Publications by authors named "Fahad Al-Mohareb"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pregnancy with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria: A Case Series with Review of the Literature.

Saudi J Med Med Sci 2021 May-Aug;9(2):178-189. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Adult Hematology/Bone Marrow Transplantation Section, Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired hematopoietic stem cell disorder, and eculizumab and ravulizumab are its two approved therapies. Only few case series/reports have reported the outcomes of pregnancies in patients with PNH despite the increased risk of thrombosis. Similarly, there is limited knowledge regarding the effect of the approved treatments on conception and pregnancy outcomes. Here, we report the first series of pregnancies in PNH patients from the Middle Eastern region from our tertiary care hospital. Ten pregnancies in four females after diagnosis with PNH were identified. In terms of PNH management, only eculizumab was used, as the safety of ravulizumab use in pregnancies has not yet been established. In the antepartum period, the patients had variable symptoms that ranged from mild symptoms including epistaxis, tea-colored urine and vaginal bleeding to life-threatening vessel thrombosis. Further, red blood cell and platelet transfusions were required because of bleeding and hemolysis in four pregnancies. The pregnancy outcomes varied, but based on these, the safety of eculizumab use during pregnancy remained inconclusive. The postpartum period was complicated in one case by portal vein thrombosis and was managed accordingly. In conclusion, pregnant females with PNH are at an increased risk for complications due to PNH, and thus experienced hematologists and obstetricians should be involved jointly in their care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_4_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152383PMC
April 2021

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant in Adolescent and Young Adults With Fanconi Anemia Is Feasible With Acceptable Toxicity, With Those Surviving 100 Days Posttransplant Having Excellent Outcomes.

Exp Clin Transplant 2016 12 22;14(6):660-664. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

From the Hematology/HSCT Section, Oncology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Objectives: Fanconi anemia is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome that is associated with congenital anomalies and increased risk of cancer. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a potentially curative modality for bone marrow failure in Fanconi anemia patients. Here, we report our center's experience regarding adolescent and young adult patients with Fanconi anemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective patient record analyses of patients who presented at our center from 1988 to 2014. We included patients greater than 14 years old with confirmed Fanconi anemia based on positive chromosome breakage study and who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant at our institution.

Results: Our study group comprised 12 patients with Fanconi anemia who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant at our institution. The median age was 20 years (range, 14-31 y) with a female predominance of 83%. Low-dose cyclophosphamide (20-80 mg/kg)-based conditioning regimens were used with different combinations that included fludarabine, antithymocyte globulin, or total body irradiation. All patients had HLA-matched sibling grafts. In all patients, stem cell source was the bone marrow. All patients showed engraftment. Four patients (33%) developed acute graft-versus-host disease. Three patients (25%) died early before day 100 after hematopoietic stem cell transplant due to infectious complications, with 1 patient having steroid refractory acute graft-versus-host disease. Overall survival was 75% at a median follow-up of 43 months. All patients who survived are well and remained transfusion independent without evidence of secondary malignancy.

Conclusions: Our findings support the feasibility of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in older and more heavily pretreated patients with Fanconi anemia, especially for those who are engrafted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2015.0364DOI Listing
December 2016

Leukemia during pregnancy: long term follow up of 32 cases from a single institution.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2014 Jun 9;7(2):63-8. Epub 2014 May 9.

King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Background And Objectives: There is limited information regarding the outcome of patients treated for leukemia during pregnancy. This study was performed on all cases of leukemia during pregnancy identified in our institution leukemia database.

Patients And Methods: It is a retrospective study from our existing database. Thirty two cases were identified among the cohort of patients treated for acute and chronic leukemia between January 1991 and July 2003.

Results: Among the acute leukemia patients (n=21), 10 patients (47.6%) received chemotherapy during pregnancy, seven had live birth and three had spontaneous abortion. No teratogenicity or congenital malformations or postnatal complication were reported. The remaining 11 (52.4%) were not given chemotherapy while pregnant; three patients presented after 34 weeks of gestation ending in normal live births and then received chemotherapy and eight patients had abortion before starting chemotherapy. Among the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients (n=11), nine patients received hydroxyurea, one patient received alfa-interferon and one patient was treated with leukapheresis. Eight patients had normal live births and three patients had abortion. Out of the 32 patients, 18 patients (56.2%) subsequently underwent HLA matched sibling allogeneic stem cell transplantation, seven for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), two for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and nine for CML. After a median follow up of 16 years, five patients (15.6%) are alive in remission (one from chemotherapy group and four from SCT group).

