Publications by authors named "Farajolah Maleki"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tigecycline antibacterial activity, clinical effectiveness, and mechanisms and epidemiology of resistance: narrative review.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Ilam University of Medical sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Tigecycline is unique glycylcycline class of semisynthetic antimicrobial agents developed for the treatment of polymicrobial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Tigecycline evades the main tetracycline resistance genetic mechanisms, such as tetracycline-specific efflux pump acquisition and ribosomal protection, via the addition of a glycyclamide moiety to the 9-position of minocycline. The use of the parenteral form of tigecycline is approved for complicated skin and skin structure infections (excluding diabetes foot infection), complicated intra-abdominal infections, and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults. New evidence also suggests the effectiveness of tigecycline for the treatment of severe Clostridioides difficile infections. Tigecycline showed in vitro susceptibility to Coxiella spp., Rickettsia spp., and multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonnorrhoeae strains which indicate the possible use of tigecycline in the treatment of infections caused by these pathogens. Except for intrinsic, or often reported resistance in some Gram-negatives, tigecycline is effective against a wide range of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens. Herein, we summarize the currently available data on tigecycline pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, its mechanism of action, the epidemiology of tigecycline resistance, and its clinical effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-04121-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785128PMC
January 2021

Tumor cryotherapy using Ice-producing bacteria.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 13;144:110101. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; Student Research Committee, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; Laboratory Sciences Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran. Electronic address:

One of he approaches to cancer treatment is cryotherapy. In this therapy low temperatures lead to freezing and killing the cancer cells. Low temperature has several side effects on the health of tissues. Using bacteria for treatment of cancer as a therapeutic approach is proposed. One of the bacteria is Pseudomonas syringe with ice-producing properties. In this study, we hypothesized that by insertion of INA gene of P. syringe into anaerobic bacteria can do cryotherapy at a low temperature. This hypothesis is based on the manipulated anaerobic bacteria moves to the side of the tumor from ice crystal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110101DOI Listing
November 2020

The increasing antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Helicobacter 2020 Oct 23;25(5):e12730. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori can result in eradication failure. Metadata on the antimicrobial resistance of H pylori in Iran could help to formulate H pylori eradication strategies in Iran.

Methods: A systematic review was performed after searching in MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. A meta-analysis was performed, and a comparison of the rates between children and adults; time periods (1999-2010, 2011-2016, 2017-2019); and the methods used was carried out.

Results: A total of 66 studies investigating 5936 H pylori isolates were analyzed. The weighted pooled resistance (WPR) rates were as follows: clarithromycin 21% (95% CI 16-26), metronidazole 62% (95% 57-67), clarithromycin in combination with metronidazole 16% (95% CI 10-23), ciprofloxacin 24% (95% CI 15-33), levofloxacin 18% (95% CI 9-30), erythromycin 29% (95% CI 12-50), furazolidone 13% (95% CI 4-27), tetracycline 8% (95% CI 5-13), and amoxicillin 15% (95% CI 9-22). During the three time periods, there was an increased resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, furazolidone, and tetracycline (P ˂ .05). Furazolidone and a clarithromycin/metronidazole combination had the higher resistance rates in children (P ˂ .05).

Conclusion: An increasing rate of resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, furazolidone, and tetracycline in Iranian H pylori isolates was identified. In children, the resistance to furazolidone and a combination of clarithromycin and metronidazole is higher compared to adults. As a stable, high resistance to metronidazole was found in children and adults in all Iranian provinces, we suggest that metronidazole should not be included in the Iranian H pylori eradication scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12730DOI Listing
October 2020

Microbiological detoxification of mycotoxins: Focus on Mechanisms and Advances.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari. Iran.

Some fungal species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium secretes toxic metabolites known as mycotoxins, has become a global concern that is toxic to different species of animals and humans. Biological mycotoxins detoxification has been studied by researchers around the world as a new strategy for the mycotoxin removal. Bacteria, fungi, yeast, molds, and protozoa are the main living organisms appropriate for the mycotoxin detoxification. Enzymatic and degradation sorption are the main mechanisms involved in microbiological detoxification of mycotoxins. Regardless of the method used, proper management tools that consist of before-harvest prevention and after-harvest detoxification, are required. Here, in this review we focus on the microbiological detoxification, and mechanisms involved in decontamination of mycotoxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200616145150DOI Listing
June 2020

TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein as an anticancer against ovarian cancer.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Mar 11;870:172919. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Applied Microbiology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

