Publications by authors named "Fang-Tzu Wu"

82 Publications

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):700-702

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Case Report: A 32-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of the abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result indicating a 1/34 risk for Down syndrome. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[27]/46,XX[15]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 12% mosaicism for monosomy X. Prenatal ultrasound was normal. The pregnancy was carried to term, and a 2780-g phenotypically normal female baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 45,X[12]/46,XX[28]. At age one month, the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XX[27]. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on the buccal mucosal cells revealed 2% (2/102 cells) mosaicism for monosomy X, compared with 1% (1/100 cells) in the normal control. When follow-up at age one year, she was doing well with normal physical and psychomotor development. Her body weight was 9.9 Kg (50th - 85th centile), and her body height was 75 cm (50th - 85th centile). The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[4]/46,XY[36].

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.008DOI Listing
July 2022

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome and cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):695-699

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X by amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome.

Case Report: A 35-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XY[11]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of Yp11.3q11.21 × 0-1 [0.1], Yq11.21q11.23 × 0-1 [0.6]. At 19 weeks of gestation, she underwent the second amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XY[12], and aCGH and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) on uncultured amniocytes showed 37% mosaicism for Y-deleted cells. At 28 weeks of gestation, she underwent the third amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 45,X[25]/46,XY[25], and aCGH on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of Yq11.21q11.23 × 0.5, Yq11.23q12 × 0.7. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed that 16.67% (20/120 cells) were Y-deleted cells. The parental karyortypes and prenatal ultrasound were normal. At 37 weeks of gestation, a 2707-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered with normal male external genitalia. The karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 45,X[25]/46,XY[15], 45,X[18]/46,XY[22] and 45,X[25]/46,XY[15], respectively. When follow-up at age five months, the neonate was normal in external genitalia and physical development. The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[29]/46,XY[11], and FISH analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal signals. When follow-up at age 11 months, the neonate was physically normal, and the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[17]/46,XY[23].

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome despite the presence of cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.007DOI Listing
July 2022

Mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis associated with a favorable fetal outcome in a pregnancy.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):690-694

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18 by amniocentesis associated with a favorable fetal outcome in a pregnancy.

Case Report: A 42-year-old, gravida 4, para 2, woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[6]/46,XX[17]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes showed the result of 45% mosaicism for trisomy 18. At 25 weeks of gestation, the woman underwent repeat amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[10]/46,XX[24]. Simultaneous aCGH on uncultured amniocytes showed the result of arr 18p11.32q23 (148,963-78,012,829) × 2.3 [GRCh (hg19)] with a log ratio of 0.2-0.25 compatible with 30-38% mosaicism for trisomy 18. The parental karyotypes were normal. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured amniocytes showed 27% (27/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) on uncultured amniocytes excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 18. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) analysis at 34 weeks of gestation revealed a significant gene dosage increase of chromosome 18 (29.95; normal control: -3.0-3.0). At 39 weeks of gestation, a 2840-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[8]/46,XX[32]. The placenta was trisomy 18 of maternal origin. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[2]/46,XX[38]. At age 1½ months, the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[5]/46,XX[35], and FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed 2% (2/102 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18. When follow-up at age seven months, the neonate was phenotypically normal, and the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[1]/46,XX[39].

Conclusions: Mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis without abnormal fetal ultrasound can be associated with a favorable outcome, and the abnormal trisomy 18 cell line may decrease progressively after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.006DOI Listing
July 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between uncultured amniocytes and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome and maternal uniparental disomy 18.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):684-689

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18 in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome and maternal uniparental disomy 18.

