Publications by authors named "Fahad Al-Misned"

40 Publications

Reproductive success in : A role of post-insemination association of male and female.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 22;28(3):1539-1543. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad (Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University Bareilly), India.

Reproductive success is attained by various mechanisms in insects. Prolonged post insemination association is one such mechanism to increase the reproductive success. The present study was conducted to assess the role of post insemination association of mating partners on reproductive performance in Chrysomelidae beetle, Pallister. The matings were disrupted at different time intervals and fecundity and percent egg viability of the females were recorded. In addition, the mounting attempts, mating attempts, time to commencement of mating and latent period were also recorded. It was hypothesized that: (1) the mounting and mating attempts would not exist, (2) copulation duration, would not affect the reproductive performance, and (3) the beetle would not exhibit the mate guarding behaviour. Interestingly, results revealed that 6.00 ± 1.3 and 6.59 ± 0.93 mounting and mating attempts are needed to establish successful mating. The results revealed that males improved their percent egg viability with a mating duration ranging from nearly 30-50 min. While fecundity increased with a mating duration of above 30 min and up to a duration of 60 min. This result concluded that males of this beetle display post copulatory mate guarding behaviour after 60 min in which male rides on female's back with his aedeagus inserted in the female genital tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938115PMC
March 2021

Polychromatic luminescence and improved antifungal performance of succinic acid in the lattice of L-Lysine monohydrochloride.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 24;28(1):395-399. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Physics, Govt. Arts and Science College, Nagercoil, Tamilnadu 629004, India.

The incorporation of succinic acid (SA) in the lattice of L-Lysine monohydrochloride (LM) has opened the new avenue in the field of production and application of scintillator materials such as LED and antifungal drug. Crystalline trait and monoclinic structure were scanned by XRD. The existence of carbonyl, carboxylate and protonated amine group were confirmed through FTIR and UV spectra predicted the transmittance of SA: LM crystal. Polychromatic luminescence behaviour had achieved through the incorporation of SA instead of blue luminescence, which is a new result. Also SA: LM exhibited good response towards pathogenic fungi which causes numerous types of infections and diseases in both humans and animals. The high inhibitory zone at 16 mm was formed by the grown SA: LM crystal against the life threatening fungi like Also fungal inhibition against respectively, were tuned by the inclusion of succinic acid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783679PMC
January 2021

FbD directed fabrication and investigation of luliconazole based SLN gel for the amelioration of candidal vulvovaginitis: a 2 T (thermosensitive & transvaginal) approach.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 16;28(1):317-326. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.

Candidal vulvovaginitis (CVV), is the second most leading vaginal infection (global prevalence > 75%), caused due to excessive growth of spp. predominantly (>95% cases). The current treatment regimens for CVV are marred with the challenges of fungal resistance & infection recurrence, subsequently leading to the compromised therapeutic efficacy of anti-fungal drugs, prolonged treatment and low patient compliance. The core of the present research was the fabrication & investigation of 2 T-SLN (solid lipid nanoparticles) gel carrying luliconazole for the amelioration of CVV. '2T' symbolizes transvaginal & thermosensitive attributes of the present formulation. SLNs were prepared by a modified melt emulsification-ultra sonication method using a combination of solid lipids (Gelucire 50/13 & Precirol ATO 5), surfactant (Tween 80) and co-surfactant (Kolliphor). Formulation by design (FbD) approach was adopted to obtain appropriately screened and tailored SLNs. The optimized SLNs yielded a particle size, polydispersity index & entrapment efficiency of 62.18 nm, 0.263 & 81.5% respectively. To formulate the 2 T-gel, the final SLNs were loaded into Carbopol 971P-NF and Triethanolamine based gel. The 2 T-SLN gel was found to be easily spreadable and homogenous with mean extrudability (15 ± 0.4 g/cm), viscosity (696.42 ± 2.34 Pa·s) and %drug content (93.24 ± 0.73%) values.. The pH of the prepared 2 T-SLN gel (4.5 ± 0.5) was in concordance with the vaginal pH (normal conditions). For characterization of an optimized 2 T-SLN gel the release kinetics & anticandidal activity were assessed which offers a %cumulative drug release of 62 ± 0.5% in 72 h and 37.3 ± 1.5 mm zone of inhibition in 48 h. The visual appearance & dimensions were determined using fluorescent microscopy (spherical shape) & transmission electron microscopy (90-120 nm) respectively. The optimized 2 T-SLN gel showcases a skin-friendly profile with no significant signs of erythema and oedema and was found to be stable at room temperature for 2 months without any visual non-uniformity/cracking/breaking. In conclusion, the current research serves a new therapeutic perspective in assessing the activity of luliconazole for vaginal drug delivery using a 2 T-SLN gel system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785458PMC
January 2021

