Publications by authors named "Fang Yu"

1,328 Publications

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A Diagnostic Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Anastomotic Leakage in Elderly Patients With Rectal Cancer: A Single-center Retrospective Cohort Study.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of General Surgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to the Anhui Medical University Department of General Surgery, The First Hospital Affiliated to the University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Background: Laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer has been gaining popularity over the past 2 decades. Whether elderly patients had more benefits from laparoscopy-assisted anterior resection (LAR) need further investigation when comparing with open anterior resection (OAR).

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and prognosis of LAR in elderly patients (65 y and above) with rectal cancer and investigate the factors associated with the anastomotic leakage (AL). Besides, the study sought to create a nomogram for precise prediction of AL after anterior resection for rectal cancer.

Materials And Methods: A total of 343 rectal cancer patients over 65 years old who underwent LAR or OAR at a single center between January 2013 to January 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate analysis was conducted to explore potential risk factors for AL, and a nomogram for AL was created based on the multivariate logistic regression model.

Results: A total of 343 patients were included in this study, 271 patients in LAR group and 72 patients in OAR group. Most of the variables were comparable between the 2 groups. The mean operative time was longer in the LAR group than that in the OAR group (191.66±58.33 vs. 156.85±53.88 min, P<0.0001). The LAR group exhibited a significantly lower intraoperative blood loss than the OAR group (85.17±50.03 vs. 131.67±79.10 mL; P<0.0001). Moreover, laparoscopic surgery resulted in shorter postoperative hospital stay, lower rates of diverting stoma and receiving sphincter sparing surgery in comparison with open surgery. The overall rates of complications were 25.1% and 40.3% in the LAR and OAR groups (P=0.011), respectively. And the reoperation rates in the OAR group (0%) was lower than in the LAR group (1.5%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.300). Sex, location of tumor, diverting stoma and combined organ resection were identified as independent risk factors for AL based on multivariate analysis. Such factors were selected to develop a nomogram. After a median follow-up of 37.0 months, our study showed no significant difference in overall survival or disease free survival between the 2 groups for treatment of rectal cancer.

Conclusions: This study suggests that LAR is an alternative minimally invasive surgical procedure in patients above 65 years with better short-term outcomes and acceptable long-term outcomes compared with OAR. In addition, our nomogram has satisfactory accuracy and clinical utility may benefit for clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000979DOI Listing
July 2021

Genomic heterogeneity affects the response to Daylight Saving Time.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14792. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Michigan Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Circadian clocks control the timing of many physiological events in the 24-h day. When individuals undergo an abrupt external shift (e.g., change in work schedule or travel across multiple time zones), circadian clocks become misaligned with the new time and may take several days to adjust. Chronic circadian misalignment, e.g., as a result of shift work, has been shown to lead to several physical and mental health problems. Despite the serious health implications of circadian misalignment, relatively little is known about how genetic variation affects an individual's ability to entrain to abrupt external changes. Accordingly, we used the one-hour advance from the onset of daylight saving time (DST) as a natural experiment to comprehensively study how individual heterogeneity affects the shift of sleep/wake cycles in response to an abrupt external time change. We found that individuals genetically predisposed to a morning tendency adjusted to the advance in a few days, while genetically predisposed evening-inclined individuals had not shifted. Observing differential effects by genetic disposition after a one-hour advance underscores the importance of heterogeneity in adaptation to external schedule shifts. These genetic differences may affect how individuals adjust to jet lag or shift work as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94459-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292316PMC
July 2021

Computed Tomography-Based Radiomics Model to Preoperatively Predict Microsatellite Instability Status in Colorectal Cancer: A Multicenter Study.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:666786. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: To establish and validate a combined radiomics model based on radiomics features and clinical characteristics, and to predict microsatellite instability (MSI) status in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients preoperatively.

Methods: A total of 368 patients from four hospitals, who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT examination, were included in this study. The data of 226 patients from a single hospital were used as the training dataset. The data of 142 patients from the other three hospitals were used as an independent validation dataset. The regions of interest were drawn on the portal venous phase of contrast-enhanced CT images. The filtered radiomics features and clinical characteristics were combined. A total of 15 different discrimination models were constructed based on a feature selection strategy from a pool of 3 feature selection methods and a classifier from a pool of 5 classification algorithms. The generalization capability of each model was evaluated in an external validation set. The model with high area under the curve (AUC) value from the training set and without a significant decrease in the external validation set was final selected. The Brier score (BS) was used to quantify overall performance of the selected model.

Results: The logistic regression model using the mutual information (MI) dimensionality reduction method was final selected with an AUC value of 0.79 for the training set and 0.73 for the external validation set to predicting MSI. The BS value of the model was 0.12 in the training set and 0.19 in the validation set.

