Publications by authors named "Fanny Aprahamian"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Multifaceted modes of action of the anticancer probiotic Enterococcus hirae.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), Villejuif, France.

A deviated repertoire of the gut microbiome predicts resistance to cancer immunotherapy. Enterococcus hirae compensated cancer-associated dysbiosis in various tumor models. However, the mechanisms by which E. hirae restored the efficacy of cyclophosphamide administered with concomitant antibiotics remain ill defined. Here, we analyzed the multifaceted modes of action of this anticancer probiotic. Firstly, E. hirae elicited emigration of thymocytes and triggered systemic and intratumoral IFNγ-producing and CD137-expressing effector memory T cell responses. Secondly, E. hirae activated the autophagy machinery in enterocytes and mediated ATG4B-dependent anticancer effects, likely as a consequence of its ability to increase local delivery of polyamines. Thirdly, E. hirae shifted the host microbiome toward a Bifidobacteria-enriched ecosystem. In contrast to the live bacterium, its pasteurized cells or membrane vesicles were devoid of anticancer properties. These pleiotropic functions allow the design of optimal immunotherapies combining E. hirae with CD137 agonistic antibodies, spermidine, or Bifidobacterium animalis. We surmise that immunological, metabolic, epithelial, and microbial modes of action of the live E. hirae cooperate to circumvent primary resistance to therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00753-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Intestinal microbiota influences clinical outcome and side effects of early breast cancer treatment.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, Villejuif, France.

The prognosis of early breast cancer (BC) relies on cell autonomous and immune parameters. The impact of the intestinal microbiome on clinical outcome has not yet been evaluated. Shotgun metagenomics was used to determine the composition of the fecal microbiota in 121 specimens from 76 early BC patients, 45 of whom were paired before and after chemotherapy. These patients were enrolled in the CANTO prospective study designed to record the side effects associated with the clinical management of BC. We analyzed associations between baseline or post-chemotherapy fecal microbiota and plasma metabolomics with BC prognosis, as well as with therapy-induced side effects. We examined the clinical relevance of these findings in immunocompetent mice colonized with BC patient microbiota that were subsequently challenged with histo-compatible mouse BC and chemotherapy. We conclude that specific gut commensals that are overabundant in BC patients compared with healthy individuals negatively impact BC prognosis, are modulated by chemotherapy, and may influence weight gain and neurological side effects of BC therapies. These findings obtained in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings warrant prospective validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00784-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Oral administration of elevates systemic antiaging and anticancer metabolites.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 03 2;13(5):6375-6405. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France.

The presence of (Akk) in the human gut is associated with good health, leanness and fitness. Mouse experimentation has demonstrated positive effects for Akk, which counteracts aging, mediates antiobesity and antidiabetic effects, dampens inflammation and improves anticancer immunosurveillance. Clinical trials have confirmed antidiabetic effects for Akk. Here, we investigated the time-dependent effects of oral administration of Akk (which was live or pasteurized) and other bacteria to mice on the metabolome of the ileum, colon, liver and blood plasma. Metabolomics was performed by a combination of chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods, yielding a total of 1.637.227 measurements. Akk had major effects on metabolism, causing an increase in spermidine and other polyamines in the gut and in the liver. Pasteurized Akk (Akk-past) was more efficient than live Akk in elevating the intestinal concentrations of polyamines, short-chain fatty acids, 2-hydroxybutyrate, as well multiple bile acids, which also increased in the circulation. All these metabolites have previously been associated with human health, providing a biochemical basis for the beneficial effects of Akk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993698PMC
March 2021

Nicotinamide for the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Feb;13(580)

