Publications by authors named "Fan Huang"

173 Publications

Corrigendum to "Acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: An overview of systematic reviews" [Compl. Ther. Clin. Pract., Volume 43, (May 2021), 101375].

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 Jul 12:101435. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

The First School of Clinical Medical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405, China; The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101435DOI Listing
July 2021

Sufu negatively regulates both initiations of centrosome duplication and DNA replication.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(28)

Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;

Centrosome duplication and DNA replication are two pivotal events that higher eukaryotic cells use to initiate proliferation. While DNA replication is initiated through origin licensing, centrosome duplication starts with cartwheel assembly and is partly controlled by CP110. However, the upstream coordinator for both events has been, until now, a mystery. Here, we report that suppressor of fused protein (Sufu), a negative regulator of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway playing a significant role in restricting the trafficking and function of glioma-related (Gli) proteins, acts as an upstream switch by facilitating CP110 phosphorylation by CDK2, promoting intranuclear Cdt1 degradation and excluding prereplication complex (pre-RC) components from chromosomes, independent of its canonical function in the Hh pathway. We found that Sufu localizes to both the centrosome and the nucleus and that knockout of Sufu induces abnormalities including centrosome amplification, increased nuclear size, multipolar spindle formation, and polyploidy. Serum stimulation promotes the elimination of Sufu from the centrosome by vesicle release at the ciliary tip and from the nucleus via protein degradation, which allows centrosome duplication and DNA replication to proceed. Collectively, this work reveals a mechanism through which Sufu negatively regulates the G1-S transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2026421118DOI Listing
July 2021

Optimized protocol for immunophenotyping of melanoma and tumor-bearing skin from mouse.

STAR Protoc 2021 Sep 2;2(3):100627. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Segal Cancer Centre, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3T 1E2, Canada.

While isolating immune cells from spleens and lungs is routinely achieved using flow cytometry, it is challenging to isolate viable immune cells from skin. Here, we describe a step-by-step protocol for skin digestion using a murine melanoma model, which is amenable for detection of low abundant immune cell populations including group 2 innate lymphoid cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260876PMC
September 2021

Smoking increases oral mucosa susceptibility to Candida albicans infection via the Nrf2 pathway: In vitro and animal studies.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Nanjing Stomatological Hospital & State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Smoking and Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection are risk factors for many oral diseases. Several studies have reported a close relationship between smoking and the occurrence of C. albicans infection. However, the exact underlying mechanism of this relationship remains unclear. We established a rat infection model and a C. albicans-Leuk1 epithelial cell co-culture model with and without smoke exposure to investigate the mechanism by which smoking contributes to C. albicans infection. Oral mucosa samples from healthy individuals and patients with oral leucoplakia were also analysed according to their smoking status. Our results indicated that smoking induced oxidative stress and redox dysfunction in the oral mucosa. Smoking-induced Nrf2 negatively regulated the NLRP3 inflammasome, impaired the oral mucosal defence response and increased the oral mucosa susceptibility to C. albicans. The results suggest that the Nrf2 pathway could be involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases by mediating an antioxidative response to cigarette smoke exposure and suppressing host immunity against C. albicans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16724DOI Listing
June 2021

Silencing PEX26 as an unconventional mode to kill drug-resistant cancer cells and forestall drug resistance.

Autophagy 2021 Jun 21:1-19. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Lady Davis Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Canada.

Promoting the macroautophagy/autophagy-mediated degradation of specific proteins and organelles can potentially be utilized to induce apoptosis in cancer cells or sensitize tumor cells to therapy. To examine this concept, we enriched for autophagosomes from histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi)-sensitive U937 lymphoma cells and isogenic HDACi-resistant cells. Mass spectrometry on autophagosome-enriched fractions revealed that HDACi-resistant cells undergo elevated pexophagy, or autophagy of the peroxisome, an organelle that supports tumor growth. To disturb peroxisome homeostasis, we enhanced pexophagy in HDACi-resistant cells via genetic silencing of peroxisome exportomer complex components (, or ). This consequently sensitized resistant cells to HDACi-mediated apoptosis, which was rescued by inhibiting ATM/ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM serine/threonine kinase), a mediator of pexophagy. We subsequently engineered melanoma cells to stably repress using CRISPR interference (CRISPRi). Melanoma cells with repressed expression showed evidence of both increased pexophagy and peroxisomal matrix protein import defects versus single guide scrambled ( controls. studies showed that melanoma xenografts recurred less compared to xenografts, following the development of resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-targeted therapy. Finally, prognostic analysis of publicly available datasets showed that low expression levels of and , were significantly associated with prolonged patient survival in lymphoma, lung cancer and melanoma cohorts. Our work highlighted that drugs designed to disrupt peroxisome homeostasis may serve as unconventional therapies to combat therapy resistance in cancer. ABCD3/PMP70: ATP binding cassette subfamily D member 3; ACOX1: acyl-CoA oxidase 1; AP: autophagosome; COX: cytochrome c oxidase; CQ: chloroquine; CRISPRi: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference; DLBCL: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; GO: gene ontology; dCas9: Cas9 endonuclease dead, or dead Cas9; HDACi: histone deacetylase inhibitors; IHC: Immunohistochemistry; LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; LCFAs: long-chain fatty acids; LFQ-MS: label-free quantitation mass spectrometry; LPC: lysophoshatidylcholine; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PBD: peroxisome biogenesis disorders; PTS1: peroxisomal targeting signal 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; sgRNA: single guide RNA; VLCFAs: very-long chain fatty acids; Vor: vorinostat; WO: wash-off.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1936932DOI Listing
June 2021