Case Report: A 38-year-old, primigravid woman underwent the first amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX [22/22] in cultured amniocytes, and 36% mosaicism for trisomy 18 and a maternally inherited Xp22.31 microdeletion by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in uncultured amniocytes. The second amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation revealed 47,XX,+18 [14]/46,XX [36] in cultured amniocytes and 36% mosaicism for trisomy 18 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) P095 in cultured amniocytes. Prenatal ultrasound was normal. The parents were phenotypically normal. The third amniocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation revealed 47,XX,+18 [3]/46,XX [17] in cultured amniocytes, and in uncultured amniocytes, aCGH revealed 45%-50% mosaicism for trisomy 18, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed 36% (36/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18, and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) showed mosaic maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 18 and mosaic trisomy 18 of maternal origin. The fourth amniocentesis at 32 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46,XX [20/20] in cultured amniocytes, and in uncultured amniocytes, aCGH revealed 50%-60% mosaicism for trisomy 18, FISH revealed 21.8% (22/101 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) showed chromosome 18 gene dosage increase in the maternal blood. At 34 weeks of gestation, a 1480-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had 47,XX,+18 [10]/46,XX [30]. The umbilical cord had 47,XX,+18 [4]/46,XX [36]. The placenta had 47,XX,+18 [40/40], and QF-PCR analysis confirmed trisomy 18 of maternal origin. When follow-up at age four months, the neonate was phenotypically normal, FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed 2% (2/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18, and the peripheral blood had 47,XX,+18 [18]/46,XX [22]. When follow-up at age eight months, the neonate had normal development, the peripheral blood had 47,XX,+18 [15]/46,XX [25], and the buccal mucosal cells showed maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 18.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between uncultured and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis. Cultured amniocytes may present progressive decrease in the levels of mosaicism for trisomy 18 as the fetus grows. Mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.005DOI Listing
July 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between uncultured amniocytes and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):677-683

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 15 in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 19 weeks of gestation because non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) revealed gene dosage increase at chromosome 15. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+15[10]/46,XX[13]. Using uncultured amniocytes, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) revealed arr [GRCh37] (X) × 2, (15) × 3 [0.75], multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis showed rsa [GRCh36] 15q11q13 (21,362,818-27,196,819) × 3 [0.76] and methylation-specific (MS)-MLPA analysis showed a methylation index = 0.41 with paternal gene dosage increase at 15q11-q13. Repeat amniocentesis at 25 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+15[6]/46,XX[14]. Using uncultured amniocytes, quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) assays excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15 and determined a paternal origin of the extra chromosome 15, aCGH analysis showed 75%-80% mosaicism for trisomy 15, and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed 45.5% (46/101 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 15. Repeat amniocentesis at 28 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+15[2]/46,XX[23]. Using uncultured amniocytes, aCGH showed 75-80% mosaicism for trisomy 15, and FISH showed 70.6% (72/102 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 15. Using cultured amniocytes, QF-PCR assays excluded UPD 15. Cordocentesis at 30 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+15[2]/46,XX[138]. Using cord blood, aCGH revealed 9% gene dosage increase at chromosome 15, and MS-MLPA analysis excluded UPD 15. At 36 weeks of gestation, a 2060-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had 46, XX (40/40 cells). The placenta had 47,XX,+15 (40/40 cells). QF-PCR analysis on placenta showed a paternal origin of trisomy 15. FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells at age 20 days showed 20% (20/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 15.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between uncultured and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis. Cultured amniocytes may present progressive decrease in the levels of mosaicism for trisomy 15 as the fetus grows. Mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis without UPD 15 can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.004DOI Listing
July 2022

Prenatal diagnosis of pseudomosaicism for trisomy 20 at amniocentesis with a negative non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) result in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):675-676

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of pseudomosaicism for trisomy 20 at amniocentesis with a negative non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) result in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation, which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[8]/46,XX[31]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr (1-22,X) × 2, consistent with no genomic imbalance. She was referred to the hospital for repeat amniocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation. At repeat amniocentesis, cultured amniocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[2]/46,XX[33]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes using SurePrint G3 Unrestricted CGH ISCA v2, 8 × 60 K (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2, Y × 0. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes of RP11-266K16 [20q13.33; fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), spectrum green] and RP11-348I14 (20q11.1-q11.21; Texas Red, spectrum red) detected trisomy 20 signals in 4/104 uncultured amniocytes (3.8%), compared with 0/100 in the normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy 20. NIPT analysis on maternal blood revealed a negative result without gene dosage increase in chromosome 20. The pregnancy was carried to term, and a healthy 2830-g female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. Both cord blood and placenta had a karyotype of 46,XX.