Conclusion: The established combined radiomics model has the potential to predict MSI status in CRC patients preoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.666786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281816PMC
July 2021

Intranasal delivery of interleukin-4 attenuates chronic cognitive deficits via beneficial microglial responses in experimental traumatic brain injury.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jul 14:271678X211028680. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly followed by long-term cognitive deficits that severely impact the quality of life in survivors. Recent studies suggest that microglial/macrophage (Mi/MΦ) polarization could have multidimensional impacts on post-TBI neurological outcomes. Here, we report that repetitive intranasal delivery of interleukin-4 (IL-4) nanoparticles for 4 weeks after controlled cortical impact improved hippocampus-dependent spatial and non-spatial cognitive functions in adult C57BL6 mice, as assessed by a battery of neurobehavioral tests for up to 5 weeks after TBI. IL-4-elicited enhancement of cognitive functions was associated with improvements in the integrity of the hippocampus at the functional ( long-term potentiation) and structural levels (CA3 neuronal loss, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts, .). Mechanistically, IL-4 increased the expression of PPARγ and arginase-1 within Mi/MΦ, thereby driving microglia toward a global inflammation-resolving phenotype. Notably, IL-4 failed to shift microglial phenotype after TBI in Mi/MΦ-specific PPARγ knockout (mKO) mice, indicating an obligatory role for PPARγ in IL-4-induced Mi/MΦ polarization. Accordingly, post-TBI treatment with IL-4 failed to improve hippocampal integrity or cognitive functions in PPARγ mKO mice. These results demonstrate that administration of exogenous IL-4 nanoparticles stimulates PPARγ-dependent beneficial Mi/MΦ responses, and improves hippocampal function after TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X211028680DOI Listing
July 2021

A Critical Role of Nuclear m6A Reader YTHDC1 in Leukemogenesis by Regulating MCM Complex-Mediated DNA Replication.

Blood 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States.

YTHDC1 has distinct functions as a nuclear N6-methyladenosine (m6A) reader in regulating RNA metabolism. Here we show that YTHDC1 is overexpressed in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and that it is required for proliferation and survival of human AML cells. Genetic deletion of Ythdc1 markedly blocks AML development and maintenance as well as self-renewal of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in vivo in mice. We find that Ythdc1 is also required for normal hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance in vivo. Notably, Ythdc1 haploinsufficiency reduces self-renewal of LSCs, but not HSPCs in vivo. YTHDC1 knockdown has a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of primary AML cells. Mechanistically, YTHDC1 regulates leukemogenesis through MCM4, which is a critical regulator of DNA replication. Our study provides the compelling evidence to show an oncogenic role and a distinct mechanism of YTHDC1 in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011707DOI Listing
July 2021

ADEIP: an integrated platform of age-dependent expression and immune profiles across human tissues.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

College of Biomedicine and Health, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Gene expression and immune status in human tissues are changed with aging. There is a need to develop a comprehensive platform to explore the dynamics of age-related gene expression and immune profiles across tissues in genome-wide studies. Here, we collected RNA-Seq datasets from GTEx project, containing 16 704 samples from 30 major tissues in six age groups ranging from 20 to 79 years old. Dynamic gene expression along with aging were depicted and gene set enrichment analysis was performed among those age groups. Genes from 34 known immune function categories and immune cell compositions were investigated and compared among different age groups. Finally, we integrated all the results and developed a platform named ADEIP (http://gb.whu.edu.cn/ADEIP or http://geneyun.net/ADEIP), integrating the age-dependent gene expression and immune profiles across tissues. To demonstrate the usage of ADEIP, we applied two datasets: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and human mesenchymal stem cells-assoicated genes. We also included the expression and immune dynamics of these genes in the platform. Collectively, ADEIP is a powerful platform for studying age-related immune regulation in organogenesis and other infectious or genetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab274DOI Listing
July 2021

Metabolic Rewiring by Loss of Sirt5 Promotes Kras-induced Pancreatic Cancer Progression.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Cancer Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724 USA.

Background & Aims: SIRT5 plays pleiotropic roles via post-translational modifications, serving as a tumor suppressor, or an oncogene, in different tumors. However, the role SIRT5 plays in the initiation and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unknown.

Methods: Published datasets and tissue arrays with SIRT5 staining were used to investigate the clinical relevance of SIRT5 in PDAC. Furthermore, to define the role of SIRT5 in the carcinogenesis of PDAC, we generated autochthonous mouse models with conditional Sirt5 knockout. Moreover, to examine the mechanistic role of SIRT5 in PDAC carcinogenesis, SIRT5 was knocked down in PDAC cell lines and organoids, followed by metabolomics and proteomics studies. A novel SIRT5 activator was utilized for therapeutic studies in organoids and patient-derived xenografts.

Results: SIRT5 expression negatively regulated tumor cell proliferation and correlated with a favorable prognosis in PDAC patients. Genetic ablation of Sirt5 in PDAC mouse models promoted acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, precursor lesions, and pancreatic tumorigenesis, resulting in poor survival. Mechanistically, SIRT5 loss enhanced glutamine and glutathione metabolism via acetylation-mediated activation of GOT1. A selective SIRT5 activator, MC3138, phenocopied the effects of SIRT5 overexpression and exhibited anti-tumor effects on human PDAC cells. MC3138 also diminished nucleotide pools, sensitizing human PDAC cell lines, organoids, and patient-derived xenografts to gemcitabine.