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a highly prevalent and intractable form of cardiac decompensation commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction. Here, we show that diastolic dysfunction in patients with HFpEF is associated with a cardiac deficit in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Elevating NAD by oral supplementation of its precursor, nicotinamide, improved diastolic dysfunction induced by aging (in 2-year-old C57BL/6J mice), hypertension (in salt-sensitive rats), or cardiometabolic syndrome (in ZSF1 obese rats). This effect was mediated partly through alleviated systemic comorbidities and enhanced myocardial bioenergetics. Simultaneously, nicotinamide directly improved cardiomyocyte passive stiffness and calcium-dependent active relaxation through increased deacetylation of titin and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase 2a, respectively. In a long-term human cohort study, high dietary intake of naturally occurring NAD precursors was associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiac mortality. Collectively, these results suggest NAD precursors, and especially nicotinamide, as potential therapeutic agents to treat diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd7064DOI Listing
February 2021

Ketogenic diet and ketone bodies enhance the anticancer effects of PD-1 blockade.

JCI Insight 2021 01 25;6(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Gustave Roussy, INSERM U1015, Villejuif, France.

Limited experimental evidence bridges nutrition and cancer immunosurveillance. Here, we show that ketogenic diet (KD) - or its principal ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), most specifically in intermittent scheduling - induced T cell-dependent tumor growth retardation of aggressive tumor models. In conditions in which anti-PD-1 alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4 failed to reduce tumor growth in mice receiving a standard diet, KD, or oral supplementation of 3HB reestablished therapeutic responses. Supplementation of KD with sucrose (which breaks ketogenesis, abolishing 3HB production) or with a pharmacological antagonist of the 3HB receptor GPR109A abolished the antitumor effects. Mechanistically, 3HB prevented the immune checkpoint blockade-linked upregulation of PD-L1 on myeloid cells, while favoring the expansion of CXCR3+ T cells. KD induced compositional changes of the gut microbiota, with distinct species such as Eisenbergiella massiliensis commonly emerging in mice and humans subjected to carbohydrate-low diet interventions and highly correlating with serum concentrations of 3HB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that KD induces a 3HB-mediated antineoplastic effect that relies on T cell-mediated cancer immunosurveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.145207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934884PMC
January 2021

Autophagy-mediated metabolic effects of aspirin.

Cell Death Discov 2020 Nov 24;6(1):129. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Karolinska Institute, Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Huddinge, Sweden.

Salicylate, the active derivative of aspirin (acetylsalicylate), recapitulates the mode of action of caloric restriction inasmuch as it stimulates autophagy through the inhibition of the acetyltransferase activity of EP300. Here, we directly compared the metabolic effects of aspirin medication with those elicited by 48 h fasting in mice, revealing convergent alterations in the plasma and the heart metabolome. Aspirin caused a transient reduction of general protein acetylation in blood leukocytes, accompanied by the induction of autophagy. However, these effects on global protein acetylation could not be attributed to the mere inhibition of EP300, as determined by epistatic experiments and exploration of the acetyl-proteome from salicylate-treated EP300-deficient cells. Aspirin reduced high-fat diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and hepatosteatosis. These aspirin effects were observed in autophagy-competent mice but not in two different models of genetic (Atg4b or Bcln1) autophagy-deficiency. Aspirin also improved tumor control by immunogenic chemotherapeutics, and this effect was lost in T cell-deficient mice, as well as upon knockdown of an essential autophagy gene (Atg5) in cancer cells. Hence, the health-improving effects of aspirin depend on autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-00365-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687910PMC
November 2020

Isobacachalcone induces autophagy and improves the outcome of immunogenic chemotherapy.

Cell Death Dis 2020 11 26;11(11):1015. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Equipe labellisée par la Ligue contre le cancer, Université de Paris, Sorbonne Université, Inserm U1138, Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France.