Conclusion: NIPT is useful for rapid differential diagnosis of pseudomosaicism from true mosaicism in case of mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.003DOI Listing
July 2022

A false-positive result at non-invasive prenatal testing due to maternal 17p12 microduplication.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):532-534

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present a false-positive result at non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to maternal 17p12 microduplication.

Case Report: A 37-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 19 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) revealed the result of a 1.3-Mb duplication of 17p12 or arr [GRCh37] 17p12 (14,111,772-15,442,066) × 3 encompassing four Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes of COX10, HS3ST3B1, PMP22 and TEKT3. The mother did not have any neurologic problems. The parents were phenotypically normal. aCGH analysis of maternal blood revealed that the mother carried the same 17p12 microduplication. Two years ago, NIPT analysis during her first pregnancy revealed abnormality of chromosome 17 with 17p11.2p12 duplication. However, subsequent aCGH analysis at amniocentesis revealed no genomic imbalance in the fetus, and no further examination of the parental bloods was made. During this pregnancy, prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable, and the parents decided to continue the pregnancy.

Conclusion: A false-positive result at NIPT should raise a suspicion of maternal genomic imbalance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.03.037DOI Listing
May 2022

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):528-531

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Case Report: A 36-year-old, gravida 4, para 3, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[22]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[4]. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable, and the fetus had normal male external genitalia. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation, and the second amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[24]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[3]. Simultaneous interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed that 60% (62/103 cells) were Y-deleted cells. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 3020-g male baby was delivered with a body length of 52 cm, normal male genital organs and no phenotypic abnormalities. The karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 45,X[20]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[20], 45,X[31]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[9] and 45,X[40], respectively. At age one month, FISH analysis on urinary cells and buccal mucosal cells revealed 11.5% (7/61 cells) and 13.6% (16/118 cells), respectively for mosaicism for the Y-deleted cells. At age five month, the karyotype of peripheral blood was 45,X[9]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[31]. FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal Y-deleted cell (0/101 cells). At age 11 month, the karyotype of peripheral blood was 45,X[5]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[35]. FISH analysis on 102 buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal signals. The infant was doing well with normal physical and psychomotor development.

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable outcome and progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.03.024DOI Listing
May 2022

Perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):525-527

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 38-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[2]/46,XY[6]. Level II ultrasound at 20 weeks of gestation was unremarkable, and the fetus had normal male external genitalia. Following genetic counseling, the woman decided to continue the pregnancy. At 39 weeks of gestation, a healthy male baby was delivered with a body weight of 3410 g and a body length of 54.5 cm. The male external genital organs were normal. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46, XY (40/40 cells). The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 45,X[1]/46,XY[39]. During follow-up at age one month, his body weight was 4.4 Kg (15th-50th centile), and his body length was 56 cm (50th-85th centile). The infant was doing well. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells revealed no abnormal Y-deletion cell, and all cells contained one Y signal.

Conclusion: Perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy may occur in the pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.03.023DOI Listing
May 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic 46,XX,dup(9)(q22.3q34.1)/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;61(2):368-371

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present our observation of cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic dup(9)(q22.3q34.1) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 37-year-old, gravida 4, para 0, woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX, dup(9)(q22.3q34.1)[8]/46,XX[16]. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. She was referred for genetic counseling, and repeat amniocentesis was performed at 21 weeks of gestation, which revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(9)(q22.3q34.1)[7]/46,XX[25]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on 105 uncultured amniocytes detected only one cell with the dup 9q signal with a mosaic dup 9q level of 1%, compared with 0% in normal control. At 37 weeks of gestation, a 2640-g female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(9) (q22.3q34.1)[4]/46,XX[36], the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(9) (q22.3q34.1)[2]/46,XX[38], and the placenta had a karyotype of 46,XX. aCGH analysis on cord blood revealed no genomic imbalance. At age 2½ months, the baby was doing well, the peripheral blood of the baby had a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(9) (q22.3q34.1)[4]/46,XX[36], and interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed no dup 9q signal in 100 buccal mucosal cells.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic dup(9) (q22.3q34.1). Molecular cytogenetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes is useful for rapid distinguishing pseudomosaicism from true mosaicism under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.02.031DOI Listing
March 2022

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a familial small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from the acrocentric chromosome 14/22.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;61(2):364-367

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a familial small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from the acrocentric chromosome 14/22.