Conclusions: Collectively, we identify SIRT5 as a key tumor suppressor in PDAC, whose loss promotes tumorigenesis through increased non-canonical utilization of glutamine via GOT1, and that SIRT5 activation is a novel therapeutic strategy to target PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.06.045DOI Listing
July 2021

Shape-Defined microPlates for the Sustained Intra-articular Release of Dexamethasone in the Management of Overload-Induced Osteoarthritis.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 1;13(27):31379-31392. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Laboratory of Nanotechnology for Precision Medicine, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genoa 16163, Italy.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is treated with the intra-articular injection of steroids such as dexamethasone (DEX) to provide short-term pain management. However, DEX treatment suffers from rapid joint clearance. Here, 20 × 10 μm, shape-defined poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)acid microPlates (μPLs) are created and intra-articularly deposited for the sustained release of DEX. Under confined conditions, DEX release is projected to persist for several months, with only ∼20% released in the first month. In a highly rigorous murine knee overload injury model (post-traumatic osteoarthritis), a single intra-articular injection of Cy5-μPLs is detected in the cartilage surface, infrapatellar fat pad/synovium, joint capsule, and posterior joint space up to 30 days. One intra-articular injection of DEX-μPL (1 mg kg) decreased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 by approximately half compared to free DEX at 4 weeks post-treatment. DEX-μPL also reduced load-induced histological changes in the articular cartilage and synovial tissues relative to saline or free DEX. In sum, the μPLs provide sustained drug release along with the capability to precisely control particle geometry and mechanical properties, yielding long-lasting benefits in overload-induced OA. This work motivates further study and development of particles that provide combined pharmacological and mechanical benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283751PMC
July 2021

Immunoregulatory function of spore polysaccharides in immunocompromised mice induced by cyclophosphamide.

Open Life Sci 2021 21;16(1):620-629. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Fuzhou 350013, People's Republic of China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the spore polysaccharides (DESP) affect the immunity in immunocompromised mice induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX). The healthy female Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups, including a normal control (NC) group, a positive control group, a model control (MC) group, and three groups treated with low-, intermediate-, and high-dose polysaccharide, respectively. A series of immunoregulatory properties were determined, including humoral and cellular immunity, immune function, and immune factors of mononuclear macrophages. Compared with NC and MC groups, treatment with DESP significantly increased the spleen index and decreased the thymus index; increased the serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, IgM, hemolysin, IL-1β, and IL-2; delayed the allergic reaction; and improved the splenic lymphocyte transformation ability; and enhanced the phagocytosis of macrophages and the ability to secrete IL-6, TNF-α, caspase-1, and NO with DESP supplementation. These results indicated that DESP might have a good regulatory effect on CTX-induced immunodeficiency in mice, adjust the body's immune imbalance, and improve the symptoms of low immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/biol-2021-0055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218551PMC
June 2021

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Social Responsiveness Toward Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Among Chinese Medical Students-Thoughts on Medical Education.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 11;8:647679. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Endocrinology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

To assess knowledge, attitudes, and social responsiveness toward COVID-19 among Chinese medical students. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from 889 medical students in three well-known Chinese medical universities. The questionnaire was comprised of three domains which consisted of demographic characteristic collection, seven items for knowledge, and eight items for attitudes and social responsiveness toward COVID-19. Data from different universities were lumped together and were divided into different groups to compare the differences, including (1) students at the clinical learning stage (Group A) or those at the basic-medicine stage (Group B) and (2) students who have graduated and worked (Group C) or those newly enrolled (Group D). Medical students at group B had a weaker knowledge toward COVID-19 than did students at group A, especially in the question of clinical manifestations ( < 0.001). The percentage of totally correct answers of COVID-19 knowledge in group C was higher than that in Group D ( < 0.001). There were significant differences between groups C and D in the attitudes and social responsiveness toward COVID-19. Surprisingly, we found that the idea of newly enrolled medical students could be easily affected by interventions. In light of this information, medical education should pay attention not only to the cultivation of professional knowledge and clinical skills but also to the positive interventions to better the comprehensive qualities including communicative abilities and empathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.647679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232751PMC
June 2021

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Based on the Mitochondrial COI Gene and Microsatellites.

Front Genet 2021 8;12:686246. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

The earthworm species (a member of the Clitellata class) is widely distributed across China, and has important ecological functions and medicinal value. However, investigations into its genetic diversity and differentiation are scarce. Consequently, we evaluated the genetic diversity of five populations of (GM, HD, NYYZ, QDDY, and QDY) in Yancheng, China via the mitochondrial COI gene and the novel microsatellites developed there. A total of nine haplotypes were obtained by sequencing the mitochondrial COI gene, among which NYYZ and QDDY populations had the greatest number of haplotypes (nh = 5). Further, the nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.00437 to 0.1243. The neighbor-joining trees and the TCS network of haplotypes indicated that earthworm populations within close geographical range were not genetically isolated at these small scale distances. Results of the identification of microsatellite molecular markers revealed that the allele number in 12 microsatellite loci ranged from 4 to 13. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.151 to 0.644, whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.213 to 0.847. The polymorphism data content of most sites was >0.5, which indicated that the designed sites had high polymorphism. Structural analysis results indicated that GM, HD, and NYYZ had similar genetic structures across the five populations. The Nei's genetic distance between HD and NYYZ populations was the smallest ( = 0.0624), whereas that between HD and QDY populations was the largest ( = 0.2364). The UPGMA tree showed that HD were initially grouped with NYYZ, followed by GM, and then with QDDY. Furthermore, cross-species amplification tests were conducted for , which indicated that the presented markers were usable for this species. This study comprised a preliminary study on the genetic diversity of , which provides basic data for future investigations into this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.686246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217756PMC
June 2021