Facile synthesis of gold and platinum doped titanium oxide nanoparticles for antibacterial and photocatalytic activity: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Mar 17;33:102148. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India; Unit of Natural Products and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Government College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, 612 001, Tamil Nadu, India.

A simple method has been needed to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs) to avoid environmental pollution, an alternative chemical and physical method. This current study deals with phytosynthesis of gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) metal doped with titanium oxide (TiO) NPs using Enterolobium saman bark extract. This extract plays a vital role in reducing and stabilizing Au and Pt doped into the TiO NPs lattices. Phytosynthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, ED-XRF, TEM, FTIR, Raman, and UV-vis-DRS analyses. The metal doping effect has decreased bandgap energy and particle size, whereas increased conductivity for TiO/M-Au and TiO/M-Pt NPs compared to pristine TiO NPs. Phytosynthesized NPs were fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and photocatalytic behaviour against methylene blue (MB) dye was studied. An obtained result demonstrates that TiO/M-Au NPs have excellent feasibility for applying DSSC and photocatalytic application due to particle size, crystallite size, absorption ability, and bandgap energy. Besides, synthesized samples were measured with cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy found that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric and increases that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric increases electro-catalytic of the TiO. Different concentrations of all NPs were tested against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and S. aureus ATCC 6633 bacteria by a well-diffusion method. The 10 mg concentration of all NPs showed better antibacterial activity. However, we believe that the proposed simple phytosynthesized method provides an efficient way to overcome the chemical and physical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102148DOI Listing
March 2021

Probing of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds of Central Asian Flyway wintering grounds.

Sci Rep 2020 12 17;10(1):22118. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, 608 002, India.

The study is intended to deliver the incidence of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds from two important Central Asian Flyway (CAF) migratory shorebirds wintering sites such as the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary (PWLS) and Pichavaram Mangrove Forest (PMF), India. Feathers of fifteen species of shorebirds and seven different metals viz., Cu, Cr, Co, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn were analyzed. Zn was highest in Dunlin, Little-ringed Plover, Marsh Sandpiper, and Common sandpiper, Ni showed highest in Little ringed plover, and Common sandpiper, Co, Cr, and Cu were maximum in Little stint, Marsh sandpiper, and Dunlin, respectively. The Hg was higher in Black-winged stilt, Common redshank, Curlew Sandpiper, Eurasian curlew, Lesser Sand-plover, Temminck's stint, Kentish plover, Spotted redshank, and Wood sandpiper, the Pb found highest in Kentish plover, Painted stork, Spotted redshank, Wood sandpiper, Eurasian Curlew, and Lesser sand-plover. The concentration of metals showed significant variations among the species of shorebirds studied (P < 0.001). The mercury negatively correlated with the other metals than the other six metals studied in both the wetlands. The order of metal concentration in the feathers of shorebirds was Zn > Ni > Co > Cr > Cu > Pb > Hg. Nevertheless, the current study revealed that the level of metals in the shorebirds is alarming; since the PWLS and PMF are located along the CAF routes, it needs intensive studies on various pollutions to manage both the resident as well as migratory shorebirds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79029-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747699PMC
December 2020

Down-regulation of hepatic G-6-Pase expression in hyperglycemic rats: Intervention with biogenic gold nanoconjugate.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Dec 22;27(12):3334-3341. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, School of BioSciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India.

