Publications by authors named "Fang Xie"

568 Publications

Effectiveness of potential antiviral treatments in COVID-19 transmission control: a modelling study.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Apr 19;10(1):53. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, 4221-117 South Xiang'an Road, Xiang'an, Xiamen, Fujian, People's Republic of China.

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes an immense disease burden. Although public health countermeasures effectively controlled the epidemic in China, non-pharmaceutical interventions can neither be maintained indefinitely nor conveniently implemented globally. Vaccination is mainly used to prevent COVID-19, and most current antiviral treatment evaluations focus on clinical efficacy. Therefore, we conducted population-based simulations to assess antiviral treatment effectiveness among different age groups based on its clinical efficacy.

Methods: We collected COVID-19 data of Wuhan City from published literature and established a database (from 2 December 2019 to 16 March 2020). We developed an age-specific model to evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral treatment in patients with COVID-19. Efficacy was divided into three types: (1) viral activity reduction, reflected as transmission rate decrease [reduction was set as v (0-0.8) to simulate hypothetical antiviral treatments]; (2) reduction in the duration time from symptom onset to patient recovery/removal, reflected as a 1/γ decrease (reduction was set as 1-3 days to simulate hypothetical or real-life antiviral treatments, and the time of asymptomatic was reduced by the same proportion); (3) fatality rate reduction in severely ill patients (f) [reduction (z) was set as 0.3 to simulate real-life antiviral treatments]. The population was divided into four age groups (groups 1, 2, 3 and 4), which included those aged ≤ 14; 15-44; 45-64; and ≥ 65 years, respectively. Evaluation indices were based on outbreak duration, cumulative number of cases, total attack rate (TAR), peak date, number of peak cases, and case fatality rate (f).

Results: Comparing the simulation results of combination and single medication therapy s, all four age groups showed better results with combination medication. When 1/γ = 2 and v = 0.4, age group 2 had the highest TAR reduction rate (98.48%, 56.01-0.85%). When 1/γ = 2, z = 0.3, and v = 0.1, age group 1 had the highest reduction rate of f (83.08%, 0.71-0.12%).

Conclusions: Antiviral treatments are more effective in COVID-19 transmission control than in mortality reduction. Overall, antiviral treatments were more effective in younger age groups, while older age groups showed higher COVID-19 prevalence and mortality. Therefore, physicians should pay more attention to prevention of viral spread and patients deaths when providing antiviral treatments to patients of older age groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-021-00835-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054260PMC
April 2021

Contributions of aversive environmental stress to migraine chronification: Research update of migraine pathophysiology.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Mar;9(9):2136-2145

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, United States.

Clinical studies have suggested that internal and/or external aversive cues may produce a negative affective-motivational component whereby maladaptive responses (plasticity) of dural afferent neurons are initiated contributing to migraine chronification. However, pathophysiological processes and neural circuitry involved in aversion (unpleasantness)-producing migraine chronification are still evolving. An interdisciplinary team conducted this narrative review aimed at reviewing neuronal plasticity for developing migraine chronicity and its relevant neurocircuits and providing the most cutting-edge information on neuronal mechanisms involved in the processing of affective aspects of pain and the role of unpleasantness evoked by internal and/or external cues in facilitating the chronification process of migraine headache. Thus, information presented in this review promotes the understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic migraine and contribution of unpleasantness (aversion) to migraine chronification. We hope that it will bring clinicians' attention to how the maladaptive neuroplasticity of the emotion brain in the aversive environment produces a significant impact on the chronification of migraine headache, which will in turn lead to new therapeutic strategies for this type of pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i9.2136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017499PMC
March 2021

Early warning of hand, foot, and mouth disease transmission: A modeling study in mainland, China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Mar 24;15(3):e0009233. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global infectious disease; particularly, it has a high disease burden in China. This study was aimed to explore the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease by analyzing its epidemiological characteristics, and to calculate the early warning signals of HFMD by using a logistic differential equation (LDE) model.

Methods: This study included datasets of HFMD cases reported in seven regions in Mainland China. The early warning time (week) was calculated using the LDE model with the key parameters estimated by fitting with the data. Two key time points, "epidemic acceleration week (EAW)" and "recommended warning week (RWW)", were calculated to show the early warning time.

Results: The mean annual incidence of HFMD cases per 100,000 per year was 218, 360, 223, 124, and 359 in Hunan Province, Shenzhen City, Xiamen City, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunxiao County across the southern regions, respectively and 60 and 34 in Jilin Province and Longde County across the northern regions, respectively. The LDE model fitted well with the reported data (R2 > 0.65, P < 0.001). Distinct temporal patterns were found across geographical regions: two early warning signals emerged in spring and autumn every year across southern regions while one early warning signals in summer every year across northern regions.

Conclusions: The disease burden of HFMD in China is still high, with more cases occurring in the southern regions. The early warning of HFMD across the seven regions is heterogeneous. In the northern regions, it has a high incidence during summer and peaks in June every year; in the southern regions, it has two waves every year with the first wave during spring spreading faster than the second wave during autumn. Our findings can help predict and prepare for active periods of HFMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021164PMC
March 2021

The mechanism of Bushen Huoxue decoction in treating intervertebral disc degeneration based on network pharmacology.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 16;10(4):3783-3792. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Bone Traumatology, Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Academy of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, China.