A number of natural plant products have a long-standing history in both traditional and modern medical applications. Some secondary metabolites induce autophagy and mediate autophagy-dependent healthspan- and lifespan-extending effects in suitable mouse models. Here, we identified isobacachalcone (ISO) as a non-toxic inducer of autophagic flux that acts on human and mouse cells in vitro, as well as mouse organs in vivo. Mechanistically, ISO inhibits AKT as well as, downstream of AKT, the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), coupled to the activation of the pro-autophagic transcription factors EB (TFEB) and E3 (TFE3). Cells equipped with a constitutively active AKT mutant failed to activate autophagy. ISO also stimulated the AKT-repressible activation of all three arms of the unfolded stress response (UPR), including the PERK-dependent phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). Knockout of TFEB and/or TFE3 blunted the UPR, while knockout of PERK or replacement of eIF2α by a non-phosphorylable mutant reduced TFEB/TFE3 activation and autophagy induced by ISO. This points to crosstalk between the UPR and autophagy. Of note, the administration of ISO to mice improved the efficacy of immunogenic anticancer chemotherapy. This effect relied on an improved T lymphocyte-dependent anticancer immune response and was lost upon constitutive AKT activation in, or deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 from, the malignant cells. In conclusion, ISO is a bioavailable autophagy inducer that warrants further preclinical characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03226-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690654PMC
November 2020

Chemical activation of SAT1 corrects diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

Cell Death Differ 2020 10 6;27(10):2904-2920. Epub 2020 May 6.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM U1138, Team "Metabolism, Cancer & Immunity", Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

The pharmacological targeting of polyamine metabolism is currently under the spotlight for its potential in the prevention and treatment of several age-associated disorders. Here, we report the finding that triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride (TETA), a copper-chelator agent that can be safely administered to patients for the long-term treatment of Wilson disease, exerts therapeutic benefits in animals challenged with hypercaloric dietary regimens. TETA reduced obesity induced by high-fat diet, excessive sucrose intake, or leptin deficiency, as it reduced glucose intolerance and hepatosteatosis, but induced autophagy. Mechanistically, these effects did not involve the depletion of copper from plasma or internal organs. Rather, the TETA effects relied on the activation of an energy-consuming polyamine catabolism, secondary to the stabilization of spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase-1 (SAT1) by TETA, resulting in enhanced enzymatic activity of SAT. All the positive effects of TETA on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome were lost in SAT1-deficient mice. Altogether, these results suggest novel health-promoting effects of TETA that might be taken advantage of for the prevention or treatment of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0550-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494776PMC
October 2020

Critical role for TRIM28 and HP1β/γ in the epigenetic control of T cell metabolic reprograming and effector differentiation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 12 27;116(51):25839-25849. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Institut Curie, Université Paris Sciences et Lettres, INSERM U932, 75005 Paris, France;

Naive CD4 T lymphocytes differentiate into different effector types, including helper and regulatory cells (Th and Treg, respectively). Heritable gene expression programs that define these effector types are established during differentiation, but little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms that install and maintain these programs. Here, we use mice defective for different components of heterochromatin-dependent gene silencing to investigate the epigenetic control of CD4 T cell plasticity. We show that, upon T cell receptor (TCR) engagement, naive and regulatory T cells defective for TRIM28 (an epigenetic adaptor for histone binding modules) or for heterochromatin protein 1 β and γ isoforms (HP1β/γ, 2 histone-binding factors involved in gene silencing) fail to effectively signal through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR axis and switch to glycolysis. While differentiation of naive TRIM28 T cells into cytokine-producing effector T cells is impaired, resulting in reduced induction of autoimmune colitis, TRIM28 regulatory T cells also fail to expand in vivo and to suppress autoimmunity effectively. Using a combination of transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses for H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, and RNA polymerase II, we show that reduced effector differentiation correlates with impaired transcriptional silencing at distal regulatory regions of a defined set of Treg-associated genes, including, for example, NRP1 or Snai3. We conclude that TRIM28 and HP1β/γ control metabolic reprograming through epigenetic silencing of a defined set of Treg-characteristic genes, thus allowing effective T cell expansion and differentiation into helper and regulatory phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1901639116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925996PMC
December 2019

Acyl-CoA-Binding Protein Is a Lipogenic Factor that Triggers Food Intake and Obesity.