Case Report: A 40-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Cytogenetic analysis of the parental bloods revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,inv (9) (p12q13),+mar in the father and a karyotype of 46, XX in the mother. The sSMC was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on cultured amniocytes using the CEP 13/21 α-satellite specific gene probe labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorophore and the CEP 14/21 α-satellite specific gene probe labeled with Texas Red fluorophore (Cytocell Inc.). The result showed that the sSMC was derived from the chromosome 14/22, or+mar.ish dic (14/22) (D13Z1/D21Z1-, D14Z1/D22Z1+)[20]. A healthy male baby was delivered at term with no phenotypic abnormality. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) analysis on parental bloods and the child's peripheral blood was used to exclude uniparental disomy (UPD) (14) and UPD(22).

Conclusion: FISH analysis is useful for the determination of an sSMC derived from an acrocentric chromosome under the circumstance of no genomic imbalance at amniocentesis. QF-PCR analysis is useful for excluding the possible associated UPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.02.030DOI Listing
March 2022

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaic ring chromosome 21 associated with low PAPP-A and low PlGF in the first-trimester maternal serum screening.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;61(2):359-363

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaic ring chromosome 21 [r(21)].

Case Report: A 17-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal result of the first-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome with a free β-hCG level of 1.736 multiples of the median (MoM), a pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) level of 0.275 MoM, a placental growth factor (PlGF) level of 0.281 MoM, a Down syndrome risk of 1:222 and a preeclampsia risk of 1:175. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes revealed the result of 46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[19]/45,XX,-21[13]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of cultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr [GRCh37] 21q11.2q22.2 (15,485,008-40,625,594) × 1∼2, 21q22.2q22.3 (40,703,792-46,682,184) × 2∼3, 21q22.3 (46,761,631-48,084,156) × 1, consistent with mosaic monosomy 21 and r(21) (p12q22.3). The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with low-set ears and hypotelorism. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[30]/45,XX,-21[8]/46,XX,idic r(21) (p12q22.3)[2] in the cord blood, 46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[34]/45,XX,-21[6] in the skin, 46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[37]/45,XX,-21[3] in the umbilical cord and 46,XX,dup(21) (q22.2q22.3)[32]/46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[8] in the placenta. aCGH analysis of cord blood revealed the result of arr 21q11.2q22.2 (15,499,847-40,662,581) × 2.3, arr 21q22.2q22.3 (40,703,792-46,682,184) × 3.6, arr 21q22.3 (46,761,632-48,090,317) × 1, consistent with mosaic duplication of 21q11.2-q22.2 and 21q22.2-q22.3, and a 1.33-Mb 21q22.3 deletion encompassing the genes of COL18A1, SLC19A1, PCBP3, COL6A1, COL6A2, FTCD, LSS, MCM3AP, YBEY, PCNT, DIP2A, S100B and PRMT2.

Conclusion: Mosaic r(21) at amniocentesis may be associated with monosomy 21, idic r(21) and dup(21), and low PAPP-A and low PlGF in the first-trimester maternal serum screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.02.029DOI Listing
March 2022

Detection of paternal origin of fetal de novo rea(21q;21q) down syndrome in a pregnancy of a young woman associated with an abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;61(2):356-358

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present detection of paternal origin of fetal de novo rea(21q;21q) Down syndrome in a pregnancy of a young woman associated with an abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result.

Case Report: A 26-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal first-trimester screening result of 1/139 risk of Down syndrome calculated by 3.109 multiples of the median (MoM) of maternal serum free β-hCG and 0.454 MoM of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Her husband was 29 years old, and the couple had a 1-year-old healthy daughter. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,+21,der(21;21)(q10;q10). The pregnancy was terminated at 19 weeks of gestation, and a malformed fetus was delivered. The parental karyotypes were normal. Postnatal analysis of the umbilical cord showed a karyotype of 46,XX,+21,der(21;21) (q10;q10). Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNA extracted from parental bloods and umbilical cord confirmed a paternal origin of the de novo rea(21q;21q) Down syndrome.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of de novo rea(21q;21q) Down syndrome should include a polymorphic DNA marker analysis of the parental origin, and the acquired information is useful for genetic counseling of the recurrence of unbalanced rea(21q;21q) offspring and the determination of low-level tissue mosaicism or gonadal mosaicism in one of the parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.02.028DOI Listing
March 2022

Prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy 21 in association with low-level mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):146-149

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 21 in association with low-level mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 42-year-old, gravida 2, para 0, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis initially revealed a karyotype of 46,XX in 20/20 colonies of cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a result of arr [GRCh37] (21) × 3 [0.16], (X) × 2, compatible with mosaic trisomy 21. After extensive investigation, the final result of conventional cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes was 47,XX,+21[1]/46,XX[40]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 21 weeks of gestation. The cultured amniocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[3]/46,XX[27] and the uncultured amniocytes had a mosaic trisomy 21 level of 8.8% (10/114 cells) by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), a mosaic trisomy 21 level of 10% (log ratio = 0.08) by aCGH, and maternal UPD 21 by polymorphic DNA marker analysis. Prenatal ultrasound revealed IUGR. At 38 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal 2695-g baby was delivered. The cord blood and umbilical cord had the karyotype of 46,XX and maternal UPD 21. The placenta had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[8]/46,XX[32] and a maternal origin of trisomy 21. Postnatal FISH analysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells showed 6.9% (7/101 cells) mosaicism compared with 2% (2/100 cells) in the normal control. The baby was doing well at age four months.

Conclusion: Pregnancy with low-level mosaic trisomy 21 and maternal UPD 21 at amniocentesis can be associated with IUGR and a favorable outcome. Fetuses with maternal UPD 21 can be associated with mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.025DOI Listing
January 2022

Detection of maternal uniparental disomy 9 in association with low-level mosaic trisomy 9 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction, abnormal first-trimester screening result (low PAPP-A and low PlGF), maternal preeclampsia and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):141-145

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present detection of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 9 in association with low-level mosaic trisomy 9 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), an abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result, abnormal non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), maternal preeclampsia and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 37-year-old, primigravid woman underwent first-trimester maternal serum screening and NIPT at 11 weeks of gestation, which revealed a gene dosage increase in chromosome 9 and low levels of plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and placental growth factor (PlGF) in maternal blood. The woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation, which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+9[4]/46,XX[35] in cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a result of arr [GRCh37] (9) × 3 [0.14] (X) × 2, compatible with mosaic trisomy 9. The parental karyotypes were normal. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation. The cultured amniocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+9[1]/46,XX[23]. The uncultured amniocytes had a mosaic trisomy 9 level of 10.7% (12/112 cells) by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), a mosaic trisomy 9 level of 10-14% (log ratio = 0.1) by aCGH, and maternal uniparental isodisomy 9 by polymorphic DNA marker analysis. Prenatal ultrasound revealed IUGR, and the mother had preeclampsia. At 29 weeks of gestation, a 1054-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered because of preterm labor. The cord blood and umbilical cord had the karyotype of 46, XX and maternal UPD 9 and isodisomy 9, while the placenta had trisomy 9 of maternal origin. Postnatal FISH anlaysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells and 100 urinary cells at age three months detected no trisomy 9 signals. The baby was doing well at age six months.

Conclusion: Pregnancy with low-level mosaic trisomy 9 and maternal UPD 9 at amniocentesis can be associated with IUGR, maternal preeclampsia and a favorable outcome. Fetuses with maternal UPD 9 can be associated with an abnormal NIPT result concerning chromosome 9, an abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result (low PAPP-A and low PlGF) and mosaic trisomy 9 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.024DOI Listing
January 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):138-140

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present our observation of cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[10]/46,XX[15]. Among 25 colonies of cultured amniocytes, 10 colonies had a karyotype of 47,XX,+20, while the rest were normal. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2. The parental karyotypes were normal. Following genetic counseling, the woman underwent repeat amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation. Repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[3]/46,XX[35]. Among 38 colonies of cultured amniocytes, three colonies had a karyotype of 47,XX,+20, while the rest were normal. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 101 uncultured amniocytes detected only one cell with three chromosome 20 signals with a mosaic trisomy 20 level of 1% (1/101 cells), compared with 0% in normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy 20. At 38 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal 3120-g female baby was delivered. Cytogenetic analysis of cord blood, placental tissue and umbilical cord revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. The neonate was normal at postnatal follow-ups. Postnatal interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells revealed no trisomy 20 signals.