Background: This study aimed to explore the mechanism of Bushen Huoxue decoction (BHD) in treating intervertebral disc degeneration using the network pharmacology method.

Methods: Using of oral bioavailability >30% and drug-likeness >0.18 as the screening standards, the effective components and targets of BHD were retrieved from the TCMSP database and the BATMAN-TCM database. The disease targets of intervertebral disc degeneration were retrieved from the GeneCards database. The Wayne map of the interaction targets of the effective components of BHD and intervertebral disc degeneration were drawn using R software. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of common targets was constructed using STRING software. The network map of the interaction targets of the effective components of BHD-intervertebral disc degeneration was drawn using Cytoscape3.7.2 software. The GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of the common targets of BHD and intervertebral disc degeneration was performed using R software and the related plug-ins to screen the potential pathways and analyze its mechanism.

Results: This study screened 164 effective components of BHD, 131 interaction targets, 626 targets for degenerative disc disease, and 31 common interaction targets. IL6, VEGFA, CASP3, EGFR, ESR1, and MAPK8 appeared more frequently. These were mainly enriched in the AGE-RAGE, TNF, PI3K Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways.

Conclusions: BHD mainly intervenes in intervertebral disc degeneration through IL6, VEGFA, CASP3, EGFR, ESR1, and MAPK8. The mechanism of the intervention of BHD on intervertebral disc degeneration may be related to AGE-RAGE, TNF, PI3K Akt, MAPK, and other signal pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2586DOI Listing
April 2021

Ultrasonography-guided radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of T2N0M0 papillary thyroid carcinoma: a preliminary study.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):402-408

Department of Ultrasound, The First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasonography (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for treating T2N0M0 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).

Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of Chinese PLA General Hospital (S2019-211-01). Twelve patients with T2N0M0 PTC (five men and seven women with a mean age of 41.0 ± 9.2 years (range, 21-61 years)), who were not eligible for or refused surgery, were included in our study. RFA was performed with the moving-shot technique, and the ablation area exceeded the tumor edge by at least 3 mm. US was performed before RFA, immediately, 1, 3 , 6 and 12 months after RFA, and every 6-12 months thereafter.

Results: All tumors were ablated as planned. The mean follow-up duration was 24.1 ± 6.9 months (range, 13-33 months). The tumor volume decreased significantly from 4.4 ± 2.8 ml to 0.3 ± 0.5 ml, and the volume reduction rate (VRR) was (93.7 ± 7.6)% at the final follow-up with two tumors (16.7%) disappearing. New or recurrent tumors were not found, and no local or distant metastasis were detected during follow-up. No life-threatening or delayed complications were observed.

Conclusion: RFA may be a potential alternative to surgery for the management of T2N0M0 PTC in select patients, especially for those who are ineligible for surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2021.1895332DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules in patients with previous thyroid lobectomy.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Mar 11;21(1):47. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Ultrasound, First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, No. 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is recommended for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. However, data on the clinical role of RFA for benign thyroid nodules in patients with history of thyroid lobectomy are insufficient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for benign thyroid nodules in patients who had previously undergoing thyroid lobectomy.

Methods: From May 2015 to October 2018, a total of 20 patients (19 females, 1 male, mean age 49.50 ± 14.26 years, range 22-74 years) with 20 benign thyroid nodules (mean volume 15.04 ± 21.17 ml, range 0.40-69.67 ml) who had undergone previous thyroid lobectomy were included in this retrospective study. Patients were followed up at 3, 6, 12 months after RFA and every 12 months thereafter by ultrasound, clinical evaluation and thyroid function. Volume, volume reduction rate (VRR), symptom score and cosmetic score were evaluated.

Results: During the mean follow-up time of 21.24 ± 16.41 months, the mean nodule volume decreased significantly from 15.04 ± 21.17 ml to 1.29 ± 1.17 ml (P = 0.018) with a mean VRR of 85.41 ± 12.17%. Therapeutic success was achieved in a single session for all thyroid nodules. The symptom score (P = 0.001) and cosmetic score (P = 0.001) were both significantly reduced at the last follow-up. The levels of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone were not significantly different at the last follow-up from those prior to treatment (all P > 0.05). No life-threatening complications or sequelae occurred after RFA.

Conclusions: As a minimally invasive modality, RFA was a safe, effective, and thyroid function-preserving option for patients with symptomatic benign thyroid nodules after a previous lobectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00577-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948381PMC
March 2021

Aggregating Knockoffs for False Discovery Rate Control with an Application to Gut Microbiome Data.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Feb 16;23(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Mathematics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany.

Recent discoveries suggest that our gut microbiome plays an important role in our health and wellbeing. However, the gut microbiome data are intricate; for example, the microbial diversity in the gut makes the data high-dimensional. While there are dedicated high-dimensional methods, such as the lasso estimator, they always come with the risk of false discoveries. Knockoffs are a recent approach to control the number of false discoveries. In this paper, we show that knockoffs can be aggregated to increase power while retaining sharp control over the false discoveries. We support our method both in theory and simulations, and we show that it can lead to new discoveries on microbiome data from the American Gut Project. In particular, our results indicate that several phyla that have been overlooked so far are associated with obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23020230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920469PMC
February 2021

Recent Advances in Predicting Protein S-Nitrosylation Sites.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:5542224. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Computer and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Information Processing, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150028, China.