Cell Metab 2019 10 15;30(4):754-767.e9. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Université of Paris, Unité de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, CNRS UMR 8251, Paris, France.

Autophagy facilitates the adaptation to nutritional stress. Here, we show that short-term starvation of cultured cells or mice caused the autophagy-dependent cellular release of acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP, also known as diazepam-binding inhibitor, DBI) and consequent ACBP-mediated feedback inhibition of autophagy. Importantly, ACBP levels were elevated in obese patients and reduced in anorexia nervosa. In mice, systemic injection of ACBP protein inhibited autophagy, induced lipogenesis, reduced glycemia, and stimulated appetite as well as weight gain. We designed three approaches to neutralize ACBP, namely, inducible whole-body knockout, systemic administration of neutralizing antibodies, and induction of antiACBP autoantibodies in mice. ACBP neutralization enhanced autophagy, stimulated fatty acid oxidation, inhibited appetite, reduced weight gain in the context of a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency, and accelerated weight loss in response to dietary changes. In conclusion, neutralization of ACBP might constitute a strategy for treating obesity and its co-morbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2019.07.010DOI Listing
October 2019

The metabolomic signature of extreme longevity: naked mole rats mice.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 07;11(14):4783-4800

INSERM UMR_S1151 CNRS UMR8253 Institut Necker-Enfants Malades (INEM), Paris, France.

The naked mole-rat () is characterized by a more than tenfold higher life expectancy compared to another rodent species of the same size, namely, the laboratory mouse (). We used mass spectrometric metabolomics to analyze circulating plasma metabolites in both species at different ages. Interspecies differences were much more pronounced than age-associated alterations in the metabolome. Such interspecies divergences affected multiple metabolic pathways involving amino, bile and fatty acids as well as monosaccharides and nucleotides. The most intriguing metabolites were those that had previously been linked to pro-health and antiaging effects in mice and that were significantly increased in the long-lived rodent compared to its short-lived counterpart. This pattern applies to α-tocopherol (also known as vitamin E) and polyamines (in particular cadaverine, N8-acetylspermidine and N1,N8-diacetylspermidine), all of which were more abundant in naked mole-rats than in mice. Moreover, the age-associated decline in spermidine and N1-acetylspermidine levels observed in mice did not occur, or is even reversed (in the case of N1-acetylspermidine) in naked mole-rats. In short, the present metabolomics analysis provides a series of testable hypotheses to explain the exceptional longevity of naked mole-rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.102116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6682510PMC
July 2019

Healthspan and lifespan extension by fecal microbiota transplantation into progeroid mice.

Nat Med 2019 08 22;25(8):1234-1242. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Universitario de Oncología (IUOPA), Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

The gut microbiome is emerging as a key regulator of several metabolic, immune and neuroendocrine pathways. Gut microbiome deregulation has been implicated in major conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty acid liver disease and cancer, but its precise role in aging remains to be elucidated. Here, we find that two different mouse models of progeria are characterized by intestinal dysbiosis with alterations that include an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, and a decrease in the abundance of Verrucomicrobia. Consistent with these findings, we found that human progeria patients also display intestinal dysbiosis and that long-lived humans (that is, centenarians) exhibit a substantial increase in Verrucomicrobia and a reduction in Proteobacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation from wild-type mice enhanced healthspan and lifespan in both progeroid mouse models, and transplantation with the verrucomicrobia Akkermansia muciniphila was sufficient to exert beneficial effects. Moreover, metabolomic analysis of ileal content points to the restoration of secondary bile acids as a possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of reestablishing a healthy microbiome. Our results demonstrate that correction of the accelerated aging-associated intestinal dysbiosis is beneficial, suggesting the existence of a link between aging and the gut microbiota that provides a rationale for microbiome-based interventions against age-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0504-5DOI Listing
August 2019

Crizotinib-induced immunogenic cell death in non-small cell lung cancer.