A 3D visualization layered anatomy for acromial arterial rete and flap design.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Clinical Applied Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Basic Medical College, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, Zhejiang, China.

Background: The acromial arterial rete (AAR) is the junction between the skin blood supply of the cervical side and that of the upper arm, and it is the only site crossed by the trans-regional blood supply of the cervico-humeral flap (CHF). The aim of this study was to explore the structures of AAR to optimizing flap design.

Methods: A body arteriography and spiral CT scan were performed on 33 whole adult corpses. The 3D reconstruction was used to perform continuous digital layered anatomy of the shoulder and upper chest; the acromion and acromioclavicular joint were used as the center to observe the source, route and distribution characteristics of a perforating branch and their anastomosis.

Results: The perforating branches were separated from an acromial branch of the transverse cervical artery (97%), posterior humeral circumflex artery (95%), a deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial artery (95%), and the acromial branch of the thoracoacromial artery (93%). The diameter of the acromial branch of the transverse cervical artery at its initial location was 1.18 ± 0.37 mm; the trunk length was 12.53 ± 3.83 cm, and it was anastomosed with other blood vessels in three forms.

Conclusion: Deep fascia should be included in the flap design. Three kinds of pedicled transfer flaps can be designed with the acromial branch of transverse carotid artery as the vascular pedicle. Free flaps can be designed with the acromial branch of thoracoacromial artery as the vascular pedicle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-021-02781-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Flexible and Transparent Oligothiophene--Carborane-Containing Hybrid Films for Nonlinear Optical Limiting Based on Efficient Two-Photon Absorption.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 14;13(24):28985-28995. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, P. R. China.

Structure-property relationship for fluorophores with favorable nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are promising topics in organic chemistry and material science. Herein, a series of terthiophene--carborane dyads and triads covalently linked with different end-capping styles were readily synthesized and comprehensively investigated. Quantitative values of the crystal and packing structures, photophysical parameters including aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and two-photon absorption (2PA) were provided. Significant impact of carborane unit for introducing the AIE characteristic has been investigated in contrast to the parent oligothiophene. All the obtained fluorophores exhibit maximum absorption around 370 nm in THF and emit bright reddish photoluminscence with absolute fluorescence quantum yields above 16% in solid states. Intramolecular charge communication between oligothiophene and carborane plays important roles in the related NLO properties. These results are supported well by the time-dependent DFT theoretical calculations. Effective 2PA cross sections (δ = 95-355 [email protected] nm) and transition dipole moments of the derivatives are variable for different end-capping styles. Their potential applications as optical limiting materials based on the 2PA mechanism in solutions and doped PDMS films were further evaluated. Taken together, this work provides an understanding of their structure-property relationship, and flexible PDMS films as outstanding candidates for practical applications in optical limiting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07835DOI Listing
June 2021

Dual-Phase Emission AIEgen with ICT Properties for VOC Chromic Sensing.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 11;93(24):8501-8507. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, P. R. China.

In a film-based fluorescence sensor, luminogens are of vital importance since they play the role of probes or indicators. Traditional organic luminogens like pyrene show high luminescence quantum yields in dilute solutions, but their applications are usually limited by the aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect and bad photochemical stability. Thus, this paper reports a novel aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen) containing both pyrene and -carborane (CB-PY), which possesses unique dual-phase emission both in solution and solid state and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) properties, fulfilling the gap between ACQ and AIE compounds. Importantly, the fluorophore presents extraordinary stability that there was almost no attenuation in the emission intensity of CB-PY in the solid state after 4 months of exposure at ambient conditions. It is these merits that make CB-PY exhibit outstanding sensing performances for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), where the fluorescence test strip shows fast, reversible, and visual discrimination of four organic solvents with varied polarities. Moreover, 92, 95, and 98 gasolines could be discriminated with CB-PY, showing different colors under UV illumination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00980DOI Listing
June 2021

Emodin inhibits lipid accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice by inducing M2 polarization of adipose tissue macrophages.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21730