Protein S-nitrosylation (SNO) is a process of covalent modification of nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives and cysteine residues. SNO plays an essential role in reversible posttranslational modifications of proteins. The accurate prediction of SNO sites is crucial in revealing a certain biological mechanism of NO regulation and related drug development. Identification of the sites of SNO in proteins is currently a very hot topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in computationally identifying SNO sites. The challenges and future perspectives for identifying SNO sites are also discussed. We anticipate that this review will provide insights into research on SNO site prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5542224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892234PMC
February 2021

The superiority of [Ga]Ga-FAPI-04 over [F]-FDG in a case of neuroendocrine tumour with hepatic metastasis.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of General Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05247-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Physicochemical properties and lead ion adsorption of biochar prepared from Turkish gall residue at different pyrolysis temperatures.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 May 8;84(5):1003-1011. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

College of TCM, Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang, China.

How to correctly and scientifically dispose of medicine residue on the basis of protecting the environment is an urgent problem to be solved due to the continuous generation of a large amount of waste medicine residue. In this paper, the application of waste medicine residue (large volume produced each year) as a precursor in producing a biochar that could adsorb Pb ion was reported. Biochar is a stable, aromatic, porous substance that is rich in carbon and prepared through pyrolysis of waste biomass under anaerobic conditions. In this study, medicine residue was used as raw material, and high-temperature sintering furnace was used to prepare medicine slag biochar at different temperatures of 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C. The resulting biochar was characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), specific surface area analysis, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy (RS). Experimental results showed that with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, the biochar structure was destroyed. The yield decreased as the temperature gradually decreased from 81.69% to 33.90%. With the increase in temperature, the pH, the ash, and the fixed carbon gradually increased, whereas the number of surface functional groups decreased. The quasi second order kinetic equation can better fit the kinetic characteristics of adsorbing Pb ion by biochar. In general, this study provides a valuable method for recycling medicine residue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23661DOI Listing
May 2021

F-Labelled pyrrolopyrimidines reveal brain leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 expression implicated in Parkinson's disease.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Mar 4;214:113245. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, China. Electronic address:

F-Labelled pyrrolopyrimidines were synthesized and evaluated as positron emission tomography (PET) probes to determine leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) expression in the brain. With pyrrolopyrimidine derivative PF-06447475 as the lead compound, two in vivo-stable F-labelled pyrrolopyrimidines ([F]1 and [F]2) were synthesized automatically at radiochemical yields 8-10% (non-decay-corrected) with molar activities of 0.95 and 0.5 GBq/μmol, respectively. The measured K of 6.90 nM for 1 and 14.27 nM for 2 demonstrated high affinities for LRRK2. The LRRK2 G2019S mice had higher uptakes (P < 0.01) of [F]1 in the olfactory bulb, striatum, and hippocampus than WT mice during microPET/CT imaging, consistent with immunohistology results of LRRK2 distribution. [C]CFT microPET/CT imaging demonstrated a lower expression of dopamine transporter in LRRK2 G2019S mice. Parkinson's disease-like deficits in dopamine transporter synthesis and cognitive declines were noticed along with LRRK2 expression increase in the olfactory bulb, striatum, and hippocampus. Therefore, F-labelled pyrrolopyrimidines can reflect real-time LRRK2 expression changes implicated in Parkinson's disease, which paves the way for LRRK2-related neurodegenerative precise therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113245DOI Listing
March 2021

Microbial production of gamma-aminobutyric acid: applications, state-of-the-art achievements, and future perspectives.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Jun 4;41(4):491-512. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, China.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important non-protein amino acid with wide-ranging applications. Currently, GABA can be produced by a variety of methods, including chemical synthesis, plant enrichment, enzymatic methods, and microbial production. Among these methods, microbial production has gained increasing attention to meet the strict requirements of an additive in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, and livestock. In addition, renewable and abundant resources, such as glucose and lignocellulosic biomass can also be used for GABA microbial production under mild and environmentally friendly processing conditions. In this review, the applications, metabolic pathways and physiological functions of GABA in different microorganisms were firstly discussed. A comprehensive overview of the current status of process engineering strategies for enhanced GABA production, including fermentation optimization and whole-cell conversion from different feedstocks by various host strains is also provided. We also presented the state-of-the-art achievements in strain development strategies for industrial lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and to enhance the performance of GABA bioproduction. In order to use bio-based GABA in the fields of food and pharmaceutical, some Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) strains such as LAB and will be the promising chassis hosts. Toward the end of this review, current challenges and valuable research directions/strategies on the improvements of process and strain engineering for economic microbial production of GABA are also suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2020.1869688DOI Listing
June 2021

Serum Mitochondrial Quality Control Related Biomarker Levels are Associated with Organ Dysfunction in Septic Patients.

Shock 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China Center of Clinical Laboratory, Zhongshan Hospital, Medical College of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361004, China.

Background: To investigate the feasibility and the value of using mitochondrial quality control (MQC)-related proteins as biomarkers in septic patients.

Methods: The enrolled subjects were divided into four groups: healthy control group (n = 30), ICU control group (n = 62), septic nonshock group (n = 40), and septic shock group (n = 94). Serum levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), fission protein 1 (Fis1), mitofusin2 (Mfn2), and Parkin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the time of enrollment for all groups. Clinical parameters and laboratory test results were also collected.