Nat Commun 2019 04 2;10(1):1486. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Centre de Recherche INSERM LNC-, UMR1231, Dijon, France.

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) converts dying cancer cells into a therapeutic vaccine and stimulates antitumor immune responses. Here we unravel the results of an unbiased screen identifying high-dose (10 µM) crizotinib as an ICD-inducing tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has exceptional antineoplastic activity when combined with non-ICD inducing chemotherapeutics like cisplatin. The combination of cisplatin and high-dose crizotinib induces ICD in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells and effectively controls the growth of distinct (transplantable, carcinogen- or oncogene induced) orthotopic NSCLC models. These anticancer effects are linked to increased T lymphocyte infiltration and are abolished by T cell depletion or interferon-γ neutralization. Crizotinib plus cisplatin leads to an increase in the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in tumors, coupled to a strong sensitization of NSCLC to immunotherapy with PD-1 antibodies. Hence, a sequential combination treatment consisting in conventional chemotherapy together with crizotinib, followed by immune checkpoint blockade may be active against NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09415-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445096PMC
April 2019

The flavonoid 4,4'-dimethoxychalcone promotes autophagy-dependent longevity across species.

Nat Commun 2019 02 19;10(1):651. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Equipe 11 labellisée Ligue contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM U 1138, Paris, France.

Ageing constitutes the most important risk factor for all major chronic ailments, including malignant, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. However, behavioural and pharmacological interventions with feasible potential to promote health upon ageing remain rare. Here we report the identification of the flavonoid 4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (DMC) as a natural compound with anti-ageing properties. External DMC administration extends the lifespan of yeast, worms and flies, decelerates senescence of human cell cultures, and protects mice from prolonged myocardial ischaemia. Concomitantly, DMC induces autophagy, which is essential for its cytoprotective effects from yeast to mice. This pro-autophagic response induces a conserved systemic change in metabolism, operates independently of TORC1 signalling and depends on specific GATA transcription factors. Notably, we identify DMC in the plant Angelica keiskei koidzumi, to which longevity- and health-promoting effects are ascribed in Asian traditional medicine. In summary, we have identified and mechanistically characterised the conserved longevity-promoting effects of a natural anti-ageing drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08555-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381180PMC
February 2019

Trans-Fats Inhibit Autophagy Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids.

EBioMedicine 2018 Apr 27;30:261-272. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; Equipe 11 labellisée Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1138 Paris, France; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; Pôle de Biologie, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, Paris, France; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Depending on the length of their carbon backbone and their saturation status, natural fatty acids have rather distinct biological effects. Thus, longevity of model organisms is increased by extra supply of the most abundant natural cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, but not by that of the most abundant saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Here, we systematically compared the capacity of different saturated, cis-unsaturated and alien (industrial or ruminant) trans-unsaturated fatty acids to provoke cellular stress in vitro, on cultured human cells expressing a battery of distinct biosensors that detect signs of autophagy, Golgi stress and the unfolded protein response. In contrast to cis-unsaturated fatty acids, trans-unsaturated fatty acids failed to stimulate signs of autophagy including the formation of GFP-LC3B-positive puncta, production of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, and activation of the transcription factor TFEB. When combined effects were assessed, several trans-unsaturated fatty acids including elaidic acid (the trans-isomer of oleate), linoelaidic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and palmitelaidic acid, were highly efficient in suppressing autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by palmitic, but not by oleic acid. Elaidic acid also inhibited autophagy induction by palmitic acid in vivo, in mouse livers and hearts. We conclude that the well-established, though mechanistically enigmatic toxicity of trans-unsaturated fatty acids may reside in their capacity to abolish cytoprotective stress responses induced by saturated fatty acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5952403PMC
April 2018