Chronic diabetes extensively complicates the glucose metabolism to onset and progress the complication. Concurrently, several contemporary medicines, especially organo-metallic formulations, are emerging to treat hyperglycemia. The current study aims to emphasize the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) potential for glucose metabolism regulation in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect the mRNA expression of Glucose transporters 2 (GLUT2), Glucokinase (GK) and Glucose 6 Phosphatase (G-6-Pase). The study shows remarkable results such as the prognostic effect of GNPs in reinforcing the repression of enzyme complex G-6-Pase about 13.3-fold when compared to diabetes control. Also, molecular docking studies showed significant inhibition of G-6-Pase by the terpenoid ligands with alpha and beta amyrin from leaf extract of . Thus the study explored the novel mechanism of G-6-Pase downregulated by GNPs intervention that majorly contributes to the regulation of circulatory glucose homeostasis during diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7715047PMC
December 2020

Entomofaunal survey and larvicidal activity of greener silver nanoparticles: A perspective for novel eco-friendly mosquito control.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Nov 4;27(11):2917-2928. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002 Tamil Nadu, India.

The entomofaunal survey and its toxicity of (Asteraceae) leaf aqueous extract-mediated (-LAE) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were assessed against selected human vector mosquitoes (HVMs). A total of 1800 individuals of 29 species belongs to 7 genera were identified. Month-wise and Genus-wise abundance of HVMs larval diversity were calculated and one-way ANOVA statistically analyzed the average physico-chemical characteristics. The relationship between physicochemical characteristics and HVMs larvae in KWS was interpreted. The total larval density and container index were 23530.18 and 1961.85 examined against 10 different containers. Various spectroscopic and microscopic investigation characterized -AgNPs. The AgNPs tested against HVMs larvae, the predominant LC/LC values of 18.17/39.56, 23.45/42.49 and 21.82/40.43 μg/mL were observed on and respectively. The findings of this investigation, improperly maintained drainages, containers and unused things in study sites, are engaged to HVMs development. This will be essential for designing and implementing HVMs control. The larval toxic potentiality of AgNPs had a prompt, inexpensive and compelling synthesis of multi-disperse action against HVMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569148PMC
November 2020