Results: The levels of MQC-related biomarkers between any two of the four groups were significantly different (P < 0.001 for all). The serum levels of PGC-1α, Mfn2, and Parkin were lowest in healthy individuals; the levels were dramatically higher in the ICU control group compared to the others, and they decreased progressively from the septic nonshock group to the septic shock group. However, the pattern for Fis1 was inverse; the more severe the condition was, the higher the level of Fis1. Moreover, there was moderate correlation between MQC-related biomarkers and the SOFA score (PGC-1α, r = -0.662; Fis1, r = 0.609; Mfn2, r = -0.677; Parkin, r = 0.-0.674, P < 0.001 for all).

Conclusions: The serum levels of PGC-1α, Fis1, Mfn2, and Parkin were significantly correlated with organ dysfunction and reflected the disease progression and severity. The dynamic surveillance of these four biomarkers could be beneficial to predict outcome and guide treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001737DOI Listing
January 2021

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit cell proliferation and migration and suppress extracellular matrix synthesis in hypertrophic-scar and keloid fibroblasts.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Feb 14;21(2):139. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Department 2, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100144, P.R. China.

Pathological scars occur during skin wound healing, and the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is one of the various treatments. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ADSCs on the biological properties of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) and keloid fibroblasts (KFs), such as proliferation, migration, and the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Transwell chambers were used to establish a co-culture system of ADSCs with normal skin fibroblasts (NFs), HSFs or KFs. The effect of ADSCs on the proliferation of fibroblasts was evaluated by CCK8 measurement, while the migration ability of fibroblasts was assessed using cell scratch assay. The expression of extracellular matrix proteins was measured by immunoblotting. Co-culture of NFs with ADSCs did not affect cell proliferation and migration, nor the expression of extracellular matrix proteins [collagen-I, collagen-III, fibronectin (FN) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)] in NFs. However, as with the inhibitor SB431542, ADSCs significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins (collagen-I, collagen-III, FN and α-SMA), but also suppressed the protein expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), phosphorylated (p-) mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad) 2, p-Smad3 and Smad7 in HSFs and KFs. The results show that ADSCs inhibited cell proliferation and migration and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins in HSCs and KFs , possibly through inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791925PMC
February 2021

[Three-dimensional measurement analysis of midface morphology in Treacher Collins syndromes].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jan;35(1):86-94

Department of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100144, P.R.China.

Objective: To three-dimensionally calculate the craniofacial parameters of midface of patients with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) in China, in order to understand the changes in the spatial position relationship between the various anatomical structures of the midface.

Methods: CT imaging data of TCS patients and age- and gender-matched normal populations between January 2013 and July 2020 was retrospectively analyzed. A total of 33 cases met the selection criteria for inclusion in the study, including 14 cases in the TCS group and 19 cases in the control group. ProPlan CMF 3.0 software was used to perform three-dimensional digital reconstruction of the craniofacial bone, measure the anatomical parameters of the midface, and analyze its morphological structure; at the same time perform three-dimensional digital reconstruction of the upper airway for morphological analysis (measure upper airway volume).

Results: CT images analysis revealed that all 14 patients with TCS presented the typical features with downward slanting of the palpebral fissures and different degrees of zygomatico-orbital complex dysplasia. Cephalometric and morphological analysis of the midface revealed that, multiple transverse diameters of the midface of TCS patients were significantly decreased when compared with the control group ( <0.05), such as the width of the maxillary base, the length of the maxillary complex, and some distances related to the nasal morphology; but the distance between bilateral orbitales increased in TCS group ( <0.05). Several anteroposterior distances in TCS group were decreased significantly when compared to control group and the distance between the skull base point and the posterior nasal spine was the most shortened ( <0.05). But there was no significant difference of the distance between nasion and anterior nasal spine, which represented anterior midface height, between groups ( >0.05). The skull base angle and SNB angle (the angle between the sella point-nose root point-inferior alveolar seat point) of the TCS group both decreased when compared with the control group ( <0.05), but there was no significant difference in SNA angle (the angle between the sella point-nose root point-upper alveolar seat point) between the two groups ( >0.05). The total volume of the upper airway was (24 621.07±8 476.63) mm in the TCS group, which was significantly lower than that of the control group [(32 864.21±13 148.74) mm ] ( =2.185, =0.037).

Conclusion: The transverse distances, anteroposterior distances, and multiple craniofacial angles measurement of TCS patients were significantly decreased when compared to the control group, presented with different degrees of zygomatico-orbital complex dysplasia, nasal and maxillary dysplasia, but there was no obvious restriction in face height development. Reduced internal diameters of the upper airway maybe responsible for the decreased upper airway volume of patients with TCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202009004DOI Listing
January 2021

[Short-term Outcome of T1bN0M0 Papillary Thyroid Cancer after Ultrasonography-guided Radiofrequency Ablation].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2020 Dec;42(6):771-775

School of Medicine,Nankai University,Tianjin 300071,China.