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene & Department of Health Education and Health Management, the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) represent the most abundant leukocytes in adipose tissue (AT). An increase in number and a phenotypical switch of ATMs during the development of obesity contribute to chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders, which have been regarded as potential therapeutic targets to restore AT homeostasis. Emodin has been shown to exert strong anti-inflammatory property via acting on macrophages in a range of disease models. However, whether emodin exerts a beneficial effect on obesity via modulating ATMs has not been reported. In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, emodin significantly inhibited the increase of body weight and lipid accumulation in ATs. Emodin apparently reduced glucose and insulin levels and ameliorated serum lipid profiles in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, the local and systemic inflammation was dramatically alleviated by emodin. We next discovered that M2 macrophage percentage was greatly increased by emodin although total ATMs was not altered, which resulted in a net increase of M2 macrophages in AT. In vitro studies confirmed that emodin promoted the polarization of macrophages towards M2. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that myeloid leukocyte differentiation and activation were among the most significant biological processes in emodin-treated ATMs. We further identified that TREM2 was the most dramatically upregulated molecule by emodin and emodin-induced M2 macrophage polarization was dependent on TREM2. Furthermore, silencing TREM2 apparently abrogated the effect of emodin on AT inflammation and adipogenesis. We, for the first time, disclosed that emodin inhibited obesity by promoting M2 macrophage polarization via TREM2, suggesting that emodin may be explored as a clinical and translational candidate in preventing obesity and its related metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100157RRDOI Listing
July 2021

ERK activation via A1542/3 limonoids attenuates erythroleukemia through transcriptional stimulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 9;21(1):680. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory for Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Medical University, Province Science City, High Tech Zone, Baiyun District, Guiyang, 550014, Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cholesterol plays vital roles in human physiology; abnormal levels have deleterious pathological consequences. In cancer, elevated or reduced expression of cholesterol biosynthesis is associated with good or poor prognosis, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The limonoid compounds A1542 and A1543 stimulate ERK/MAPK by direct binding, leading to leukemic cell death and suppression of leukemia in mouse models. In this study, we investigated the downstream consequences of these ERK/MAPK agonists in leukemic cells.

Methods: We employed RNAseq analysis combined with Q-RT-PCR, western blot and bioinformatics to identify and confirm genes whose expression was altered by A1542 and A1543 in leukemic cells. ShRNA lentiviruses were used to silence gene expression. Cell culture and an animal model (BALB/c) of erythroleukemia induced by Friend virus were utilized to validate effects of cholesterol on leukemia progression.

Results: RNAseq analysis of A1542-treated cells revealed the induction of all 18 genes implicated in cholesterol biosynthesis. Expression of these cholesterol genes was blocked by cedrelone, an ERK inhibitor. The cholesterol inhibitor lovastatin diminished ERK/MAPK activation by A1542, thereby reducing leukemic cell death induced by this ERK1/2 agonist. Growth inhibition by cholesterol was observed both at the intracellular level, and when orally administrated into a leukemic mouse model. Both HDL and LDL also suppressed leukemogenesis, implicating these lipids as important prognostic markers for leukemia progression. Mechanistically, knockdown experiments revealed that the activation of SREBP1/2 by A1542-A1543 was responsible for induction of only a sub-set of cholesterol biosynthesis genes. Induction of other regulatory factors by A1542-A1543 including EGR1, AP1 (FOS + JUN) LDLR, IER2 and others may cooperate with SREBP1/2 to induce cholesterol genes. Indeed, pharmacological inhibition of AP1 significantly inhibited cholesterol gene expression induced by A1542. In addition to leukemia, high expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes was found to correlate with better prognosis in renal cancer.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ERK1/2 agonists suppress leukemia and possibly other types of cancer through transcriptional stimulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08402-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191108PMC
June 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Acari: Acaridae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 May 19;6(6):1680-1681. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Health Inspection and Quarantine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China.

We assembled and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of . It is the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence from the genus . The mitogenome was 13,966 bp in length and contains 37 genes (including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA), and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA)), and one largest non-coding region. The gene arrangement of is consistent with the pattern of possible common ancestor of astigmatid mites. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis shows that genus was clustered into one branch with other Acaridae species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1927874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143620PMC
May 2021

Molecular Biomarkers Associated with Early-Onset Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 1;16:1013-1022. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Previous studies have shown a rising incidence of early-onset symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis (sICAS), which has brought a severe economic burden to social development. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular biomarkers associated with early-onset sICAS and to seek possible intervention strategies for early prevention.

Patients And Methods: We consecutively recruited patients with sICAS and divided them into two groups based on age: early-onset sICAS group as age ≤60 years old and late-onset sICAS group as age >60 years old. We collected and compared the demographic data and laboratory results of each group. A bivariate logistic regression model was applied to evaluate the independent molecular biomarkers of early-onset sICAS.

Results: A total of 1007 subjects with sICAS were enrolled in this study, comprising 519 patients in the early-onset sICAS group and 488 patients in the late-onset sICAS group. Bivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated an increased level of white blood cell, platelet, albumin globulin ratio, free triiodothyronine, and a decreased level of total bile acid, urea nitrogen, high-density lipoprotein, homocysteine, and fibrinogen in the early-onset sICAS group when compared to the late-onset group.