Conclusions: Our report lends credence to the safety and feasibility of administering anti-leukemic therapy in acute and chronic leukemias during pregnancy although acute leukemia patients had possibly a poor long term outcome compared to non-pregnant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2014.03.001DOI Listing
June 2014

Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its association with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Exp Clin Transplant 2013 Jun 26;11(3):270-3. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Gastroenterology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is a significant postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant problem. Recent data in lung transplant patients suggest an association with gastroesophageal reflux disease and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. We studied posthematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its response to a proton pump inhibitor.

Materials And Methods: Seven postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome were studied. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was assessed by 24-hour pH monitoring with a Bravo catheter-free radio pH capsule. Patients with positive gastroesophageal reflux disease were started on omeprazole. Pretreatment and posttreatment pulmonary function tests were done at 3-month intervals.

Results: Of 7 patients, 5 had positive results for gastroesophageal reflux disease (71%). Omeprazole had a disease-stabilizing effect on the patients' pulmonary function tests.

Conclusions: Our study shows a significant association between bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease in postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Use of omeprazole may have a disease-stabilizing effect in short-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2012.0207DOI Listing
June 2013

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adolescent and adult patients with high-risk T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012 Dec 21;18(12):1897-904. Epub 2012 Jul 21.

Adult Hematology/HSCT, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is often recommended for patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in second or later complete remission (≥CR2) and sometimes in high-risk (HR) patients in first complete remission (CR1). Between January 1995 and July 2009, 53 patients with HR T-ALL underwent allo-SCT at our institution. Median age was 18 years (range, 14-51). Thirty-two patients (60.3%) were in CR1, 18 (34%) were in ≥CR2, and 3 (5.7%) were in relapse. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 5 years was 22.5%. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 40.2%, and that of chronic GVHD was 43.7%. The majority of relapses (88.9%) occurred within 1 year after SCT. The cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) at 5 years was 35.6%. CIR was 29.8% in patients in CR1, 35.3% in patients in ≥CR2 and all patients transplanted in relapse had disease recurrence post-allo-SCT (P = .000). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years were 43.5% and 41.8%, respectively. The 5-year OS was 53.5% (95% CI 34.5%-72.5%) and 5-year DFS was 52% (95% CI 33%-71%) in patients who underwent allo-SCT in CR1, compared with 31.9% (95% CI, 9%-54.8%) and 29.4% (95% CI 7.6%-51.2%) in those who underwent allo-SCT in ≥CR2. On multivariate analysis, disease status at SCT remained significantly associated with OS (P = .007), DFS (P = .002), and CIR (P = .000). The presence of extramedullary disease at diagnosis had no effect on the different outcomes. Grade II-IV acute GVHD was significantly associated with a lower OS (P = .006) and DFS (P = .01). Our data indicate that allo-SCT represents an effective treatment for HR T-ALL, particularly when performed in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.07.011DOI Listing
December 2012

High efficacy and low toxicity of short-course oral valganciclovir as pre-emptive therapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplant cytomegalovirus infection.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2010 ;3(3):116-20

King Faisal Cancer Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major infectious complication post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CMV seropositivity in Eastern Mediterranean and certain Asian countries is reported to be close to 100%; hence, the need for effective pre-emptive treatment strategy that has low toxicity. Valganciclovir (VGC) is a prodrug of ganciclovir with high bioavailability.

Patients And Methods: HSCT patients with documented CMV infection (as defined by positive CMV antigenemia) were treated as outpatients with VGC at a starting dose of 900 mg twice daily for 1 week. Those who were antigenemia negative after one week received 900 mg once daily for another week and treatment was subsequently discontinued. Those who were positive after one week of therapy continued on the twice-daily treatment schedule for another week and changed to a daily schedule once they converted to antigenemia negativity.