Objective To investigate the short-term outcome of T1bN0M0 papillary thyroid cancer after ultrasonography-guided radiofrequency ablation(RFA). Methods Eighty-nine patients with T1bN0M0 papillary thyroid cancer who were treated with ultrasonography-guided RFA in our center from April 2014 to January 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.Trans-isthmus approach and moving shot technique were used during the RFA procedure.Ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before ablation,and immediately,1,3,6 and 12 months after ablation and then every 6 months thereafter. Results RFA was performed in 89 cases of papillary thyroid cancer,and no major complications were observed during the RFA.The mean follow-up was(18.8±7.3)months.The ablation zones decreased gradually during follow-up,and 38 ablation zones(42.7%)completely disappeared.The volume reduction rate was(99.2±2.3)% 30 months after ablation.During follow-up,2 patients(2.2%)developed tumor recurrence and 1 patient(1.1%)developed cervical lymph node metastasis. Conclusion Ultrasonography-guided RFA may be a safe and effective method for patients with T1bN0M0 papillary thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.12731DOI Listing
December 2020

Safety and efficacy of repeated crosslinking assisted by transepithelial double-cycle iontophoresis in keratoconus progression after primary corneal crosslinking.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Eye Institute and Affiliated Xiamen Eye Center of Xiamen University, Fujian, Xiamen, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of repeated corneal collagen crosslinking assisted by transepithelial double-cycle iontophoresis (DI-CXL) in the management of keratoconus progression after primary CXL.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in the patients who underwent repeated CXL between 2016 and 2018. These patients were treated with DI-CXL if keratoconus progression was confirmed after primary CXL. Scoring of ocular pain and corneal epithelial damage, visual acuity, corneal tomography, in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) was performed before and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after DI-CXL.

Results: Overall, 21 eyes of 12 patients (mean age 17.3 ± 1.9 years) were included in this study. Before DI-CXL, an average increase of 4.26 D in K was detected in these patients with a mean follow-up interval of (23.0 ± 13.7) months. After DI-CXL, corneal epithelial damage rapidly recovered within days. Visual acuity remained unchanged with follow-up of 24 months. When compared to baseline, significant decreases were observed in K (at 3 months) and K2 (at 3 and 6 months) after DI-CXL. Corneal thickness of thinnest point significantly decreased at 3 months postoperatively. When compared to baseline, no significant differences were found in any of the refractive or tomographic parameters at 12 and 24 months. IVCM revealed trabecular patterned hyperdense tissues after DI-CXL in the anterior stroma at the depth of 200 μm or more. No corneal infiltration or persistent epithelial defect was recorded after DI-CXL.

Conclusion: DI-CXL is safe and effective as a good alternative in stabilizing keratoconus progression after primary CXL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41433-020-01365-1DOI Listing
January 2021

S100A16 suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells in part via the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 02 23;23(2). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, P.R. China.

S100 calcium binding protein A16 (S100A16) is the most recent member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family. The function of S100A16 has been associated with various types of cancer; however, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of S100A16 in CRC progression. The Oncomine dataset used in the current study revealed that the expression of S100A16 was decreased in CRC compared with normal colorectal tissues. Similar results were also determined via immunohistochemistry. In addition, a negative association was identified between S100A16 expression and the prognosis of patients with CRC. Further functional experiments revealed that S100A16 knockdown promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCT116 and SW480 cells, and vice versa in Lovo cells. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was promoted and the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway was activated in HCT116 cells following S100A16 knockdown, as determined via western blotting. Furthermore, S100A16 silencing promoted the migration and invasion of cells. EMT was also reversed when cells were treated with the JNK inhibitor (SP600125) or the p38 inhibitor (SB203580). In summary, the results of the present study demonstrated that S100A16 suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of CRC cells partially via the JNK/p38 MAPK signalling pathway and subsequent EMT mediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789101PMC
February 2021

Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection and multimodality ultrasound examination of peripheral nerve crush injury.

NPJ Regen Med 2020 Nov 20;5(1):21. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Departments of Ultrasound, the first Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection is able to make up for the limitations of applying a single growth factor. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of serial ultrasound-guided PRP injections of the appropriate concentration on the treatment of sciatic nerve crush injury, and explore the value of multimodality ultrasound techniques in evaluating the prognosis of crushed peripheral nerve. In vitro, optimal concentration of PRP (from 150%, 250%, 450%, and 650%) was screened due for its maximal effect on proliferation and neurotrophic function of Schwann cells (SCs). In vivo, ninety rabbits were equally and randomly divided into normal control, model, PRP-2.5×, PRP-4.5×, and PRP-6.5× groups. The neurological function and electrophysiological recovery evaluation, and the comparison of the multimodality ultrasound evaluation with the histological results of sciatic nerve crush injury were performed to investigate the regenerative effects of PRP at different concentrations on the sciatic nerve crush injury. Our results showed that the PRP with a 4.5-fold concentration of whole blood platelets could significantly stimulate the proliferation and secretion of SCs and nerve repair. The changes in stiffness and blood perfusion were positively correlated with the collagen area percentage and VEGF expression in the injured nerve, respectively. Thus, serial ultrasound-guided PRP injections at an appropriate concentration accelerates the recovery of axonal function. Multimodality ultrasound techniques provide a clinical reference for prognosis by allowing the stiffness and microcirculation perfusion of crush-injured peripheral nerves to be quantitatively evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41536-020-00101-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680141PMC
November 2020

Interleukin-10 modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells prevent hypertrophic scar formation by inhibiting inflammation.

