pulmonary involvement was evaluated. There were 348 exposed and 120 control participants. The clinical evaluations were done for all subjects and Spirometry was performed according to American Thoracic Society Criteria. Severity of pulmonary involvement was assessed by Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification. The serum levels of IL-8, IL-6 and RF were assessed by ELISA assay. CRP was assessed by photometric method. The serum levels of IL-8 and IL-6 significantly decreased in the SM exposed participants compared to the control group. There were no significant associations between the serum levels of IL-8 and pulmonary symptoms (chronic cough, sputum, hemoptysis, and dyspnea), pulmonary findings (crackles, rales, and wheezing) as well as spirometry parameters. IL-6 was associated with wheezing and CRP was associated with wheezing and rales in SM exposed group. We concluded the serum levels of these inflammatory mediators probably do not have any major role in pathogenesis and persistence of pulmonary complications and do not reflect the degree of severity of pulmonary involvement following SM exposure.
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December 2009

Sardasht-Iran cohort study of chemical warfare victims: design and methods.

Arch Iran Med 2009 Jan;12(1):5-14

Department of Immunology, Medical Faculty, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Insights into long-term clinical consequences of sulfur mustard have emerged from some investigations but less is known about the basic and molecular mechanisms of these complications. Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study is a comprehensive historical cohort study on Sardasht chemical victims' population which was designed to find out the long-term complications of sulfur mustard exposure and the basic mechanisms underlying clinical manifestations. This paper describes the design and methodology of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

Methods: In Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study, 500 individuals including 372 subjects from Sardasht, as the exposed group, and 128 subjects from Rabat, as the unexposed age-matched control group were evaluated. The exposed group was divided into two groups based on the severity of clinical complications at the time of exposure. Different samples including blood, sputum, saliva, tear, urine, and semen were collected for immunologic, hematologic, biochemical, and other laboratory analysis. Data were gathered from medical records, clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and questionnaires for psychological and lifestyle situations.

Conclusion: The important distinctions setting this study apart from the previous ones are discussed. The Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study provides important information on various aspects of long-term consequences of sulfur mustard exposure. This database will provide a better position to suggest guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of delayed complications in the patients exposed to sulfur mustard.
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January 2009

Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in premature coronary artery disease.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2006 Sep 26;6:38. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

Research Department, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but the probable role of hyperhomocysteinemia in premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of premature CAD.

Methods: We performed an analytical case-control study on 294 individuals under 45 years (225 males and 69 females) who were admitted for selective coronary angiography to two centers in Tehran.

Results: After considering the exclusion criteria, a total number of 225 individuals were enrolled of which 43.1% had CAD. The mean age of participants was 39.9 +/- 4.3 years (40.1 +/- 4.2 years in males and 39.4 +/- 4.8 years in females). Compared to the control group, the level of homocysteine measured in the plasma of the male participants was significantly high (14.9 +/- 1.2 versus 20.3 +/- 1.9 micromol/lit, P = 0.01). However there was no significant difference in homocysteine level of females with and without CAD (11.8 +/- 1.3 versus 11.5 +/- 1.1 micromol/lit, P = 0.87). Mean plasma level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the study group were 6.3 +/- 0.2 and 282.5 +/- 9.1 respectively. Based on these findings, 10.7% of the study group had folate deficiency while 26.6% had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating independent CAD risk factors showed hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for premature CAD in males (OR = 2.54 0.95% CI 1.23 to 5.22, P = 0.01). Study for the underlying causes of hyperhomocysteinemia showed that male gender and Vitamin B12 deficiency had significant influence on incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia.

Conclusion: We may conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for CAD in young patients (below 45 years old)--especially in men--and vitamin B12 deficiency is a preventable cause of hyperhomocysteinemia.
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September 2006