TGFαL3-SEB is a new synthetic fusion protein produced by the combination of the third loop of transforming growth factor with staphylococcal enterotoxin type B. In the current study, the anti-tumor effects of TGFαL3-SEB were evaluated against SKOV3 cells, which highly expressed the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Our findings showed that incubation of SKOV3 cells with 75, 100 and 150 μg/ml of TGFαL3-SEB significantly reduces the proliferation rate in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05) and its IC50 value was 110 μg/ml. Caspase-3 activity was increased from 100% for control cells to 109, 144, and 169% for 75, 100 and 150 μg/ml of TGFαL3-SEB treatment, respectively. Caspase-9 activity and bax/bcl-2 ratio were also confirmed the apoptosis induction ability of TGFαL3-SEB (P < 0.001). Flow cytometry examination also showed that apoptosis was induced and the number of apoptotic cells was increased from 8.2% in un-treated cells to 20.9, 50, and 90% in response to 75, 100 and 150 μg/ml of TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression level of VEGF was also reduced to 0.89, 0.69, and 0.60, respectively in response to 75, 100 and 150 μg/ml of TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein exposure, respectively (P < 0.5). In summary, the findings of our study uncovered that TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein induced apoptosis and reduced angiogenesis in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This protein has the potential to act against EGFR expressing malignant cells to serve as a pro-apoptotic and angiogenesis blocker agents; however, further studies are needed to confirm its ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.172919DOI Listing
March 2020

Growth-inhibitory effects of TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein on colon cancer cell line.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Feb 22;110:190-196. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Applied Microbiology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein is a synthetic protein, which is produced by combining the third loop (L3) of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) with staphylococcal enterotoxin type B. To the best of our knowledge, anti-cancer activity of this chimeric protein against colon cancer that overexpresses epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has not yet been studied. Thus, in the present study, the anti-tumor effects of TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein on HT-29 colon cancer cells were evaluated.

Materials And Methods: The TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein was previously designed and cloned in Escherichia coli (E. coli) [1,2]. The level of expression and the purity of this novel protein were examined for further analysis. For this purpose, the cells were treated with different concentrations (25, 50 and 75 μg/ml) of TGFαL3-SEB and then the proliferation was detected using the MTT assay. The apoptosis-inducing potential of TGFαL3-SEB in HT-29 and HEK-293 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry using Annexin V/PI double staining method; in addition, bax/bcl2 mRNA ratio, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity were also assessed.

Results: In the present study, TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein was produced in E. coli. After effective purification, its growth inhibitory effect was evaluated. Our results indicated that the incubation of HT-29 colon cancer cell with 25, 50 and 75 μg/ml of TGFαL3-SEB for 24 h leads to significant reduction of proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Further analysis indicated that exposure of EGFR expressing HT-29 cells to TGFαL3-SEB leads to significant increase of the caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Bax/bcl-2 ratio also confirmed that TGFαL3-SEB has the pro-apoptotic effect. Flow cytometry analysis of TGFαL3-SEB treated cells showed that in addition to apoptotic cells, necrotic cells were also increased significantly at the concentration of 25, 50 and 75 μg/ml (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, our results demonstrated that TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein induced cell death through both mechanisms of apoptosis and necrosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. This paper has highlighted that TGFαL3-SEB has the potential to target EGFR expressing cancer cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.11.025DOI Listing
February 2019

Investigating the Influence of Teachers' Characteristics on the Teacher-Student Relations from Students' Perspective at Ilam University of Medical Sciences.

J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jun 1;11(6):JC04-JC08. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Lecturer, Medical Education Development Centre, Ilam University of Medical Science, Ilam, Iran.

Introduction: Establishing an effective teacher-student relationship may affect the quality of learning. Such a complex human relationship may be influenced by various factors in addition to teacher and student.

Aim: The present study aimed at investigating the influence of teacher characteristics on the Teacher-student relationship from students' perspective.

Materials And Methods: In this descriptive-survey research, statistical population included 1500 students at Ilam University of Medical Sciences Ilam, Iran. Out of which 281 students were selected by simple random sampling, they received and completed series of questionnaires. Data was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire containing 37 Likert type items from which five items measured demographic profile of participants and 32 items measured impact of teacher's characteristics upon the teacher-student relationship. Data was analysed by SPSS software version 16 using descriptive statistics, t-test and One way ANOVA.

Results: The current study included 281 students (117 (41.6%) male, 164 (58.4%) female) studying at Ilam University of Medical Sciences. The effect of teachers' characteristics on the teacher-student relationship from the students' perspective in three areas (personal, professional and scientific) scored 4.37±0.54, 4.05±0.27, and 3.91±0.44, respectively. The highest score was related to "respect for students" (Mean=4.74, SD=0.55) and the lowest score was dedicated to 'gender' (Mean=2.40, SD= 0.64). Effect of other studied parameters was also higher than the average level.

Conclusion: The findings indicated that teacher-student relationship and consequently the quality of education was overshadowed by the overall characteristics of teacher (namely-personal, professional and scientific). Notably, coupled with the professional and scientific properties of the teacher, his/ her communication skills may also help to provide a favourable learning condition for the students. Therefore, attention to the education of scientific as well as professional skills of the teachers in interaction with students through appropriate workshops and training courses is a matter of great necessity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/20109.10018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5535391PMC
June 2017