Photocatalytic, antiproliferative and antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Dec 13;32:102058. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Science Block, 6th Floor, Burma Colony, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract. The synthesis of the nanoparticle was primarily visualized when the colour of the reaction mixture turned into reddish-brown. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDX. The UV spectra showed maximum absorption at 584 nm. FT-IR studies showed stretching frequency at 592.76 cm which is the fingerprint region for Cu-O bond. The crystallinity of the synthesized copper nanoparticles (Mz-Cu NPs) was revealed through XRD analysis. The synthesized Mz-Cu NPs were spherical with an average size of 18.9-42.5 nm and it was shown by SEM analysis. EDX analysis displayed that the nano sample contains 58 % of copper. The antimicrobial property of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against fungal plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani (MTCC 12232), Sclerotium oryzae (MTCC 12230) and bacterial species, namely Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 23857), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 35084), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33845). In in-vitro haemolytic assay, the particle showed 5.73, 3.34, 0.5 % hemolysis at 100, 50, 25 μg/mL concentration respectively. In the antiproliferative assay, the IC values of MCF7 and Vero cells were found to be 53.89 and 883.69 μg/μl. The particle degraded Methyl violet, Malachite green and Coomassie brilliant blue by 92.2, 94.9 and 78.8 %, within 50, 40 and 60 min, respectively, through its photocatalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102058DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of etiology and pregnancy outcome in recurrent miscarriage patients.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Oct 3;27(10):2809-2817. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate etiology and pregnancy outcome of recurrent miscarriage women. The enrolled patients (280) were evaluated for Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, Thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, chromosomal analysis, Haemoglobin A1C, blood sugar, Magnetic resonance imaging, 3D-ultrasound, auto-antibodies profile (antiphospholipid antibodies, anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, antinuclear antibodies, anti-thyroid antibodies and β2 glycoprotein1), torch profile (Toxoplasmo gondii, rubella, cytomegalo virus and herpes simplex virus), blood vitamin D3 levels, psychological factors, Body mass index and thrombotic factors (protein S and C deficiency, Prothrombin G20210A mutation, anti-thrombin III, Factor V Leiden and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation), uterosalpingography (hysteronsalpingography) and hysteroscopy. The therapeutic regimens either singly or combined were employed for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage patients on the basis of etiology (single or multiple) and include intravenous immunoglobulin, low molecular weight heparin, low dose aspirin, levothyroxine, progesterone, folic acid, human chorionic gonadotrophin, vitamin D3, psychotherapy, genetic counselling. However, patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage were treated with progesterone supplementation, anticoagulation and/or immune modulatory agents. The incidence of primary recurrent miscarriage was highest and most of the women experienced recurrent miscarriage during first trimester. Endocrinological disorders (39%) were found as the major pathological factor for recurrent miscarriage. Other factors include uterine abnormalities (5.7%), vitamin D3 deficiency (3.5%), psychological factors (3.2%) infection (3.6%), autoimmune abnormalities (1.8%) and protein S deficiency (1.8%). However, 40% cases were idiopathic. The overall live birth rate achieved after the management of recurrent miscarriage patients was 75.7%. Enocrinopathy was the major cause of recurrent miscarriage. The overall live birth rate achieved was 75.7% with highest pregnancy outcome in secondary recurrent miscarriage patients after the management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499272PMC
October 2020

Dim Light at Night Induced Neurodegeneration and Ameliorative Effect of Curcumin.

Cells 2020 09 13;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida UP 201303, India.

It is a well-known fact that following a proper routine light/dark or diurnal rhythm controls almost all biological processes. With the introduction of modern lighting and artificial illumination systems, continuous exposure to light at night may lead to the disruption of diurnal rhythm. However, the effect of light during the night on brain anatomy, physiology, and human body functions is less explored and poorly understood. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of exposure to dim light (5 lux) at night (dLAN) on Swiss Albino mice over a duration of three consecutive weeks. Results have revealed that exposure to dLAN led to an impairment of cognitive and non-cognitive behaviour, oxidative stress-mediated elevation of lipid peroxidation, and reduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. It also led to the downregulation of hippocampal proteins (BDNF, Synapsin II and DCX) at both protein and mRNA level. Additionally, there was downregulation of CREB and SIRT1 mRNAs and neurodegeneration-associated miRNA21a-5p and miRNA34a-5p. The pyramidal and cortical neurons started showing pyknotic and chromatolysis characteristics. However, a dose of curcumin administered to the mice positively modulated these parameters in our experimental animals. We proposed the modulatory role of curcumin in addressing the deleterious effects of dLAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9092093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565558PMC
September 2020

Design and development of porous terracotta disc: An eco-friendly novel control agent for mosquito larvae.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Nov 3;218:107988. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In the present work, we synthesized silver nanoparticles supported by rice husk by hydrothermal treatment, as-synthesized silver nanoparticles rice husk (AgNPs-RH) bio-composite mixed with potter clay thoroughly, molded, dried into a disc-shaped before firing and applying as a point of use larvicidal agent. As designed, porous terracotta disc (PTD) infused with AgNPs-RH-biocomposite were characterized by UV spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of silver ions released from the PTD was also found to be within the prescribed limit of 0.1 ppm-level. Later we dropped the PTD and tested its larvicidal activity against the IV instar larva stage of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species. We found 100% larvicidal mortality in 24 h of exposure to the designed PTD and the amount of silver released from the porous disc was found to be 0.0343 ppm. Further from the histopathological studies of dead larvae revealed that the silver ions from the PTD have substantially damaged the exoskeleton of larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107988DOI Listing
November 2020

Box-Behnken Response Surface Design of Polysaccharide Extraction from and the Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Potential.