Pharmazie 2020 11;75(11):571-575

Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Department 2, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

This study was performed to examine the effect of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on hypertrophic scar formation on the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model. Rabbit BMSCs were obtained by whole bone marrow adherence method and IL-10-modified BMSCs (IL-10BMSCs) were established by transfecting BMSCs with an adenovirus. We treated the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar with BMSCs and IL-10-BMSCs, then evaluated the area and measured the height of the hypertrophic scar, and detected expression using real-time PCR and western blot. Compared with wild type BMSCs, the proliferative capability of IL-10 modified BMSCs was significantly reduced, but the expression of IL-10 in IL-10-BMSCs was significantly increased. After treating with a local injection of BMSCs or IL-10-BMSCs in the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar, we found that the time of wound healing, the area and height of scar were all significantly reduced in the IL-10-BMSCs group when compared to those in the BMSCs group. Moreover, the expression of Collagen-I, α-SMA, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA, the number of CD45-positive cells, CD3-positive cells and ED-1-positive cells, and the expression of p-IKBα / IKBα, p-p65 / p65, p-JNK / JNK and p-c-JUN / c-JUN in the scar of the IL-10-BMSCs group were significantly lower than those in BMSCs group. IL-10 modified BMSCs prevented hypertrophic scar formation in the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model, and the results suggest this could be due to the inhibition of inflammation by IL-10 modified BMSCs through the JNK / NF-κB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1591/ph.2020.0572DOI Listing
November 2020

Expression, purification, and characterization of phospholipase B1 from in .

3 Biotech 2020 Dec 17;10(12):538. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

is an important fungal pathogen that causes a wide variety of human infections, ranging from mucocutaneous infections to life-threatening systemic infections. Phospholipase B1 (PLB1) has been reported to be directly responsible for pathogenicity and is likely to be involved in the early steps of host invasion. Therefore, PLB1 could be a potential marker for diagnosis of infection. In this study, PLB1 was expressed using an expression system. Recombinant PLB1 is found in inclusion bodies and constitutes up to 38.4% of total insoluble protein. After refolding in a GSH/GSSG redox system, GST-tagged PLB1 was purified by GST-sepharose 4B affinity chromatography and then cleaved with thrombin to remove the GST-tag. The recombinant PLB1 was further purified by anion-exchange chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The final yield of purified PLB1 was approximately 15.6 mg from 100 mL of bacterial cell culture, and its concentration was 784 μg/μL. The recombinant PLB1 could form a white precipitation zone on egg yolk agar plate, suggesting its phospholipase activity. Moreover, the maximum activity of PLB1 was 68 IU/mg at pH 6.0, 37 °C. Therefore, recombinant PLB1 has potential application in structural analytical studies, or diagnosis of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02515-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672135PMC
December 2020

Characterization of miR-200 family members as blood biomarkers for human and laying hen ovarian cancer.

Sci Rep 2020 11 18;10(1):20071. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

MicroRNA-200 (miR-200) family is highly expressed in ovarian cancer. We evaluated the levels of family members relative to the internal control miR-103a in ovarian cancer and control blood specimens collected from American and Hong Kong Chinese institutions, as well as from a laying hen spontaneous ovarian cancer model. The levels of miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were significantly elevated in all human cancer versus all control blood samples. Further analyses showed significantly higher miR-200 levels in Chinese control (except miR-429) and cancer (except miR-200a and miR141) samples than their respective American counterparts. Subtype-specific analysis showed that miR-200b had an overall elevated level in serous cancer compared with controls, whereas miR-429 was significantly elevated in clear cell and endometrioid cancer versus controls. MiR-429 was also significantly elevated in cancer versus control in laying hen plasma samples, consistent with the fact that endometrioid tumor is the prevalent type in this species. A neural network model consisting of miR-200a/200b/429/141 showed an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.904 for American ovarian cancer prediction, whereas a model consisting of miR-200b/200c/429/141 showed an AUC value of 0.901 for Chinese women. Hence, miR-200 is informative as blood biomarkers for both human and laying hen ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77068-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674435PMC
November 2020

In Situ Shear Test for Revealing the Mechanical Properties of the Gravelly Slip Zone Soil.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 15;20(22). Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Three Gorges Research Center for Geo-Hazards, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.

Slip zone soil is usually composed of clay or silty clay; in some special geological environments, it contains gravels, which make the properties of the slip zone soil more complex. Unfortunately, in many indoor shear tests, gravels are removed to meet the demands of apparatus size, and the in situ mechanical property of the gravelly slip zone soil is rarely studied. In this study, the shear mechanical property of the gravelly slip zone soil of Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China was investigated by the in situ shear test. The test results show that the shear deformation process of the gravelly slip zone soil includes an elastic deformation stage, elastic-plastic deformation stage, and plastic deformation stage. Four functions were introduced to express the shear constitutive model of the gravelly slip zone soil, and the asymmetric sigmoid function was demonstrated to be the optimum one to describe the relationship of the shear stress and shear displacement with a correlation coefficient of 0.986. The comparison between the in situ test and indoor direct shear test indicates that gravels increase the strength of the slip zone soil. Therefore, the shear strength parameters of the gravelly slip zone soil obtained by the in situ test are more preferable for evaluating the stability of the landslide and designing the anti-slide structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20226531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696839PMC
November 2020

Prognostic Value of Pro-Inflammatory Neutrophils and C-Reactive Protein in Cancer Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Multi-Center, Retrospective Study.