Relationship between dietary factors and recurrent aphthous stomatitis in China: a cross-sectional study.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211017724

Department of Oral Medicine, 144984Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), a common oral mucosal disorder characterized by chronic, inflammatory, and ovoid ulcers, has a complex etiology. The purpose of the study was to investigate the specific dietary factors influencing the prevalence of RAS.

Methods: A total of 754 participants aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled in this descriptive cross-sectional study. An anonymous questionnaire was adopted to investigate the distribution of RAS, dietary factors, self-reported trigger factors, and therapeutic methods.

Results: Among all participants, the prevalence rate of RAS was 21.4%. Univariable analysis showed that fruit, dairy products, vegetables, and water, but not fried foods, fermented foods, spicy foods, and eggs, were preventive factors against RAS. After adjusting for age and sex, multivariable regression analysis suggested that fruit (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.430, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.218-0.847) and water (aOR = 0.294, 95% CI = 0.119-0.726) were protective factors against RAS.

Conclusion: This study found that the consumption of fruit and water was negatively associated with RAS. These results imply a potential adjunctive and complementary role of food in RAS treatment and some feasible means of RAS prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211017724DOI Listing
May 2021

Tau-Targeted Multifunctional Nanoinhibitor for Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 17;13(20):23328-23338. Epub 2021 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China.

With the failure of various amyloid-β-targeted drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinical trials, tau protein has gained growing attention as an alternative therapeutic target in recent years. The aggregation of tau exerts neurotoxicity, and its spreading in the brain is associated with increasing severity of clinical symptoms for AD patients; thus tau-targeting therapies hold great potential against AD. Here, a tau-targeted multifunctional nanoinhibitor based on self-assembled polymeric micelles decorated with tau-binding peptide is devised for AD treatment. Through the multivalent binding effect with the aggregating protein, this nanoinhibitor is capable of efficiently inhibiting tau protein aggregation, recognizing tau aggregates, and blocking their seeding in neural cells, thus remarkably mitigating tau-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, the formed nanoinhibitor-tau complex after binding is more easily degraded than mature tau aggregates, which will be conducive to enhance the therapeutic effect. We believe that this multifunctional nanoinhibitor will promote the development of new antitau strategies for AD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00257DOI Listing
May 2021

The MNK1/2-eIF4E Axis Supports Immune Suppression and Metastasis in Postpartum Breast Cancer.

Cancer Res 2021 Jul 11;81(14):3876-3889. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Breast cancer diagnosed within 10 years following childbirth is defined as postpartum breast cancer (PPBC) and is highly metastatic. Interactions between immune cells and other stromal cells within the involuting mammary gland are fundamental in facilitating an aggressive tumor phenotype. The MNK1/2-eIF4E axis promotes translation of prometastatic mRNAs in tumor cells, but its role in modulating the function of nontumor cells in the PPBC microenvironment has not been explored. Here, we used a combination of PPBC models and assays to study the effects of inactivation of the MNK1/2-eIF4E axis on the protumor function of select cells of the tumor microenvironment. PPBC mice deficient for phospho-eIF4E (eIF4E) were protected against lung metastasis and exhibited differences in the tumor and lung immune microenvironment compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, the expression of fibroblast-derived IL33, an alarmin known to induce invasion, was repressed upon MNK1/2-eIF4E axis inhibition. Imaging mass cytometry on PPBC and non-PPBC patient samples indicated that human PPBC contains phospho-eIF4E high-expressing tumor cells and CD8 T cells displaying markers of an activated dysfunctional phenotype. Finally, inhibition of MNK1/2 combined with anti-PD-1 therapy blocked lung metastasis of PPBC. These findings implicate the involvement of the MNK1/2-eIF4E axis during PPBC metastasis and suggest a promising immunomodulatory route to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy by blocking phospho-eIF4E. SIGNIFICANCE: This study investigates the MNK1/2-eIF4E signaling axis in tumor and stromal cells in metastatic breast cancer and reveals that MNK1/2 inhibition suppresses metastasis and sensitizes tumors to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3143DOI Listing
July 2021

HSV-1-encoded ICP0 degrades the host deubiquitinase BRCC36 to antagonize interferon antiviral response.