Conclusion: Mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis can be a cultured artifact. Complete cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis, and molecular cytogenetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes is useful for rapid distinguishing true mosaicism from pseudomosaicism under such as circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.023DOI Listing
January 2022

Application of quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction analysis for the rapid confirmation of trisomy 13 of maternal origin in a pregnancy with fetal holoprosencephaly, cyclopia, polydactyly, omphalocele and cell culture failure.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):135-137

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present the application of quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) for the rapid confirmation of trisomy 13 of maternal origin in a pregnancy with fetal holoprosencephaly (HPE), cyclopia, polydactyly, omphalocele and cell culture failure.

Case Report: A 21-year-old, gravida 2, para 0, woman was referred for termination of the pregnancy at 17 weeks of gestation because of the abnormal ultrasound finding of alobar HPE. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a 118-g malformed male fetus was delivered with cyclopia, bilateral postaxial polydactyly of the hands and ruptured omphalocele. Postmortem cell culture of the placental tissue and umbilical cord was not successful. The parental karyotypes were normal. QF-PCR analysis using the polymorphic DNA markers of D13S1810, D13S790 and D13S251 on the DNA extracted from placenta, umbilical cord and parental bloods showed trisomy 13 of maternal origin.

Conclusion: Perinatal diagnosis of concomitant HPE, polydactyly and omphalocele should raise a suspicion of fetal trisomy 13. QF-PCR analysis is useful for rapid confirmation of trisomy 13 and the parental origin especially under the circumstance of cell culture failure, and the information acquired is very useful for genetic counseling of the parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.022DOI Listing
January 2022

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 15 in a pregnancy with incidental detection of a maternal Robertsonian translocation of 45,XX,der(13;14) (q10;q10).

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):132-134

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 15 in a pregnancy with incidental detection of a maternal Robertsonian translocation of 45,XX,der(13; 14) (q10; q10).

Case Report: A 37-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes showed the result of no genomic imbalance or arr (1-22) × 2, (X,Y) × 1. Cytogenetic analysis of the parents showed a karyotype of 45,XX,der(13; 14) (q10; q10) in the mother and a karyotype of 46,XY in the father. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. At 38 weeks of gestation, a 2790-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed the result of +mar.ish dic(15) (D15Z1++, SNRPN-, PML-) (18/20). The extra chromosome was derived from chromosome 15.

Conclusion: Metaphase FISH analysis is useful for the identification of the origin of an sSMC in the presence of no genomic imbalance at aCGH analysis. Prenatal diagnosis of a de novo sSMC may be associated with a Robertsonian translocation in the parents, and parental cytogenetic analysis is necessary under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.021DOI Listing
January 2022

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for trisomy 11 in a single colony at amniocentesis in a twin pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Nov;60(6):1136-1138

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.09.032DOI Listing
November 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with abnormal first-trimester screening result (low PAPP-A and low PlGF), intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Nov;60(6):1107-1111

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with an abnormal first-trimester screening result, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 27-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal first-trimester screening result with maternal serum free β-hCG of 1.474 multiples of the median (MoM), pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) of 0.122 MoM and placental growth factor (PlGF) of 0.101 MoM, and a Down syndrome risk of 1/45. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+16 [9]/46,XY [16] and an abnormal array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) result of arr (16) × 3 [0.54] compatible with 54% mosaicism for trisomy 16 in uncultured amniocytes. At 24 weeks of gestation, repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+16 [4]/46,XY [16] and an aCGH result of arr 16p13.3q24.3 (96,766-90,567,357) × 2.25 with a log ratio = 0.2 compatible with 20-30% mosaicism for trisomy 16 in uncultured amniocytes. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed 19.4% (12/62 cells) mosaic trisomy 16. Prenatal ultrasound revealed IUGR. At 36 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal baby was delivered with a body weight of 1900 g. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XY. QF-PCR analysis confirmed biparentally inherited disomy 16 in the cord blood and maternal-origin of trisomy 16 in the placenta. When follow-up at age two months, FISH analysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells and 32 urinary cells revealed no signal of trisomy 16.