Results: From January 2004 to December 2007, 47 HSCT patients received preemptive treatment with VGC for 61 episodes of CMV infection. The antigenemia range was 1 to 700 infected cells/slide. Complete responses were observed in 92% and 97% after the 1st and 2nd week of treatment, respectively. Three percent of the episodes were considered refractory, requiring alternative therapy. No CMV disease was observed in this cohort.

Conclusion: Neutropenia was the main observed toxicity, requiring granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in 8 episodes. Outpatient treatment of CMV infection with "short-course oral VGC" given as a one-week twice-daily treatment and one week once daily maintenance is a highly effective therapy with minimal toxicity. These results require validation in a larger, randomized study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1658-3876(10)50021-9DOI Listing
March 2011

Fludarabine-based conditioning chemotherapy for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acquired severe aplastic anemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2011 May 22;17(5):717-22. Epub 2010 Aug 22.

Adult HSCT Program, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Thirty-eight patients who met the diagnostic criteria for severe aplastic anemia underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The median patient age was 20 years (range, 14-36 years). Twenty-four patients were treatment-naïve, 11 had failed one or more previous courses of immunosuppressive therapy, and 3 had failed a previous HSCT. The conditioning regimen included fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/day for 3 days (days -9, -8, and -7) and cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day for 4 days (days -5, -4, -3, and -2). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and short-course methotrexate. All patients underwent transplantation with unmanipulated bone marrow as the stem cell source. The median total nucleated cell (TNC) dose was 2.43 × 10(8)/kg (range, 0.60-6.7 × 10(8)/ kg). The conditioning regimen was well tolerated, with minimal treatment-related mortality. Engraftment was observed in all patients after transplantation; the median time to engraftment of neutrophils and platelets was 18 and 23 days, respectively. Twenty-five of the 27 patients with available chimeric studies at day 180 maintained donor chimerism. Acute GVHD grade ≥II was diagnosed in 4 patients (11%). Extensive chronic GVHD was observed in 8 patients (25%) who survived beyond day +100, at a median observation time of 43 months. Graft rejection with relapse of aplais was observed in one patient. The overall survival (OS) for the whole group was 79%. A trend toward improved OS was observed in the treatment-naïve patients (83% vs 71%), but this was statistically insignificant (P = .384). The fludarabine-based conditioning regimen used in this study with relatively young cohort of patients was well tolerated, with a low rate of rejection and treatment outcomes comparable to those seen in other, more intense and potentially more toxic conditioning regimens. Our results await validation in a larger study, optimally in a randomized controlled manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.08.013DOI Listing
May 2011

Status of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO).

Transfus Apher Sci 2010 Apr 27;42(2):169-75. Epub 2010 Jan 27.

King Faisal Cancer Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Several centers are now performing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) but the availability is still limited due to high cost and the need for multi-disciplinary team and an advanced laboratory support. Special issues including compatible donor availability, potential for alternate donor programs, differences in pattern of disease, pre-HSCT general status particularly for patients with BM failure, high sero-positivity for CMV, Hepatitis B and C infection and specific observations about GVHD with its relation to genetically homogeneous community are discussed. A total of 17 HSCT programs (performing five or more HSCTs annually) exist in nine countries of the EM region. Only six programs are currently reporting to EBMT or IBMTR. A total of 7617 HSCTs including 5701 allogeneic HSCTs have been performed. Due to low HSCT team density (1.5583 teams/10 million inhabitants versus 14.4333 in Europe) and very low HSCT team distribution (0.2729 teams/10,000 sq km area versus <1 to 6 teams in Europe) only 70.8% of total population has access to such a program in EM region. GNI/capita had no clear association with low HSCT activity; however improvement in infrastructure and establishment of EM regional HSCT registry need prioritization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2010.01.012DOI Listing
April 2010

Molecular monitoring of response to imatinib (Glivec) in chronic myeloid leukemia patients: experience at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2010 Feb;14(1):67-74

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and resistance of cases to chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapy with tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors (imatinib mesylate) and to search for mutations in the breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson murine leukemia (ABL) kinase domain prior to and during therapy.