Mol Immunol 2021 Jul 12;135:28-35. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays pivotal roles in defense against viral infection. HSV-1 has evolved multiple strategies to evade IFN-I antiviral response. In this study, we revealed a new mechanism that HSV-1-encoded ICP0 regulates the host deubiquitinase BRCC36 to inhibit IFN-I antiviral response. We found that HSV-1 infection rapidly downregulates BRCC36 proteins at the early stage of infection. Further studies demonstrated that HSV-1-encoded ICP0 induces K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation of BRCC36. Importantly, HSV-1-induced BRCC36 degradation promotes downmodulation of IFN-I receptor IFNAR1, thus restricting host IFN-I antiviral response to facilitate HSV-1 early infection. These findings uncover a novel immune evasion mechanism exploited by HSV-1 and could provide potential strategies for anti-HSV-1 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.03.027DOI Listing
July 2021

Acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: An overview of systematic reviews.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 May 28;43:101375. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

The First School of Clinical Medical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405, China; The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405, China. Electronic address:

Background: Acupuncture has been widely used to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in China as a complementary and alternative therapy. This study aims to summarize the characteristics and evaluate the methodology quality of the systematic reviews (SRs) regarding acupuncture for DPN.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed from inception to February 2020. We assessed the methodological quality of the included SRs with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2) tool, adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to evaluate the reporting characteristics of included SRs, and utilized the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to evaluate the quality of evidence for outcomes including total effective rate, sensory nerve conduction velocity, motor nerve conduction velocity and adverse events. One-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression were conducted to evaluate the associations between characteristics and two index scores (PRISMA and AMSTAR 2).

Results: Eighteen SRs were included in this overview. The methodology quality of the included SRs ranged from very low to high. Only protocol registration and funding source reported were associated with the AMSTAR 2 index scores, while no variable showed significant difference in the PRISMA scores. The overall quality of evidence in included SRs ranged from "very low" to "moderate".

Conclusion: This overview suggested beneficial effects of acupuncture on DPN, whereas the results should be interpreted with cautious owing to methodology flaws, providing reference for further improvement of the study design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101375DOI Listing
May 2021

Simultaneous measurement of free and conjugated estrogens in surface water using capillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Analyst 2021 Apr;146(8):2689-2704

Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Given detrimental impacts induced by estrogens at trace level, determination of them is significant but challenging due to their low content in environmental samples and inherent weak ionisation. A modified derivatisation-based methodology was applied for the first time to detect estrogen in free and conjugated forms including some isomers simultaneously using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSn). Derivatisation reaction with previously used 1,2-dimethyl-1H-imidazole-5-sulphonyl chloride allowed significant increase of mass spectrometric signal of analytes and also provided distinctive fragmentation for their confirmation even in complicated matrix. Then satisfactory recovery (>75%) for the majority of analytes was achieved following optimisation of solid phase extraction (SPE) factors. The linearity was validated over a wide concentration with the correlation coefficient around 0.995. The repeatability of this methodology was also confirmed via the intra-day and inter-day precision and was less than 11.73%. Validation of method quantification limits (MQLs) for all chosen estrogens was conducted using 1000 mL surface water, ranging from 7.0 to 132.3 pg L-1. The established methodology was applied to profile presence of targeted estrogens in natural surface water samples. Out of the ten compounds of interest, three free estrogens (E1, E2, E3) and two sulphate estrogens (E1-3S and E2-3S) were found over their MQLs, being in the range of 0.05-0.32 ng L-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an02335cDOI Listing
April 2021

Pretransplant use of toripalimab for hepatocellular carcinoma resulting in fatal acute hepatic necrosis in the immediate postoperative period.

Transpl Immunol 2021 06 18;66:101386. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Organ Transplantation Center, Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, China. Electronic address:

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly used in the treatment of various solid tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For liver transplant recipients, the safety of using immune checkpoint inhibitors before or after transplantation remains to be further explored. Former reports were mainly about posttransplant use of immune checkpoint inhibitors resulting in allograft rejection. Here we present one HCC patient who received toripalimab (an immune checkpoint inhibitor currently in phase 3 clinical trial for HCC) therapy before undergoing liver transplantation. He finally suffered fatal acute hepatic necrosis which is likely to be related to the acute immune rejection caused by the pretransplant use of toripalimab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2021.101386DOI Listing
June 2021

The effectiveness and safety of Tuina for tension-type headache: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 May 19;43:101293. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Tension-type headache (TTH) is one of the most common primary headache diseases in the world and has a serious negative impact on the physical and mental health of patients. Tuina is now widely used to treat tension-type headaches. This article aims to systematically review the evidence about the effectiveness of Tuina on the effectiveness rate, pain intensity, and impact of headache in individuals with TTH.

Methods: Eight databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tuina were included in treatments for TTH. Cochrane Collaboration's tool was applied to evaluate the quality of the studies. Confidence in the effect estimates was determined with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool. We use the software STATA 12.0 for meta-analysis and TSA software for test sequence analysis.

Results: Seven studies were included with a total sample of 1228 individuals. Meta-analysis results showed that Tuina was superior to drugs for improving the effectiveness rate (RR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.25 to 1.77, p < 0.01, low evidence). A visual analog scale (VAS) score of Tuina was significantly lower than that of drugs (WMD = -0.738, 95% CI: -1.128 to -0.349, p < 0.01, moderate evidence). The trial sequential analysis showed that the effectiveness of Tuina for TTH was accurate. Adverse events were tolerable.