Molecules 2020 Aug 24;25(17). Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In the present investigation, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions and optimization of Rhododendron arboreum polysaccharide (RAP) yield were studied by a Box-Behnken response surface design and the evaluation of its antioxidant potential. Three parameters that affect the productivity of UAE, such as extraction temperature (50-90 °C), extraction time (10-30 min), and solid-liquid ratio (1-2 g/mL), were examined to optimize the yield of the polysaccharide percentage. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the composition of monosaccharides was found to be glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, and fucose. The data were fitted to polynomial response models, applying multiple regression analysis with a high coefficient of determination value (R = 0.999). The data exhibited that the extraction parameters have significant effects on the extraction yield of polysaccharide percentage. Derringer's desirability prediction tool was attained under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction temperature 66.75 °C, extraction time 19.72 min, and liquid-solid ratio 1.66 mL/g) with a desirability value of 1 yielded the highest polysaccharide percentage (11.56%), which was confirmed through validation experiments. An average of 11.09 ± 1.65% of polysaccharide yield was obtained in optimized extraction conditions with a 95.43% validity. The in vitro antioxidant effect of polysaccharides of R. arboreum was studied. The results showed that the RAP extract exhibited a strong potential against free radical damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504118PMC
August 2020

Low Doses of Extract Act as Natural Biostimulants to Improve the Germination Vigor, Growth, and Grain Yield of Wheat Grown under Water Stress: Photosynthetic Pigments, Antioxidative Defense Mechanisms, and Nutrient Acquisition.

Biomolecules 2020 08 20;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh l1451, Saudi Arabia.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of extract (CRE) on the activities of germination enzymes, seed germination vigor, biomass production, physio-biochemical attributes, and seed yield of water-stressed wheat plants. Different levels of CRE (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%), including water soaking, were used as seed priming. Water stress negatively affected the seed germination, germination enzyme activities, growth, yield, and different physio-biochemical attributes of wheat plants. Low doses of CRE (10, 20, and 30%) ameliorated the adverse effects of water stress on seed germination attributes, and activities of germination enzymes, but negative impacts were recorded at higher doses (40 and 50%) of CRE. Water-stressed wheat plants grown from seeds pre-treated with low doses of CRE also showed better growth and yield as compared with non-treated ones, and that was associated with an improvement in water relations, photosynthetic pigments, nutrient acquisition, reduced lipid peroxidation, and better antioxidative defense mechanisms. The maximum increase in seed yield was 14.77 and 12.32%, found in plants grown from seeds treated with 20% and 10% CRE, respectively. In conclusion, it is suggested that using low doses of CRE as seed priming can contribute to better wheat yield under water stress, especially in semi-arid and arid areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10091212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565113PMC
August 2020

Ecotoxicity of neonicotinoids and diamides on population growth performance of Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Oct 20;203:110998. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

School of Agricultural Sciences, Sharda University, GN, Delhi, India.

Relative ecotoxicity of approved neonicotinoids (i.e. imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran) and diamides (i.e. chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide) was examined on population growth parameters of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on parthenium under laboratory conditions at 27 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity and 10 L : 14D photoperiod. The dose of all tested insecticides in the bioassay procedure was within a minimum range of their recommended field rate. In acute toxicity trial, imidacloprid caused highest rate of mortality in treated adults of Z. bicolorata, however, it was lowest in flubendiamide treatment followed by cyantraniliprole and chlorantraniliprole. Further, based on toxicity coefficient (E) value in acute toxicity trial, all were classified as harmful (H) and diamides were classified as moderately harmful (MH) as per IOBC classification. Moreover, chronic toxicity trials were carried out through life table response experiments (LTREs) in the F progeny of acute toxicity experienced group. Prolonged development with the highest mortality was evident in as compared to diamides. Furthermore, population growth parameters i.e. potential fecundity (Pf), natality rate (m), intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R) and finite rate of increase (λ) was greatly reduced in Z. bicolorata treated with neonicotinoids as compared with diamides. However, mean generation time (T), corrected generation time (τ) and the doubling time (DT) was prolonged in neonicotinoids followed by diamides. Furthermore, proportion of females was greatly reduced (0.43-0.48 females) in neonicotinoids as comparison to diamides (0.53-0.55 females) and control (0.67 females). On the basis of ecotoxicity trials, the tested neonicotinoids were highly toxic to Z. bicolorata than diamides. Therefore, diamide insecticides could be used with Z. bicolorata, however, for validation experimentation need to be done under natural field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110998DOI Listing
October 2020