Methods: Molecular response was assessed with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and was expressed as the ratio between BCR-ABL and ABL (k562 cell line) x 100. In addition, we searched for mutations in BCR-ABL kinase domain by amplification and direct sequencing of cDNA products of archived RNA samples.

Results: There were 85 cases of CML Philadelphia-chromosome-positive patients. Major molecular response [corrected] (MMR) of 0.05% was achieved in 40 (47%) of 85 patients and 3-log reduction was achieved in 37 (44%) after 6 months of imatinib therapy. When molecular monitoring was extended to 12 months in a subset of delayed responsive cases (17 cases) who did not achieve an MMR at 6 months, significant changes in BCR-ABL/ABL ratio were noticed. Fifteen de novo CML patients were started directly on treatment and were monitored for BCR-ABL/ABL ratio for a further period of up to 24 months. Their median of BCR-ABL/ABL ratio was 18% at diagnosis, 0.3% after 6 months, 0.2% after 12 months, and 0.01% after 18 and 24 months. Four (27%) of 15 patients achieved MMR as 3-log reduction after 6 months, 6 (40%) after 12 months, 9 (60%) after 18 months, and 7 (46%) after 24 months. No mutation(s) or polymorphism(s) were detected in all tested patients at diagnosis, at 6 months following imatinib and following 12 months for patients showing delayed response.

Conclusion: BCR-ABL mutations are rare in early chronic phase and increases with CML disease progression. Therefore, search for other causes in resistant cases at this phase should be sought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2009.0126DOI Listing
February 2010

Ocular findings after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Ophthalmology 2009 Sep;116(9):1624-9

The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To study the incidence, causes, and outcome of major ocular complications in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Design: Retrospective, noncomparative, observational clinical study.

Participants: The study included a total of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT in the period from 1997 to 2007 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Intervention: Allogeneic HSCT.

Main Outcome Measures: Patients with ocular complications were referred to the ophthalmology division for complete ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity, tonometry, Schirmer test, biomicroscopy, and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Laboratory investigations were performed whenever indicated. The incidence and causes of major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT were determined. Visual acuity at 1 year after allogeneic HSCT was recorded.

Results: Major ocular complications occurred in 80 (13%) of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. There were 36 male patients (45%) and 44 female patients (55%) with a mean age of 29 years and an age range of 9 to 65 years. Prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate in 69 patients, and cyclosporine, methotrexate and corticosteroids, or mycophenolate mofetil in 11 patients. The most frequently encountered ocular complications were chronic GVHD, dry eye syndrome without GVHD, corneal ulcers, cataract, glaucoma, cytomegalovirus retinitis, fungal endophthalmitis, and acquisition of allergic conjunctivitis from atopic donors. There was no correlation between the pattern of ocular complications and the transplanted stem cell source. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 year after transplantation was less than 20/200 in 13 patients (16%), less than 20/50 in 17 patients (21%), and better than 20/50 in 50 patients (63%).

Conclusions: Ocular complications are common in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Early recognition and prompt treatment are important.

Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.04.054DOI Listing
September 2009

Brucella bacteremia in a recipient of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant: a case report.

Cases J 2009 Jan 27;2(1):91. Epub 2009 Jan 27.

Section of Adult Hematology and Hematopoietic, Stem Cell Transplant, King Faisal Cancer Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P,O, Box: 3345, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Brucellosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients living in areas that are endemic for the infection.

Case Presentation: A 20 years old Saudi male was diagnosed to have severe aplastic anemia at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh in April 2006. One hundred and twelve days following his successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, he presented with pyrexia in addition to neutropenia and mild thrombocytopenia. Brucella serology was strongly positive and blood cultures grew Brucella melitensis. The bacteremic episode of brucellosis was successfully treated with streptomycin, doxycyclin and ciprofloxacin at the outpatient clinic. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a naturally occurring Brucella infection complicated by Brucella bacteremia in a recipient of hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Conclusion: Brucellosis may cause systemic infections, complicated bacteremias and serious morbidity in immunocompromised patients living in countries that are endemic for the infection. It should be considered as a possible cause of fever and pancytopenia in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients living in these geographical locations. Nevertheless, the infection is curable provided the diagnosis is made early and an appropriate antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1757-1626-2-91DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2637260PMC
January 2009

Methotrexate-induced acute leukemia: report of three cases and review of the literature.