Conclusion: Tuina has a certain effect in treating tension headache. However, due to the low level of methodological quality included in the article, this conclusion should be considered cautiously. More studies are necessary to strengthen the evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of Tuina for subjects with TTH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2020.101293DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Acupressure on Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 24;2021:8862399. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

The Second Clinical Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, Guangdong, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupressure on low back pain (LBP).

Methods: We searched 7 electronic databases and 2 trial registries through December 28, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupressure on LBP were considered for meta-analysis with Revman 5.3 and Stata 15.0 software. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to quantify the statistical reliability. HETRED analysis and GRADE were used to determine the heterogeneity and quality of the results, respectively.

Results: Twenty-three RCTs representing 2400 participants were included. Acupressure was superior to tuina massage on response rate (RR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.35; < 0.00001) and in the standardized mean difference (SMD) for pain reduction [SMD -1.92; 95% CI, -3.09 to -0.76; =0.001]. Likewise, acupressure was superior to physical therapy [SMD, -0.88; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.65; < 0.00001] and to usual care [SMD, -0.32; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.02; =0.04] in pain reduction. The Oswestry Disability Index was significantly improved by acupressure compared with usual care [SMD, -0.55; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.25; =0.0003]. The combination of acupressure with either manual acupuncture or electro-acupuncture showed significant improvements over the adjuvant therapies alone in response rate [RR 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.26; < 0.00001], pain reduction, and the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (JOA). However, each study displayed substantial heterogeneity. Through subgroup sensitivity analysis and -HETRED analysis, the heterogeneity of acupressure compared with manual acupuncture decreased while the results maintained significance with respect to pain reduction [SMD -0.9; 95% CI, -1.21 to -0.6; < 0.00001] and JOA [SMD, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.98; < 0.00001]. Similar results were obtained comparing acupressure with electro-acupuncture with respect to pain [SMD, -1.07; 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.81; < 0.00001] and JOA [SMD, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.27, < 0.00001]. TSA demonstrated the effectiveness of acupressure as a standalone or as a combinative treatment (with manual acupuncture or electro-acupuncture) for LBP.

Conclusion: Acupressure is an effective treatment for LBP. However, GRADE assessments downgraded the evidence in the trials, indicating that additional investigations are needed to confirm these observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8862399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932783PMC
February 2021

Inhibiting the MNK1/2-eIF4E axis impairs melanoma phenotype switching and potentiates antitumor immune responses.

J Clin Invest 2021 Apr;131(8)

Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Melanomas commonly undergo a phenotype switch, from a proliferative to an invasive state. Such tumor cell plasticity contributes to immunotherapy resistance; however, the mechanisms are not completely understood and thus are therapeutically unexploited. Using melanoma mouse models, we demonstrated that blocking the MNK1/2-eIF4E axis inhibited melanoma phenotype switching and sensitized melanoma to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. We showed that phospho-eIF4E-deficient murine melanomas expressed high levels of melanocytic antigens, with similar results verified in patient melanomas. Mechanistically, we identified phospho-eIF4E-mediated translational control of NGFR, a critical effector of phenotype switching. Genetic ablation of phospho-eIF4E reprogrammed the immunosuppressive microenvironment, exemplified by lowered production of inflammatory factors, decreased PD-L1 expression on dendritic cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and increased CD8+ T cell infiltrates. Finally, dual blockade of the MNK1/2-eIF4E axis and the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint demonstrated efficacy in multiple melanoma models regardless of their genomic classification. An increase in the presence of intratumoral stem-like TCF1+PD-1+CD8+ T cells, a characteristic essential for durable antitumor immunity, was detected in mice given a MNK1/2 inhibitor and anti-PD-1 therapy. Using MNK1/2 inhibitors to repress phospho-eIF4E thus offers a strategy to inhibit melanoma plasticity and improve response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI140752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262472PMC
April 2021

Should we prescribe anticonvulsants for acute herpes zoster neuralgia and to prevent postherpetic neuralgia?: A protocol for meta-analysis and benefit-risk assessment.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(7):e24343

Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Background: Herpes zoster-associated pain [i.e., acute herpes zoster neuralgia (AHN) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN)] has the potential to cause significant patients' burden and heath resource expenditure. PHN is refractory to the existing treatments, and the consensus is preventing the transition of AHN to PHN is better than treating PHN. Anticonvulsants (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin) have been recommended as one of the first-line therapies for PHN. In practice, anticonvulsants have also decreased the severity and duration of AHN and reduced the incidence of PHN. Nevertheless, its clinical application to AHN is hampered by inadequate evidence for its efficacy and safety. We performed this protocol for a systematic review to explore the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants for AHN. Besides, a benefit-risk assessment of anticonvulsants for AHN would be performed to estimate the extent to which these drugs could relieve symptoms and whether the benefits outweigh harms.

Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) was used to prepare our protocol and the results will be reported according to the PRISMA. We will search the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese VIP Information (VIP), Cochrane Library, Embase, and PubMed databases, from inception to August 2019. Furthermore, Clinicaltrials (http://www.clinicaltrials.com) and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/abouten.aspx) will also be searched for relevant studies. Selection of eligible articles and data extraction will be independently performed by reviewers. We will record the characteristic information, pain outcomes, incidence of PHN and adverse effects. Data synthesis and other statistical analyses will be conducted using Review Manager Software 5.3 and STATA13.0. Furthermore, risk of bias assessment, meta-regression and subgroup analyses, publication bias assessment, grading of evidence will be performed for included studies.

Ethics And Dissemination: As this systematic review will be performed based on published data, no ethical approval is needed. The findings will be submitted in peer-reviewed journals for publication.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42019133449.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899884PMC
February 2021

Ubiquitin E3 ligase MID1 inhibits the innate immune response by ubiquitinating IRF3.

Immunology 2021 Jul 22;163(3):278-292. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a critical transcription factor for inducing production of type I interferons (IFN-I) and regulating host antiviral response. Although IRF3 activation during viral infection has been extensively studied, the inhibitory regulation of IRF3 remains largely unexplored. Here, we revealed that Midline-1 (MID1) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase of IRF3 that plays essential roles in regulating the production of IFN-I. We found that MID1 physically interacts with IRF3 and downregulates IRF3 protein levels. Next, we demonstrated that MID1 can induce K48-linked polyubiquitination of IRF3, thus lowing the protein stability of IRF3. Our further studies identified Lys313 as a major ubiquitin acceptor lysine of IRF3 induced by MID1. Finally, MID1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRF3 restrict IFN-I production and cellular antiviral response. This study uncovers a role of MID1 in regulating innate antiviral immunity and may provide a potential target for enhancing host antiviral activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207362PMC
July 2021

Kupffer Cell-targeting strategy for the protection of Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, CHINA.

Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) seriously affects the prognosis of patients undergoing liver surgery. Liver-resident Kupffer cells have been reported to promote IRI. Nanomedicines are known to be effective in the treatment of liver diseases, however, Kupffer cell-targeting nanomedicines for the treatment of IRI are yet to be developed. As potential bioimaging nanomaterials, rare earth upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) have been found to specifically deplete Kupffer cells, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we found that UCNs specifically depleted Kupffer cells by pyroptosis, while the co-administration of the caspase-1 inhibitor VX-765 rescued the UCN-induced Kupffer cell pyroptosis in mice. Furthermore, the pre-depletion of Kupffer cells by the UCNs significantly suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines and effectively improved hepatic IRI. The rescue of the pyroptosis of the Kupffer cells by VX-765 abrogated the protective effect of UCNs on the liver. These results suggest that UCNs are highly promising for the development of Kupffer cell-targeting nanomedicines for intraoperative liver protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abde02DOI Listing
January 2021

Dual-Mode Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Perylene Diimide-Based Gd-Containing Magnetic Ionic Liquids.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 11 12;6(11):6405-6414. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.

Bioimaging plays a key role in the diagnosis/treatment of diseases and in scientific research studies. Compared with single imaging techniques, dual-mode and multimode imaging techniques facilitate high accuracy. In this work, a perylene diimide (PDI)-based Gd-containing magnetic ionic liquid, Per-6-Diimi[Gd(NO)], is reported for dual-modal imaging, in which a Gd(III) complex was used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while PDI was used for fluorescence imaging. Because of the difference in the biological microenvironment, there is a switch between dispersed and aggregated states of Per-6-Diimi[Gd(NO)] molecules in hydrophobic and hydrophilic media. When it was in the aqueous solution, the intensive π-π interaction of PDI cores made Per-6-Diimi[Gd(NO)] aggregates to form particles. The paramagnetic nanoparticles ensure prolonging the rotational correlation time, which results in a strong enhancement of MRI with a longitude relaxation coefficient of 14.94 mM s. In an MRI experiment, the tumor site is imaged by MRI through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, when the molecule is present on the hydrophobic membrane of the cells, the dispersed Per-6-Diimi[Gd(NO)] showed good fluorescence imaging capabilities due to the high fluorescence quantum yield of PDI. Thus, the fluorescence imaging of cells can be carried out. Moreover, fluorescence imaging of organs is performed after MRI. Per-6-Diimi[Gd(NO)] is enriched in the liver, kidneys, and tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01076DOI Listing
November 2020

Transcriptomic profiling of atrazine phytotoxicity and comparative study of atrazine uptake, movement, and metabolism in Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum spicatum.