Does Pallister really affects the growth, density and reproductive performance of L?

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jul 30;27(7):1871-1878. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a satisfactory potential candidate for controlling L The study was conducted in order to evaluate the bio-control potential of to satisfactory reduced the density of parthenium weed in natural field conditions. Therefore, beetles were released in the twelve study sites @ 12 adults and/or larvae/m in their respective sites on 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day after initial field releases. Observations were made on defoliation by the beetle perthenium plant height, plant biomass, leaf injury rating and soil seed reservoir. Present study showed that field releases of considerably lowering down the parthenium density at all treated sites. At larval release sites by the 60th day of observation a complete defoliation was noted, however at adult release sites it took 80 days for complete defoliation. Moreover, significantly higher number of developmental stages i.e. eggs, larvae and adults were noted in the adults released sites than to larval released sites and the controls. It was also noted that plant height and its density, flowers & leaves production biomass of parthenium plant and seed reservoir in soil was negatively affected in treated sites as compared to untreated sites. Thus, we have concluded that adults can be utilized in biocontrol program because population build-up was greater in those sites where adults were released.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296485PMC
July 2020

Complex interactions and different possible pathways among functional components of the aquatic microbial world in Farasan Archipelago, Southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 May 28;27(5):1412-1417. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This work aims to outline the dynamics of trophic links between the three main microbial components (bacteria, nanoflagellates, and ciliates) of the Farasan Archipelago in order to establish a baseline for future research in this area. The Farasan Archipelago lies along the southwestern coast of the Saudi Arabia, southern Red Sea between 16°20'-17°10'N and 41°30'-42°30'E and had been declared as marine and terrestrial reserve by the year 1996. Three different sites were chosen for this study, with each site visited bimonthly for 18 months from September 2016 to February 2018. Bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates were enumerated in order to explore the complex interactions between the main microbial categories in sea waters of the Farasan Archipelago. High abundances were recorded during the present study for bacteria (8.7 × 10 bacteria ml), nanoflagellates (3.7 × 10 TNAN ml) and ciliates (40.4 ciliates ml). The paper discusses the various potential pathways controlling the complex interactions between these microbial groups in this part of the southern Red Sea. It is concluded that a linear trophic chain consisting of bacteria heterotrophic nanoflagellates filter feeding ciliates is a major route by which the production of bacteria is transferred to the higher consuming levels, thereby confirming the high importance of t bottom-up control (food supply), alongside top-down control (predation) in regulating bacterial abundances in the Farasan Archipelago. During the present investigation, each nanoflagellate ingested between 11 and 87 bacteria in one hour, while each ciliate consumed between 20 and 185 nanoflagellates every hour. These calculated grazing rates of protistan eukaryotes confirmed the role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates as the main consumers of bacteria, and the role of ciliates as the major control for the heterotrophic nanoflagellate population dynamics, and thus the top predators within the microbial plankton assemblage in the Farasan Archipelago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182789PMC
May 2020

Chemical Composition, Oxidative Stability, and Antioxidant Activity of Allium ampeloprasum L. (Wild Leek) Seed Oil.

J Oleo Sci 2020 May 13;69(5):413-421. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University.