Conclusion: Our study showed the relevance between early sICAS and circulating levels of different molecular biomarkers. Detection of these related molecular biomarkers may provide a simple way for early sICAS preventions in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S309945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179742PMC
June 2021

Construction of BiOCO/TiC heterojunctions for enhancing the visible-light photocatalytic activity of tetracycline degradation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 28;601:581-593. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China. Electronic address:

BiOCO (BOC) was successfully loaded on a highly conductive TiC surface by the hydrothermal method, forming a unique BOC/TiC heterostructure. The use of advanced characterization methods reveals the composition, morphology and photoelectric properties of the material. The results show that the interface formed by close contact between BOC and TiC provides an effective channel for charge transfer between the two. Importantly, the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of BOC/TiC for tetracycline (TC) is ~80%, which is significantly higher than the degradation efficiency of pure BOC and pure TiC for TC. In addition, BOC/TiC still has high catalytic activity in the degradation of complex mixed antibiotics. This is because BOC and TiC have large specific surface areas, high light absorption capacity and efficient carrier separation after recombination. At the same time, the detected superoxide radicals (O) and holes (h) are the main active substances. The degradation pathway and catalytic mechanism of the photocatalytic degradation of TC by BOC/TiC are further explained. This research designed and developed a BOC/TiC composite material for the photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline and mixed antibiotic wastewater, providing experimental methods and ideas for actual wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.155DOI Listing
May 2021

The First Mitogenomes of the Subfamily Odontiinae (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pyraloidea.

Insects 2021 May 24;12(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

The complete mitochondrial genomes of three species of Odontiinae were newly sequenced: Yoshiyasu, (Moore), and (Hampson). These circular and double-stranded mitogenomes vary from 15,084 bp to 15,237 bp in size, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) and an A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition indicated a strong A/T bias. Most PCGs are initiated with an ATN codon and terminated by a codon of TAR. All tRNAs could be folded into the clover-leaf structure with the exception of trnS1 (AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm formed a simple loop, and the motif 'ATAG' and 'ATTTA' in the A + T-rich region was also founded. The phylogenomic analyses covering Odontiinae + 11 subfamilies of Pyraloidea were conducted. Similar topologies were generated from both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequence data. There was some discrepancy in the sister-group relationship of Odontiinae and Glaphyriinae, and the relationships among the subfamilies in the 'CAMMSS clade' of the Crambidae. The results of this study suggest that mitogenomic data are useful for resolving the deep-level relationships of Pyraloidea and the topologies generated from amino acid data might be more realistic and reliable. Moreover, more mitogenomic taxon sampling and larger scale analyses with more genes or a combination of mitogenomic and nuclear genes are needed to reconstruct a comprehensive framework of the pyraloid phylogeny.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12060486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225131PMC
May 2021

Perceptions, Expectations, and Experience of Physicians About Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Care Services in Pakistan: Findings and Implications.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:650137. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Optimal collaboration between pharmacists and other healthcare professionals such as physicians is integral in implementing pharmaceutical care. However, there are concerns regarding the role of pharmacists, especially among low- and middle-income countries. This study explored the perceptions, expectations, and experience of physicians working in various hospital settings of Punjab, Pakistan, about pharmacists and their roles. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of four sections was administered from October to December 2020. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for data analysis using SPSS. Six hundred and seventy-eight physicians participated in this study with a response rate of 77.9%. Most of the physicians reported minimal to no interaction with pharmacists ( = 521, 76.8%). However, more than three-quarters of physicians ( = 660, 97.3%) accepted pharmacists as evidence-based sources of drug information. In addition, many physicians ( = 574, 84.7%) strongly agreed that pharmacists should attend patient care rounds to respond promptly to questions related to patient medication. A limited number of physicians ( = 124, 18.3%) assumed that pharmacists were advising their patients regarding the judicial use of their drugs. Median expectation and experience score had a significant association with age, experience, and education of physicians ( < 0.05). The perception of physicians was positive toward certain roles of pharmacists, coupled with high expectations. However, their experience was low, with most of the activities of pharmacists due to inadequate interprofessional coordination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.650137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160509PMC
May 2021

Taxonomic study of the Oriental genus Bierman, 1910 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Tropiduchidae), with description of a new species from China.

Zookeys 2021 17;1037:119-136. Epub 2021 May 17.

Institute of Insect Resources and Biodiversity, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, China Jiangsu Second Normal University Nanjing China.

The tropiduchid genus Bierman, 1910 is redescribed and illustrated. includes two species, Bierman, 1910 (the type species) and Zhu, Wang & Song, A key to the species of the genus is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1037.65481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144165PMC
May 2021

Study on the relationship among dose, concentration and clinical response in Chinese schizophrenic patients treated with Amisulpride.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Aug 21;62:102694. Epub 2021 May 21.

Zhejiang Province Mental Health Center, Department of Psychiatry, Zhejiang Province Tongde Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310012, China; Tongde Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, Huzhou, Zhejiang, 313000, China; Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 311200, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To provide therapeutic window of amisulpride dose and serum concentration.

Methods: 194 schizophrenics were assessed with PANSS. The concentration of Amisulpride in blood was tested. And relationship with concentration was analyzed.