Clin Med Case Rep 2009 31;2:43-9. Epub 2009 Jul 31.

Section of Adult Hematology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant, Oncology Centre, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

For many years, methotrexate has been used in the treatment of certain chronic medical disorders e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis as well as a number of malignant disorders e.g. acute lymphoblastic leukemia, certain types of lymphoma and breast carcinoma. Its use has been associated with various systemic toxicities and complications. The association between methotrexate therapy and the development of lymphoma and pseudolymphoma is well established. In patients treated with methotrexate, the development of leukemia has been attributed to either the primary disorder e.g. rheumatoid arthritis or to other drugs used concomitantly e.g. cyclophosphamide. Reported here are two patients with rheumatoid arthritis and one patient with psoriasis treated with low dose methotrexate for variable periods of time. Two of these patients developed acute myeloid leukemia on myelodysplastic syndrome background, while the third patient developed pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia that expressed few myeloid markers and had a positive philadelphia chromosome. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of methotrexate-induced acute leukemia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785348PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/ccrep.s3078DOI Listing
November 2013

Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia causing septic shock in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant: Two case reports.

Cases J 2008 Sep 18;1(1):160. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

Section of Adult Hematology and Hematopoietic, Stem Cell Transplant, King Faisal Cancer Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P,O, Box: 3345, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Klebsiella oxytoca can cause various infectious complications in healthy as well as in immunocompromised individuals.

Case Presentations: Case 1: A 49 year old female with multiple myeloma received an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant in October 2005. Eight days following her autograft she developed septic shock caused by Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia which was successfully treated with intravenous meropenem and gentamicin. Case 2: A 29 year old female with sickle cell anemia and severe aplastic anemia underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in July 2005. Seven months following her unsuccessful allograft, she developed septic shock due to Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia caused by a urinary tract infection. The septic episode was successfully managed with intravenous meropenem and gentamicin. Both patients were treated at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. To our knowledge, they are the first reports of Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremias and septic shocks in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Conclusion: Klebsiella oxytoca should be considered as a possible cause of severe infections in recipients of various forms of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, these infections may be complicated by bacteremias, septic shocks, systemic dysfunctions and even deaths if not managed promptly and appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1757-1626-1-160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2556667PMC
September 2008

Successful outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis complicated by therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia: a case report.

Cases J 2008 Aug 18;1(1):101. Epub 2008 Aug 18.

Section of Adult Hematology and Hematopoietic, Stem Cell Transplant, King Faisal Cancer Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P,O, Box: 3345, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Various therapeutic options are available for the management of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, treatment administered to control this disease may be complicated by acute leukemia.

Case Presentation: A 34 years old male was diagnosed to have Langerhans cell histiocytosis in March 1999. Unfortunately, the cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to control the repeated relapses and exacerbations of the primary disease predisposed him to therapy-induced myelodysplastic syndrome which transformed into acute myeloid leukemia. After achieving complete remission of his leukemia, the patient received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The allograft was complicated by chronic graft versus host disease that was controlled by various immunosuppressive agents and extracorporal photophoresis.

Conclusion: Management of complicated cases of histiocytosis requires various therapeutic modalities and a multidisciplinary approach. Having complications of therapy eg myelodysplasia or acute leukemia make the outcome more dismal and the management options limited to aggressive forms of treatment. High dose chemotherapy followed by an allograft may be a curative option not only for therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute leukemia, but also for frequently relapsing and poorly controlled Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1757-1626-1-101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2527498PMC
August 2008

Acquisition of vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis after bone marrow transplantation.

Am J Ophthalmol 2008 Sep 9;146(3):462-5. Epub 2008 Jul 9.

Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) result from genetic and environmental factors. We present patients who had no history of atopic disorders before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and who seem to have acquired VKC or AKC from their donors, who had atopic disorders.

Design: Observational case series.

Methods: The patients in this study were part of a cohort of patients who had undergone allogeneic hemapoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from January 1997 through December 2007. Of 621 HSCT recipients, four recipients who were free of allergic disorders acquired VKC or AKC from their afflicted donors after HSCT. Each patient underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, determination of the total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, and conjunctival scrapings.