Environ Res 2021 03 7;194:110724. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Engineering Research, Microelement Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

The accumulation of atrazine in sediments raises wide concern due to its potential negative effects on aquatic environments. Here we collected sediments and different submerged macrophytes to simulate natural shallow lakes and to measure atrazine levels and submerged macrophyte biomass. We determined gene expressions in submerged macrophytes treated with or without atrazine. We also examined atrazine concentrations and its metabolite structures in submerged macrophytes. When the initial concentration of atrazine in sediments ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 mg kg dry weight (DW), atrazine levels in the pore water of the sediments ranged from 0.003 to 0.05 mg L in 90 days. Atrazine did not show obvious long-term effects on the biomass of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum spicatum (P > 0.05). On day 90, gene expressions related to cell wall in P. crispus were changed by atrazine phytotoxicity. Moreover, the decrease in the number genes controlling light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins verified the toxic effects of atrazine on the photosynthesis of M. spicatum. Compared with unexposed plants on day 90, ribosome pathway was significantly enriched with differentially expressed genes after submerged macrophytes were exposed to 2.0 mg kg DW atrazine (P < 0.05). In addition, shoots and roots of P. crispus and M. spicatum could absorb the equal amount of atrazine (P > 0.05). Once absorbed by submerged macrophytes, atrazine was degraded into 1-hydroxyisopropylatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, cyanuric acid, and biuret, and some of its metabolites could conjugate with organic acids, cysteinyl β-alanine, and glucose. This study establishes a foundation for aquatic ecological risk assessments and the phytoremediation of atrazine in sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110724DOI Listing
March 2021

Selectively enhancing radiosensitivity of cancer cells enzyme-instructed peptide self-assembly.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2020 Dec 13;10(12):2374-2383. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China.

The radiotherapy modulators used in clinic have disadvantages of high toxicity and low selectivity. For the first time, we used the enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) of a peptide derivative (Nap-GFFpYSV) to selectively enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells with high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression to ionizing radiation (IR). Compared with the pre-assembled control formed by the same molecule, assemblies formed by EISA in cells greatly sensitized the ALP-high-expressing cancer cells to -rays, with a remarkable sensitizer enhancement ratio. Our results indicated that the enhancement was a result of fixing DNA damage, arresting cell cycles and inducing cell apoptosis. Interestingly, pre-formed assemblies mainly localized in the lysosomes after incubating with cells, while the assemblies formed EISA scattered in the cell cytosol. The accumulation of these molecules in cells could not be inhibited by endocytosis inhibitors. We believed that this molecule entered cancer cells by diffusion and then self-assembled to form nanofibers under the catalysis of endogenous ALP. This study provides a successful example to utilize intracellular EISA of small molecules to develop selective tumor radiosensitizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2020.07.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745053PMC
December 2020

Ubiquitin E3 Ligase c-Cbl Is a Host Negative Regulator of Nef Protein of HIV-1.

Front Microbiol 2020 19;11:597972. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, The Affiliated Infectious Diseases Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Nef is an accessory protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and plays important roles in regulating HIV-1 infection and viral replication. Interestingly, HIV-1 Nef can promote degradation of numerous host proteins to disrupt cellular antiviral immune response. However, how HIV-1 Nef is degraded by host factors remains largely unexplored. Here, we identified c-Cbl as a host ubiquitin E3 ligase of HIV-1 Nef. We found that c-Cbl interacts with Nef and reduces protein levels of HIV-1 Nef. Further studies demonstrated that c-Cbl promoted Lys48-linked polyubiquitination of HIV-1 Nef, thus attenuating protein stability of HIV-1 Nef. Importantly, cellular c-Cbl ubiquitinated and degraded Nef proteins produced by HIV-1 NL4-3 virions, and ultimately attenuated HIV-1 virulence for infection of THP1 cells. This study reveals a ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation mechanism of HIV-1 Nef protein, and could provide potential strategies for fighting against HIV-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.597972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710902PMC
November 2020

Computational investigation on the chiral differentiation of D- and L-penicillamine by β-cyclodextrin.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Mar 3;248:119277. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Institute of Modern Optics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Micro-scale Optical Information Science and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China; Key Laboratory for Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, Guangxi, PR China. Electronic address:

The identification of chiral penicillamine (Pen) is of great significance for clinical medication safety. The host-guest systems formed by enantiomers and macromolecule can be applied to differentiate the chiral drugs and enable the drug delayed release. We hereby performed the dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculation on the complex formed by β-cyclodextrin(β-CD) and D/L-penicillamine (D/L-Pen). The diverse encapsulation configurations with different interaction energy show that both D-Pen and L-Pen tend to longitudinally embedded into the narrow aperture of β-CD with the front part of the sulfur group and the methyl group, and the interaction energy between L-Pen and β-CD is 5.47 kJ/mol(M062XD3) lower than that between D-Pen and β-CD. Based on the computed vibration frequency of host, guest, and the most stable complex, it is found that the featured peaks attributed to the vibration of the carboxyl group of guest and the skeleton vibration of complex are the most significant spectral standard to distinguish the β-CD-D/L-Pen and β-CD. Moreover, the peaks resulted from the skeleton vibration in terahertz spectra can be also used to distinguish the complex of β-CD with chiral Pen. Through the topological analysis and the Independent Gradient Model (IGM) analysis, the O-HO hydrogen bond in β-CD-D-Pen is stronger than that in β-CD-L-Pen, and the van der Waals interactions such as C-H…O,C-H…N,C-H…S, O…S and C-H…C-H have the most contributions to the intermolecular interaction in β-CD-D/L-Pen. It is also noted that the H(-OH) in D-Pen and S in L-Pen contribute the most to the intermolecular interaction with β-CD in comparison with other atoms in Pen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.119277DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluating the Characteristics, Reporting and Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews of Acupuncture for Low Back Pain by Using the Veritas Plot.