Conclusion: Mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis can be associated with IUGR and an abnormal first-trimester screening result with low PAPP-A and low PlGF. Mosaic trisomy 16 without UPD 16 at amniocentesis can have a favorable outcome, and the abnormal triosmy 16 cell line may disappear after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.09.026DOI Listing
November 2021

Detection of hypermethylation at H19DMR at amniocentesis in a fetus with overgrowth, distended abdomen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Nov;60(6):1103-1106

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present detection of hypermethylation at H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) at amniocentesis in a fetus with overgrowth, distended abdomen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS).

Case Report: A 31-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman was referred for genetic counseling at 22 weeks of gestation because of fetal overgrowth with fetal biometry equivalent to 24 weeks of gestation and a distended abdomen with an abdominal circumference equivalent to 26 weeks of gestation. She did not undergo any assisted reproductive technology during this pregnancy. Amniocentesis was performed at 23 weeks of gestation. Conventional cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Methylation analysis on the DNA extracted from amniocytes revealed hypermethylation at H19DMR [imprinting center 1 (IC1)] and normal methylation at KvDMR1 (IC2). The methylation test confirmed the diagnosis of BWS in the fetus. The parents decided to continue the pregnancy. At 36 weeks of gestation, a 4000-g female baby was delivered with macroglossia, ear tags and creases, and an enlarged liver, consistent with the phenotype of BWS.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal overgrowth should include a differential diagnosis of BWS, and methylation analysis of H19DMR (IC1) and KvDMR1 (IC2) is useful under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.09.025DOI Listing
November 2021

Reply to "Cervical cerclage in twin pregnancies".

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 09;60(5):962

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medicine, MacKay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.07.039DOI Listing
September 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of a familial 9p12 amplification inherited from a father carrier.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Sep;60(5):905-906

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a familial 9p12 amplification inherited from a father carrier.

Case Report: A 38-year-old, gravida 3, para 2, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a heteromorphic variant of chromosome 9 with a 9p12 amplification on G-band preparations, but it was negative on C-band preparations. Cytogenetic analysis of the parents revealed that the phenotypically normal father carried the same euchromatic 9p + polymorphism. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from the father's blood revealed no genomic imbalance. At 37 weeks of gestation, a healthy 2760-g female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. She was doing well at age one year during follow-up.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of a 9p + variant can be a euchromatic chromosome variant of a familial 9p12 amplification without phenotypic consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.07.021DOI Listing
September 2021

Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 13 of maternal origin by quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction analysis in a pregnancy with fetal holoprosencephaly, premaxillary agenesis, postaxial polydactyly of left hand and overriding aorta.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Sep;60(5):903-904

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present rapid diagnosis of trisomy 13 of maternal origin by quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) in a pregnancy with multiple fetal abnormalities.

Case Report: A 35-year-old, primigravid woman was referred for amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation because of multiple congenital anomalies in the fetus. Prenatal ultrasound at 23 weeks of gestation revealed holoprosencephaly, premaxillary agenesis, postaxial polydactyly of the left hand and overriding aorta. Amniocentesis was performed subsequently, and QF-PCR analysis using the polymorphic DNA markers of D13S789 (13q22.3), D13S790 (13q31.1) and D13S767 (13q31.3) on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods showed trisomy 13 of maternal origin. Conventional cytogenetic analysis on the cultured amniocytes confirmed trisomy 13. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with multiple anomalies consistent with the prenatal diagnosis.

Conclusion: QF-PCR analysis is useful for rapid confirmation of trisomy 13 and the parental origin when prenatal ultrasound findings are suspicious of fetal trisomy 13.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.07.020DOI Listing
September 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of a familial Y long-arm and chromosome 15 short-arm translocation inherited from a mother carrier.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul;60(4):781-783

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a familial Y long-arm and chromosome 15 short-arm translocation inherited from a mother carrier.