Results: The dose of amisulpride was 100mg∼1200 mg/d(555+/-218), plasma concentration was 20∼1280 ng/mL(349+/-223) and C/D ratio was 0.07∼1.65 (0.63+/-0.34). The correlation of dose and concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.55; P < 0.05).It was found that concentration(P < 0.001), C/D ratio(r = 0.383, P < 0.001), rather than dose (-0.042,p > 0.05) related to age significantly.It was found no differences in dose(p > 0.05), concentration (p > 0.05) and C/D ratio(p > 0.05) between male and female patients. The change ratio of positive symptom was 10 %∼90 %, negative symptom was 5∼80 %, general symptoms was 5∼90 %, PANSS was 5∼90 %.The correlation between change ratio of positive symptom, general symptom and PANSS and dose, concentration were significant(P < 0.01), but not related with the change ratio of negative symptom(p>0.05).The both dose and concentration of amisulpride were higher significantly in effective group than that in ineffective group according to change ratio of positive symptom, negative symptom, general symptom and PANSS(P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The correlation of dose and concentration of amisulpride was significantly correlated. The recommended range 457∼637 ng/mL was suggested as average therapeutic window.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102694DOI Listing
August 2021

Biomarkers for evaluating the effects of exercise interventions in patients with MCI or dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Exp Gerontol 2021 08 26;151:111424. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Nursing, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To summarize the biomarkers for evaluating the effects of exercise interventions in patients with cognitive impairment associated with aging, as well as their responses to exercise interventions.

Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS: We systematically searched different electronic database, including PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus up to April 2020. Clinical controlled trials with exercise interventions in patients with cognitive impairment were included. The main outcomes included all the biomarkers used to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions. If data for certain biomarkers was enough (more than 2 studies), meta-analyses would be performed to estimate the effect sizes by calculating the standard mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Finally, we included 33 articles from 26 trials. The biomarkers included neurotrophic factors, inflammatory factors, oxidative stress markers, neuropathological hallmarks, metabolic biomarkers and genotypes. The meta-analyses indicated that exercise significantly decreased the levels of IL-6 (SMD = -0.45; 95% CI: -0.72, -0.18) and low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -0.26; 95% CI: -0.50, -0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that aerobic exercise also could decrease the levels of TNF-α (SMD = -1.21; 95% CI: -2.29, -0.14). There were some important cognition-related biomarkers which were rarely measured, such as Aβ, tau and IGF-1.

Conclusion: Regular exercise showed positive effects on reducing inflammation and regulating lipid metabolism. But the available evidence is limited and more studies with different exercise interventions should be conducted to test the effects of exercise on other important cognition-related biomarkers in patients with cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111424DOI Listing
August 2021

Zebrafish as a Model for In-Depth Mechanistic Study for Stroke.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine Shanghai Jiaotong University, 160 Pujian Rd, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Stroke is one of the world's leading causes of death and disability, posing enormous burden to the society. However, the pathogenesis and mechanisms that underlie brain injury and brain repair remain largely unknown. There's an unmet need of in-depth mechanistic research in this field. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful tool in brain science research mainly due to its small size and transparent body, high genome synteny with human, and similar nervous system structures. It can be used to establish both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke models easily and effectively through different ways. After the establishment of stroke model, research methods including behavioral test, in vivo imaging, and drug screening are available to explore mechanisms that underlie the brain injury and brain repair after stroke. This review focuses on the advantages and the feasibility of zebrafish stroke model, and will also introduce the key methods available for stroke studies in zebrafish, which may drive future mechanistic studies in the pursuit of discovering novel therapeutic targets for stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-021-00907-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Post-translational modification of RNA m6A demethylase ALKBH5 regulates ROS-induced DNA damage response.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 06;49(10):5779-5797

Department of Medicine, UF Health Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Faithful genome integrity maintenance plays an essential role in cell survival. Here, we identify the RNA demethylase ALKBH5 as a key regulator that protects cells from DNA damage and apoptosis during reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress. We find that ROS significantly induces global mRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) levels by modulating ALKBH5 post-translational modifications (PTMs), leading to the rapid and efficient induction of thousands of genes involved in a variety of biological processes including DNA damage repair. Mechanistically, ROS promotes ALKBH5 SUMOylation through activating ERK/JNK signaling, leading to inhibition of ALKBH5 m6A demethylase activity by blocking substrate accessibility. Moreover, ERK/JNK/ALKBH5-PTMs/m6A axis is activated by ROS in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in vivo in mice, suggesting a physiological role of this molecular pathway in the maintenance of genome stability in HSPCs. Together, our study uncovers a molecular mechanism involving ALKBH5 PTMs and increased mRNA m6A levels that protect genomic integrity of cells in response to ROS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191756PMC
June 2021