Front Pharmacol 2020 22;11:576994. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Geriatrics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

At present, the epidemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly engulfed the world. Inflammatory cytokines are associated with the severity and outcomes of patients with COVID-19. However, the prognostic value of pro-inflammatory factors in cancer patients with COVID-19 are unknown. A multi-center, retrospective, cross-sectional study, based on five designated tertiary hospitals for the treatment of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China. 112 cancer patients with COVID-19, and 105 COVID-19 patients without cancer were enrolled in the study between January 1st, 2020 and April 30th, 2020. The risk assessment of pro-inflammatory factors for disease severity and clinical adverse outcomes was identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Of the 112 cancer patients with COVID-19, 40 (35.7%) patients were in critical condition and 18 (16.1%) patients died unfortunately. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that hemoglobin level and pro-inflammatory neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP), can be used as independent factors affecting the severity of COVID-19; Meanwhile, pro-inflammatory neutrophils and CRP can be used as an independent influencing factor for adverse clinical outcome of death. Moreover, the dynamic changes of neutrophils and CRP were also presented, and compared with COVID-19 patients without cancer, cancer patients with COVID-19 showed higher neutrophil counts and CRP levels. In cancer patients with COVID-19, the significant increase in pro-inflammatory neutrophils and CRP indicated a more critical illness and adverse clinical outcome, and pro-inflammatory neutrophils and CRP played a greater adverse role compare with COVID-19 patients without cancer, which may be the cause of critical illness and adverse clinical outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.576994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656194PMC
October 2020

Impaired Topographical Organization of Functional Brain Networks in Parkinson's Disease Patients With Freezing of Gait.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 21;12:580564. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Radiology, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

: This study aimed to explore alterations in the topological properties of the functional brain network in primary Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with freezing of gait (PD-FOG). : Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) data were obtained in 23 PD-FOG patients, 33 PD patients without FOG (PD-nFOG), and 24 healthy control (HC) participants. The whole-brain functional connectome was constructed by thresholding the Pearson correlation matrices of 90 brain regions, and topological properties were analyzed by using graph theory approaches. The network-based statistics (NBS) method was used to determine the suprathreshold connected edges ( < 0.05; threshold = 2.725), and statistical significance was estimated by using the non-parametric permutation method (5,000 permutations). Statistically significant topological properties were further evaluated for their relationship with clinical neurological scales. : The topological properties of the functional brain network in PD-FOG and PD-nFOG showed no abnormalities at the global level. However, compared with HCs, PD-FOG patients showed decreased nodal local efficiency in several brain regions, including the bilateral striatum, frontoparietal areas, visual cortex, and bilateral superior temporal gyrus, increased nodal local efficiency in the left gyrus rectus. When compared with PD-nFOG patients and HCs, PD-FOG showed increased betweenness centrality in the left hippocampus. Moreover, compared to HCs, both PD-FOG and PD-nFOG patients displayed reduced network connections by using the NBS method, mainly involving the sensorimotor cortex (SM), visual network (VN), default mode network (DMN), auditory network (AN), dorsal attention network (DAN), subcortical regions, and limbic network (LIM). The local node efficiency of the right temporal pole: superior temporal gyrus in PD-FOG patients was positively correlated with the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ) scores. : This study demonstrates the disrupted regional topological organization in PD-FOG patients, especially associated with damage to the subcortical regions and multiple cortical regions. Our results provide insights into the dysfunctional mechanisms of the relevant networks and indicate potential neuroimaging biomarkers of PD-FOG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.580564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609969PMC
October 2020

Color-dependent unidirectional scattering of a plasmonic heterodimer investigated by a dipole-dipole interference model.

Appl Opt 2020 Nov;59(31):9667-9672

In this paper, we employ an interference model of two separated electric dipoles to study the color-dependent unidirectional scattering of a plasmonic heterodimer consisting of a pair of gold and silver disks of the same size. The dipole moments in such a dipole-dipole interference model are numerically obtained by a multipole decomposition method. It shows that the power difference between the different scattering directions predicted by the dipole-dipole interference model agrees well with that calculated by the full wave simulation. The dipole-dipole interference model indicates that the scattering directionality of the heterodimer is intimately related to its geometrical parameters, including the height and radius of the disk as well as the distance between two disks. We further show that the color routing of such a heterodimer is also maintained when an electric or magnetic dipole source is positioned in the center of the heterodimer. Finally, we propose an approach to enhance bidirectional scattering by arranging the heterodimer in a line and then the main lobe beamwidth can be reduced to about 26 deg for the right scattering and 29 deg for the left scattering. Our results may be used in designing integrated plasmonic nanocircuits that demand light guiding and routing in nanoscale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.403257DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluation of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for basal cell carcinoma, seborrheic keratosis, and nevus.

Skin Res Technol 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Dermatology, People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Basal cell carcinoma, seborrheic keratosis, and nevus are common skin conditions. Though most of the skin diseases can be distinguished from each other by physician's naked eyes, the diagnostic accuracy is not 100%. The accurate diagnosis and assessment of three diseases make a big difference on the clinical management. Nowadays, biopsy is still the gold standard for diagnosis even it is invasive, time-consuming, and painful. Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography is an emerging technology that can produce in situ, cellular-resolution, real-time, continuous, 3D images in a noninvasive way.