Steroid Profiling in Male Wobbler Mouse, a Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Endocrinology 2016 Nov 29;157(11):4446-4460. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Unité 1195 INSERM and University Paris-Sud and University Paris Saclay (P.L., A.P., F.A., A.C., M.S., R.G.), 94276 Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Biochemistry (M.C.G.-D., M.M., A.F.D.N.) and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology (N.P.D.G.), Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Departamento de Ciencias Fisiológicas (M.C.G.-D.), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1121 Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The Wobbler mouse is an animal model for human motoneuron diseases, especially amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), used in the investigation of both pathology and therapeutic treatment. ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the selective and progressive death of motoneurons, leading to progressive paralysis. Previous limited studies have reported steroidal hormone dysregulation in Wobbler mouse and in ALS patients, suggesting endocrine dysfunctions which may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we established a steroid profiling in brain, spinal cord, plasma, adrenal glands, and testes in 2-month-old male Wobbler mice and their littermates by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Our results show in Wobbler mice the following: 1) a marked up-regulation of corticosterone levels in adrenal glands, plasma, spinal cord regions (cervical, thoracic, lumbar) and brain; 2) a strong decrease in T levels in the testis, plasma, spinal cord, and brain; and 3) increased levels of progesterone and especially of its reduced metabolites 5α-dihydroprogesterone, allopregnanolone, and 20α-dihydroprogesterone in the brain, spinal cord, and adrenal glands. Furthermore, Wobbler mice showed a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hypoactivity. Interestingly, plasma concentrations of corticosterone and T correlate well with their respective levels in cervical spinal cord in both control and Wobbler mice. T down-regulation is probably the consequence of adrenal hyperactivity, and the up-regulation of progesterone and its reduced metabolites may correspond to an endogenous protective mechanism in response to motoneuron degeneration. Our findings suggest that increased levels of corticosterone and decreased levels of T in plasma could be a signature of motoneuron degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2016-1244DOI Listing
November 2016

Steroid hormones in bovine oviductal fluid during the estrous cycle.

Theriogenology 2016 Oct 7;86(6):1409-1420. Epub 2016 May 7.

PRC, INRA, CNRS, IFCE, Université de Tours, Nouzilly, France; UFR Sciences et Techniques, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Tours, France. Electronic address:

Ovarian steroid hormones are major regulators of the physiology of the oviduct and reproductive events occurring within the oviduct. To establish a whole steroid profiling of the bovine oviductal fluid (OF) during the estrous cycle, contralateral and ipsilateral (to the corpus luteum or preovulatory follicle) oviducts were classified into four stages of the estrous cycle (n = 18-27 cows per stage): postovulatory (Post-ov), mid-luteal (Mid-lut), late luteal (Late-lut), and preovulatory on the basis of the ovarian morphology and intrafollicular steroid concentrations. Steroids were extracted from pools of 150 to 200 μL OF (three to 10 cows per pool; three to four pools per "stage × side" group), purified, fractioned by high-performance liquid chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of progesterone (P4) in ipsilateral OF increased from Post-ov (56.9 ± 13.4 ng/mL) to Mid-lut (120.3 ± 34.3 ng/mL), then decreased from Late-lut (76.7 ± 1.8 ng/mL) to Pre-ov (6.3 ± 1.7 ng/mL), and were four to 16 times higher than in contralateral OF. Most P4 metabolites followed similar patterns of variation. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2) were significantly higher at Pre-ov (290.5 ± 63.2 pg/mL) compared with all other stages (<118.3 pg/mL), with no difference regarding the side of ovulation. Concentrations of androstenedione displayed a pattern similar to that of E2, whereas other androgens, estrone, and corticoids did not vary between stages or sides. In conclusion, a highly concentrated and fluctuating hormonal environment was evidenced in the bovine OF. These results could be useful to improve media for IVF, embryo development, and culture of oviductal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.04.086DOI Listing
October 2016