Sonochemical preparation of folate-decorated reductive-responsive carboxymethylcellulose-based nanocapsules for targeted drug delivery.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 7;266:118174. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, a biocompatible folate-decorated reductive-responsive carboxymethylcellulose-based nanocapsules (FA-RCNCs) were designed and prepared via sonochemical method for targeted delivery and controlled release of hydrophobic drugs. The shell of FA-RCNCs was cross-linked by disulfide bonds formed from hydrosulfuryl groups on the thiolated carboxymethylcellulose (TCMC) and encapsulated hydrophobic drug dispersed in the oil phase into nanocapsules. Moreover, the size and morphology of drug loaded FA-RCNCs were characterized by DLS, SEM and CLSM which indicated that the synthesized nanocapsules have suitable size range and excellent stability for circulating in the bloodstream. The drug release rate of FA-RCNCs could be controlled by adjusting their sizes and shell thickness, which could be dominated by the concentration of TCMC and sonochemical conditions. Furthermore, the obtained FA-RCNCs could be ingested into Hela cells via folate-receptor (FR)-mediated endocytosis and quickly release drugs under reductive environment, which demonstrated that FA-RCNCs could become potential hydrophobic drugs carries for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118174DOI Listing
August 2021

Regional White Matter Diffusion Changes Associated with the Cumulative Tensile Strain and Strain Rate in Non-concussed Youth Football Players.

J Neurotrauma 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 12334, Radiology, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, Texas, United States, 75390;

The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between regional white matter diffusion imaging metrics and finite element strain measures in non-concussed youth football players. Pre and postseason diffusion-weighted imaging was performed in 102 youth football subject-seasons, in which no concussions were diagnosed. The diffusion data was normalized to the IXI template. Percent change in fractional anisotropy FA (%ΔFA) images were generated. Using data from the head impact telemetry system, the cumulative maximum principal strain 1 times strain rate (CMPS1xSR), a measure of the cumulative tensile brain strain and strain rate for one season, was generated for each subject. Two linear regression analyses were performed to identify significant positive or inverse relationships between CMPS1xSR and %ΔFA within the international consortium for brain mapping white matter mask. Age, BMI, days between pre and postseason imaging, prior brain injury, attention disorder diagnosis, and imaging protocol were included as covariates. False discovery rate correction was used with corrected alphas of 0.025 and voxel thresholds of zero. Controlling for all covariates, a significant, positive linear relationship between %ΔFA and CMPS1xSR was identified in the bilateral cingulum, fornix, internal capsule, external capsule, corpus callosum, corona radiata, corticospinal tract, cerebral and middle cerebellar peduncle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and right superior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Post-hoc analyses further demonstrated significant %ΔFA differences between high-strain football subjects and non-collision control athletes, no significant %ΔFA differences between low-strain subjects and non-collision control athletes, and that CMPS1xSR significantly explained more %ΔFA variance than number of head impacts alone. In the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion, youth football players experience regional, dose-dependent white matter FA increases that are significantly associated with CMPS1xSR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2020.7580DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular mechanism underlying transport and allosteric inhibition of bicarbonate transporter SbtA.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(22)

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China

SbtA is a high-affinity, sodium-dependent bicarbonate transporter found in the cyanobacterial CO-concentrating mechanism (CCM). SbtA forms a complex with SbtB, while SbtB allosterically regulates the transport activity of SbtA by binding with adenyl nucleotides. The underlying mechanism of transport and regulation of SbtA is largely unknown. In this study, we report the three-dimensional structures of the cyanobacterial sp. PCC 6803 SbtA-SbtB complex in both the presence and absence of HCO and/or AMP at 2.7 Å and 3.2 Å resolution. An analysis of the inward-facing state of the SbtA structure reveals the HCO /Na binding site, providing evidence for the functional unit as a trimer. A structural comparison found that SbtA adopts an elevator mechanism for bicarbonate transport. A structure-based analysis revealed that the allosteric inhibition of SbtA by SbtB occurs mainly through the T-loop of SbtB, which binds to both the core domain and the scaffold domain of SbtA and locks it in an inward-facing state. T-loop conformation is stabilized by the AMP molecules binding at the SbtB trimer interfaces and may be adjusted by other adenyl nucleotides. The unique regulatory mechanism of SbtA by SbtB makes it important to study inorganic carbon uptake systems in CCM, which can be used to modify photosynthesis in crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2101632118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179158PMC
June 2021

Role of non-coding RNAs in plant immunity.

Plant Commun 2021 May 20;2(3):100180. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Exploration and Utilization in Southwest China, Rice Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University at Wenjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China.

Crops are exposed to attacks by various pathogens that cause substantial yield losses and severely threaten food security. To cope with pathogenic infection, crops have elaborated strategies to enhance resistance against pathogens. In addition to the role of protein-coding genes as key regulators in plant immunity, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the importance of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the plant immune response. Here, we summarize the roles and molecular mechanisms of endogenous ncRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), in plant immunity. We discuss the coordination between miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), between lncRNAs and miRNAs or siRNAs, and between circRNAs and miRNAs in the regulation of plant immune responses. We also address the role of cross-kingdom mobile small RNAs in plant-pathogen interactions. These insights improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which ncRNAs regulate plant immunity and can promote the development of better approaches for breeding disease-resistant crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xplc.2021.100180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132121PMC
May 2021