Materials And Methods: In our study, four basal cell carcinoma patients, five seborrheic keratosis patients, and 10 nevus patients who were diagnosed by histology were studied by ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography after visual examination by experienced dermatologists. Cellular contrast was utilized to clearly identify the features of the three skin diseases.

Results: The features including such as hyperkeratosis (horn pseudocysts), papillomatosis, intraepidermal nests, elongated, and expanded rete ridge can be visualized in seborrheic keratosis. Tumor nodular, mucin surrounding with tumor (retraction space in histopathology), tumor subtype, and necrosis were featured in basal cell carcinoma. Pigment was characterized in epidermis and dermis. The comparison of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography images reveals a strong correlation with histological images.

Conclusion: Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography can complement existing diagnostic techniques for investigating seborrheic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and nevus, and show enormous potential in vivo applications for the three skin diseases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12952DOI Listing
November 2020

Seasonal Dynamics of Physiological, Oxidative and Metabolic Responses in Non-lactating Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Under Hot and Humid Climate.

Front Vet Sci 2020 8;7:622. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Key Laboratory of Buffalo Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Guangxi Buffalo Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning, China.

Hot and humid weather exposes animals to high temperature and relative humidity that ultimately reduce their ability to disperse body heat. To avoid serious consequences of heat stress, it is imperative to understand animal physiological responses and biochemical changes during a state of altered body homeostasis across different seasons of the year. This study evaluated seasonal dynamics of physiological, oxidative, and metabolic responses of Nili-Ravi buffaloes to hot and humid climate. Twenty non-lactating multiparous buffaloes were enrolled for this 1-year study. Meteorological data were recorded twice daily to calculate temperature humidity index (THI). Physiological parameters including rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BST), and respiratory rate (RR) were measured weekly. Blood samples were collected once in each season (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) to analyze biochemical and antioxidant parameters. We also measured activities of liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The results revealed a significantly higher THI value (82) during summer which resulted in a significant increase in RR and BST as compared to winter. Higher oxidative stress was observed in summer owing to significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lower levels of serum antioxidant enzymes (GPx, SOD, and CAT) as compared to other seasons. Moreover, serum cortisol was also significantly higher while adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Triiodothyronine (T), insulin, and growth hormone contents were significantly lower in summer. Contrarily, plasma thyroxin (T) level was higher in summer. THI showed a positive correlation with physiological responses but a negative correlation with antioxidant parameters. Our study provides practical insights on the adaptive physiology of buffaloes and has several implications regarding the alleviation of heat stress in buffaloes to enhance the efficiency of production and reproduction under tropical climate. Our study suggests the use of appropriate cooling strategies to effectively manage the non-lactating buffaloes to avoid performance losses and animal welfare issues in summer season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506138PMC
September 2020

Mulberry Leaf Flavonoids Improve Milk Production, Antioxidant, and Metabolic Status of Water Buffaloes.

Front Vet Sci 2020 4;7:599. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Key Laboratory of Buffalo Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Guangxi Buffalo Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning, China.

This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of mulberry leaf flavonoids (MLF) on oxidative stress, metabolic hormones, and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Forty multiparous Murrah buffaloes (4 ± 1 lactations) with similar body weight (average 600 ± 50 Kg) and stage of lactation (90 ± 20 d) were randomly selected for this trial. Four treatment groups (10 buffaloes per group) with different doses of MLF included; control (0 g/d), MLF15 (15 g/d), MLF30 (30 g/d), and MLF45 (45 g/d). Buffaloes were fed with total mix ration consisting of grass (), brewery's grain and concentrate mixture for 5 weeks. Meteorological data including ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded using the online dust monitoring system to calculate temperature-humidity index (THI). After 1 week of the adaptation, milk yield was recorded daily while physiological parameters (respiratory rate, rectal, and body surface temperature), and milk composition were measured weekly. At the end of the trial, blood samples were collected to analyze serum metabolic hormones including estradiol (E2), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), Tri-iodothyronine (T3), and Thyroxine (T4). Moreover, serum heat shock proteins (HSP), antioxidants enzymes including malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results revealed a decrease ( = 0.012) in serum MDA level while increasing ( < 0.01) the HSP and serum GHS-Px contents in supplemented buffaloes. Treatment showed a linear and quadratic decrease ( = 0.001) in the serum T-AOC while reducing CAT contents linearly ( = 0.012) as compared to the control. However, no effect of treatment on serum SOD content was observed. Treatment resulted a linear increase ( = 0.001) in serum GH and PRL hormones while increasing serum E2 levels linearly ( < 0.001) and quadratically ( = 0.025). Treatment increased ( = 0.038) the daily milk yield as compared to the control. However, increase ( < 0.05) in serum T3 and T4 contents, fat corrected milk (4%) and milk protein (%) was observed only in MLF45. Moreover, we observed no change in serum biochemical indices except insulin which linearly increased ( = 0.002) in MLF45. Our findings indicated that MLF at 45 g per day is an appropriate level to enhance milk performance and alleviate heat stress in buffaloes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500204PMC
September 2020