J Pain Res 2020 19;13:2633-2652. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To evaluate systematic reviews (SRs) of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) in terms of characteristics, reporting and methodological quality using a Veritas plot and to explore factors that may be associated with methodological quality and reporting quality.

Study Design And Setting: We searched 8 electronic bibliographic databases to find all SRs, and we evaluated the SRs' quality in 6 dimensions, including publication year, design type, homogeneity, risk of publication bias, methodological quality by Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) 2 and reporting quality by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Excel 2010 and Adobe Illustrator CC were used to draw and optimize Veritas plots. Exploratory analysis was done using SPSS software version 23.0 to explore factors related to AMSTAR-2 and PRISMA scores. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) evidence quality evaluation tool was used to grade all the outcome indicators in the included literature.

Results: We included 19 SRs in the analysis. Literature quality rank scores ranged from 9.67 to 17.00, with an average score of 13.18 ± 2.35. The average score of AMSTAR-2 was 7.47, and the average score of PRISMA was 18.47. Overall, the main issues were research strategies, inclusion and exclusion criteria, publication bias, and registration in PROSPERO. The results of exploratory analysis showed that duplication of literature selected and appropriate tools to assess the risk of bias were related to the AMSTAR-2 score, and the summary of evidence was related to the PRISMA score. The GRADE quality evaluation results showed mainly low quality.

Conclusion: The quality of SRs on acupuncture for low back pain should be improved, mainly by strengthening the methodological quality and reporting quality. The Veritas plot is an effective graphical evaluation method that is worth popularizing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S254234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585549PMC
October 2020

Vaccine design based on 16 epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

J Med Virol 2021 04 1;93(4):2115-2131. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Pathogenic Biology, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) urgently requires an effective vaccine for prevention. In this study, 66 epitopes containing pentapeptides of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the IEDB database were compared with the amino acid sequence of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and 66 potentially immune-related peptides of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were obtained. Based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms analysis of spike protein of 1218 SARS-CoV-2 isolates, 52 easily mutated sites were identified and used for vaccine epitope screening. The best vaccine candidate epitopes in the 66 peptides of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were screened out through mutation and immunoinformatics analysis. The best candidate epitopes were connected by different linkers in silico to obtain vaccine candidate sequences. The results showed that 16 epitopes were relatively conservative, immunological, nontoxic, and nonallergenic, could induce the secretion of cytokines, and were more likely to be exposed on the surface of the spike protein. They were both B- and T-cell epitopes, and could recognize a certain number of HLA molecules and had high coverage rates in different populations. Moreover, epitopes 897-913 were predicted to have possible cross-immunoprotection for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The results of vaccine candidate sequences screening suggested that sequences (without linker, with linker GGGSGGG, EAAAK, GPGPG, and KK, respectively) were the best. The proteins translated by these sequences were relatively stable, with a high antigenic index and good biological activity. Our study provided vaccine candidate epitopes and sequences for the research of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675516PMC
April 2021

Hepatocyte-derived MANF alleviates hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury via regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in mice.

Liver Int 2021 03 4;41(3):623-639. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) perturbations are novel subcellular effectors involved in the ischaemia-reperfusion injury. As an ER stress-inducible protein, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) has been proven to be increased during ischaemic brain injury. However, the role of MANF in liver ischaemia reperfusion (I/R) injury has not yet been studied.

Methods: To investigate the role of MANF in the process of liver ischaemia-reperfusion, Hepatocyte-specific MANF knockout (MANF ) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were used in our research. Mice partial (70%) warm hepatic I/R model was established by vascular occlusion. We detected the serum levels of MANF in both liver transplant patients and WT mice before and after liver I/R injury. Recombinant human MANF (rhMANF) was injected into the tail vein before 1 hour occlusion. AST, ALT and Suzuki score were used to evaluate the extent of I/R injury. OGD/R test was performed on primary hepatocytes to simulate IRI in vitro. RNA sequence and RT-PCR were used to detect the cellular signal pathway activation while MANF knockout.

Results: We found that MANF expression and secretion are dramatically up-regulated during hepatic I/R. Hepatocyte-specific MANF knockout aggravates the I/R injury through the over-activated ER stress. The systemic administration of rhMANF before ischaemia has the potential to ameliorate I/R-triggered UPR and liver injury. Further study showed that MANF deficiency activated ATF4/CHOP and JNK/c-JUN/CHOP pathways, and rhMANF inhibited the activation of the two proapoptotic pathways caused by MANF deletion.

Conclusion: Collectively, our study unravels a previously unknown relationship among MANF, UPR and hepatic I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14697DOI Listing
March 2021

Silver-decorated, light-activatable polymeric antimicrobials for combined chemo-photodynamic therapy of drug-resistant bacterial infection.

Biomater Sci 2020 Nov 7;8(22):6350-6361. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, P. R. China.