Case Report: A 34-year-old primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a derived chromosome 15 or 15p+ with an additional material on the short arm of chromosome 15. Cytogenetic analysis of the parents revealed that the phenotypically normal mother carried the same 15p+ variant, and the father had a karyotype of 46,XY. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the DNAs extracted from cultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. C-banded preparations and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using a Yq12-specific probe showed a positive stain on the 15p+, indicating the origin of Yq on the short arm of the derivative chromosome 15. The karyotype of amniocentesis was 46,XX,der(15)t(Y;15)(q12;p13)mat. The mother had a karyotype of 46,XX,der(15) t(Y;15)(q12;p13). At 39 weeks of gestation, a 3006-g healthy female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. During follow-up at age six months, she manifested normal physical and psychomotor development.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of a 15p+ variant should include a differential diagnosis of genomic imbalance and UPD 15, and aCGH and polymorphic DNA marker analyses are useful under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.05.036DOI Listing
July 2021

Mosaic Xq duplication, or 46,X,der(X)dup(X)(q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)/ 46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul;60(4):778-780

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present mosaic Xq duplication, or 46,X,der(X)dup(X)(q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 40-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a result of 46,X,der(X)dup(X)(q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)[7]/46,XX[20]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr (1-22, X) × 2. Cytogenetic analysis on maternal blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. At 22 weeks of gestation, she underwent repeat amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 46,XX in 22/22 colonies of cultured amniocytes and an aCGH result of (1-22, X) × 2 in the uncultured amniocytes. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. The parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a healthy female baby was delivered at 39 weeks of gestation with a body weight of 3510 g and a body length of 49 cm. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,X,der(X)dup(X)(q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)[3]/46,XX[37]. At age two months, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on buccal mucosal cells showed Xq duplication signals in 1.25% (1/80 cells), compared with 0% (0/90 cells) in the normal control. At age nine months, the neonate had normal physical and psychomotor development. Her body weight was 9.6 Kg (85th - 97th centile), and body length was 72 cm (50th - 85th centile). Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood revealed a karyotype of 46,X,der(X)dup(X) (q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)[1]/46,XX[39]. Interphase FISH analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells revealed no abnormal signal.

Conclusion: In case of mosaicism for an Xq duplication with a normal euploid cell line at amniocentesis, the in-vitro culture process of amniocytes may cause over-estimation of the mosaic level for the aberrant chromosome because of culture artifacts, and the abnormal cell line can decline after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.05.035DOI Listing
July 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of partial monosomy 8p (8p23.2→pter) and partial trisomy 15q (15q21.2→qter) and incidental detection of a familial chromosome translocation of paternal origin in a pregnancy associated with increased nuchal translucency and an abnormal maternal serum screening result.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul;60(4):775-777

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present partial monosomy 8p (8p23.2→pter) and partial trisomy 15q (15q21.2→qter) and incidental detection of a familial chromosome translocation of paternal origin in a pregnancy associated with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and an abnormal maternal serum screening result.

Case Report: A 29-year-old primigravid woman underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at 13 weeks of gestation because of an increased NT thickness of 3.2 mm at 12 weeks of gestation and an abnormal maternal serum screening for Down syndrome result with a calculated risk of 1/29. Her husband was 33 years old, and there was no family history of congenital malformations. CVS revealed a derived chromosome 8 or der(8). Cytogenetic analysis of the parents revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,t(8;15)(p21.3;q13) in the father and a karyotype of 46,XX in the mother. The CVS result was 46,XY,der(8)t(8;15)(p21.3;q13)pat. The woman requested for amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed a result of arr 8p23.3p23.2 (191,530-2,625,470) × 1.0, arr 15q21.2q26.3 (50,903,432-102,338,129) × 3.0 with a 2.434-Mb deletion of 8p23.3-p23.2 including DLGAP2, CLN8 and ARHGEF10, and a 51.435-Mb duplication of 15q21.2-q26.3 including CYP19A1 and IGF1R. Conventional cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes revealed the result of 46,XY,der(8) t(8;15)(p23.2;q21.2)pat in the fetus. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism.

Conclusion: Maternal serum screening and NT screening may incidentally detect familial unbalanced reciprocal translocations, and aCGH analysis is useful for a precise determination of the breakpoints of the translocation and the involvement of the related genes under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.05.034DOI Listing
July 2021
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