Results: Four (0.64%) of 621 patients who had undergone HSCT acquired VKC or AKC after BMT. The donors had VKC or atopic dermatitis. In addition, in two of these four patients, asthma developed. One patient had elevated total serum IgE. Conjunctival scrapings of all four patients revealed the presence of eosinophils. One patient had concurrent graft-versus-host disease.

Conclusions: VKC and AKC are systemic allergic disorders characterized by local ocular manifestations. This report suggests the possibility of the acquisition of VKC or AKC after BMT by adoptive transfer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2008.05.012DOI Listing
September 2008

Successful management of invasive pulmonary nocardiosis and aspergillosis in a patient with T-cell lymphoma: a case report.

Clin Med Case Rep 2008 27;1:65-71. Epub 2008 May 27.

Section of Adult Hematology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant, King Faisal Cancer Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P.O. Box: 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

In patients with malignant hematological disorders receiving immunosuppressive therapy, invasive pulmonary infections are serious complications that are associated with high morbidity and mortality. In immunocompromised hosts with impaired cellular immunity, two or more organisms may coexist leading to a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations. Reported here is an old man who was diagnosed to have angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh in December 2004. The lymphoma was treated with various immunosuppressive agents including alemtuzumab. In October 2006, the patient was admitted with severe bronchopneumonia caused by Nocardia asteroides and Aspergillus niger that was complicated by septic shock. The invasive pulmonary infections were successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, amikacin and liposomal amphotericin-B (amBisome).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785346PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/ccrep.s817DOI Listing
November 2013

Obliterative bronchiolitis in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome before bone marrow transplantation.

Respir Med 2007 Feb 9;101(2):359-62. Epub 2006 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, MBC 46, Riyadh 11211, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is known to result from many causes, such as post-bone marrow transplantation, autoimmune and infectious causes, and from drugs. We report a 16-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and referred for pulmonary evaluation prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Her chief complaints were progressive cough and dysponea. Her radiological and pulmonary function tests were highly suggestive of advanced OB, which was confirmed by a lung biopsy. She eventually died despite steroid therapy. The possible aetiology of OB in this patient is discussed, but, to our knowledge, this is the first case report of OB associated with MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2006.04.025DOI Listing
February 2007

Clinical and laboratory features of congenital factor XIII deficiency.

Saudi Med J 2002 May;23(5):552-4

Department of Oncology, Adult Hematology/BMT, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, MBC-64, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objective: This is a retrospective analysis of the clinical and laboratory features of 17 cases of factor XIII deficiency that were followed in tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over 20 years. Cases were referred to these hospitals from other health care centers in the country.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 17 cases of factor XIII deficiency comprising 11 males and 6 females, who were seen over a period of 20 years (1978-1998) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data variables including age, sex, origin, clinical presentation, bleeding time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, factor XIII screening and assay, hemoglobin, and platelet count were collected and analyzed. The diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency was made by urea clot lysis test alone in one patient and urea clot lysis test in combination with factor XIII quantitative assay in 16 patients.

Results: Eleven patients were males and 6 were females. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 9 years (3-29 years). Ten patients (59%) had a family history of excessive bleeding. Presenting symptoms included ecchymosis and recurrent hematomas in 12 patients (71%), bleeding after circumcision in 6 male patients (55%), umbilical stump bleeding in 7 (41%), poor wound healing and keloids in 3 patients (18%), and intracranial bleeding in 3 patients (18%). Other manifestations included cephalohematoma, abortion, abruptio placenta, and intraperitoneal bleeding (one patient each). Laboratory evaluation revealed a normal prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time and platelet count in all patients. Factor XIII screening test was positive in all 17 patients tested and assay for factors XIII was <0.06 U/ml in 16 patients tested.

Conclusion: Our data confirms that factor XIII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by variable bleeding manifestations but consistent laboratory findings. The occurrence of keloid in our patient group may reflect the poor quality of the clotting, associated with loss of tensile strength of fibrin polymers, caused by factor XIII deficiency and leading to abnormally large scar formation.
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May 2002
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