Drug-resistant bacterial infections have stolen the spotlight in recent years as stubborn diseases intimidating public health, thus urgently requiring the development of innovative treatment strategies with high antibacterial efficiency and low bacterial resistance. Here, a polymeric antimicrobial with synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy function is fabricated to combat drug-resistant bacterial infections. In this strategy, polymeric micelles based on amphiphilic poly(aspartic acid)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PAsp-b-PCL) are used as nanocarriers to encapsulate a photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in the micellar core, which then undergo silver nanoparticle decoration on the micellar shell through an in situ reduction method. Compared with mono-therapy, the combination of silver nanoparticle decoration and light-activatable PpIX enables the resulting polymeric antimicrobial to exert chemo-photodynamic activity to kill drug-resistant bacteria more potently in vitro. Furthermore, the prepared polymeric antimicrobials with synergistic antibacterial activity show robust eradication efficacy against subcutaneous infections induced by drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a murine model. Therefore, our study provides a simple and potent strategy to realize combination therapy for eradicating drug-resistant bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm01084gDOI Listing
November 2020

A single-center retrospective study of the clinical significance of chorionic bump at early stage of gestation.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 03 5;85(3):e13346. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Problem: The chorionic bump is a distinct rare sonographic abnormality. Until now, there is contradictory evidence about if it associates with poor pregnancy outcomes. We performed this retrospective study to provide additional clinical data to investigate the clinical significance of chorionic bump at early stage of pregnancy.

Method Of Study: A single-center retrospective study was performed using the sonographic and clinical data of the pregnant women who had antenatal checkup and childbirth at Shanghai First Maternal and Child Health Care Center from December 2018 to December 2019. Sonographic examination was performed by experts at 5-10 weeks' gestation. Maternal age and gestational age matched controls from the same period were selected for analysis.

Results: We observed 83 chorionic bump cases showing a prevalence of 0.33%. We found previous intrauterine operations and/or adverse maternal history posed a risk of having chorionic bump. In our cohort, chorionic bump associates with poor pregnancy outcomes. Poor pregnancy outcomes were more frequently found in the patients whose lesions were detected early (<56 days of pregnancy), or in the patients with the lesion relative sizes more than 40% of the sizes of the gestational sac, or in the patients with multiple lesions.

Conclusion: Intrauterine operations and/or adverse maternal history associate with an increased incidence of chorionic bump, which associates with poor pregnancy outcomes. Early detection, bigger relative size, and multiple lesions are factors likely leading to poor pregnancy outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aji.13346DOI Listing
March 2021

Self-targeting, zwitterionic micellar dispersants enhance antibiotic killing of infectious biofilms-An intravital imaging study in mice.

Sci Adv 2020 Aug 14;6(33):eabb1112. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology; Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education; and Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China.

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) hold infectious biofilms together and limit antimicrobial penetration and clinical infection control. Here, we present zwitterionic micelles as a previously unexplored, synthetic self-targeting dispersant. First, a pH-responsive poly(ε-caprolactone)--poly(quaternary-amino-ester) was synthesized and self-assembled with poly(ethylene glycol)--poly(ε-caprolactone) to form zwitterionic, mixed-shell polymeric micelles (ZW-MSPMs). In the acidic environment of staphylococcal biofilms, ZW-MSPMs became positively charged because of conversion of the zwitterionic poly(quaternary-amino-ester) to a cationic lactone ring. This allowed ZW-MSPMs to self-target, penetrate, and accumulate in staphylococcal biofilms in vitro. In vivo biofilm targeting by ZW-MSPMs was confirmed for staphylococcal biofilms grown underneath an implanted abdominal imaging window through direct imaging in living mice. ZW-MSPMs interacted strongly with important EPS components such as eDNA and protein to disperse biofilm and enhance ciprofloxacin efficacy toward remaining biofilm, both in vitro and in vivo. Zwitterionic micellar dispersants may aid infection control and enhance efficacy of existing antibiotics against remaining biofilm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb1112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428326PMC
August 2020

From Local to Global: A Graph Framework for Retinal Artery/Vein Classification.

IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 2020 10 23;19(4):589-597. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Fundus photography has been widely used for inspecting eye disorders by ophthalmologists or computer algorithms. Biomarkers related to retinal vessels plays an essential role to detect early diabetes. To quantify vascular biomarkers or the corresponding changes, an accurate artery and vein classification is necessary. In this work, we propose a new framework to boost local vessel classification with a global vascular network model using graph convolution. We compare our proposed method with two traditional state-of-the-art methods on a testing dataset of 750 images from the Maastricht Study. After incorporating global information, our model achieves the best accuracy of 86.45% compared to 85.5% from convolutional neural networks (CNN) and 82.9% from handcrafted pixel feature classification (HPFC). Our model also obtains the best area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.95, compared to 0.93 from CNN and 0.90 from HPFC. The new classification framework has the advantage of easy deployment on top of local classification features. It corrects the local classification error by minimizing global classification error and it brings free additional classification performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNB.2020.3004481DOI Listing
October 2020