Allium ampeloprasum L., commonly known as wild leek, is an edible vegetable that has been cultivated for centuries. However, no detailed studies have been undertaken to valorize A. ampeloprasum seed oil. This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of A. ampeloprasum seed oil. The seed oil content was found to be 18.20%. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that linoleic acid (71.65%) was the dominant acid, followed by oleic acid (14.11%) and palmitic acid (7.11%). A. ampeloprasum seed oil exhibited an oxidative stability of 5.22 h. Moreover, γ- and δ-tocotrienols were the major tocols present (79.56 and 52.08 mg/100 g oil, respectively). The total flavonoid content (16.64 µg CE /g oil) and total phenolic content (62.96 µg GAE /g oil) of the seed oil were also determined. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as evaluated using the ABTS assay (136.30 µM TEAC/g oil), was found to be significant. These findings indicate that A. ampeloprasum seeds can be regarded as a new source of edible oil having health benefits and nutritional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess19298DOI Listing
May 2020

Disentangling the interplay of positive and negative selection forces that shaped mitochondrial genomes of and .

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Jan 8;7(1):190669. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081, People's Republic of China.

We hypothesized that the mitogenome of (GL), native to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, might exhibit genetic adaptations to the extreme environmental conditions associated with high altitudes (greater than 3000 m). To test this, we also sequenced the mitogenome of (GP), whose native range is close to the Tibetan plateau, but at a much lower altitude (200-1500 m). The two mitogenomes exhibited conserved mitochondrial architecture, but low identity between genes (55% to 76.1% ). Standard (homogeneous) phylogenetic models resolved Gammaridae as paraphyletic, but 'heterogeneous' CAT-GTR model as monophyletic. In indirect support of our working hypothesis, GL, GP and exhibit evidence of episodic diversifying selection within the studied Gammaroidea dataset. The mitogenome of GL generally evolves under a strong purifying selection, whereas GP evolves under directional (especially pronounced in ) and/or relaxed selection. This is surprising, as GP does not inhabit a unique ecological niche compared to other gammarids. We propose that this rapid evolution of the GP mitogenome may be a reflection of its relatively recent speciation and heightened non-adaptive (putatively metabolic rate-driven) mutational pressures. To test these hypotheses, we urge sequencing mitogenomes of remaining species populating the same geographical range as GP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.190669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029888PMC
January 2020

Evaluation of Yeast Fermented Poultry By-Product Meal in Nile Tilapia () Feed: Effects on Growth Performance, Digestive Enzymes Activity, Innate Immunity, and Antioxidant Capacity.

Front Vet Sci 2019 24;6:516. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary inclusion of fermented poultry by-product meal (FPBM) on growth performance, digestive enzymes activity, innate immunity, and antioxidant capacity in Nile tilapia (). A basal diet containing fish meal and soybean meal was considered as a control (Con), and four other diets were produced by inclusion of 10, 20, 30, or 40% FPBM (FPBM10, FPBM20, FPBM30, and FPBM40 diets). The experiment was done in triplicates (20 fish per replicate) and the fish were fed the test diets to visual satiety twice daily for 8 weeks. The groups of fish fed the FPBM10 and FPBM20 diets showed significantly ( < 0.05) higher weight gain and specific growth rate, and lower feed conversion ratio than those fed the Con and FPBM40 diets. Moreover, inclusion of 40% FPBM led to significant reduction of feed intake compared to the other treatments. FPBM at all the tested levels improved intestinal protease activity and lipase activity was enhanced at 10-30% inclusion levels. Furthermore, the FPBM10 and FPBM20 groups revealed significantly higher amylase activity than the other treatments. The FPBM10 group exhibited significantly higher phagocytic activity than the control group and phagocytic index was enhanced by dietary inclusion of 10-30% FPBM. However, inclusion of over 30% FPBM led to significant reduction of lysozyme, phagocytic, and bactericidal activities compared to the control group. Further, FPBM10 and FPBM20 diets increased the serum IgM levels, while NBT was significantly increased by feeding FPBM10 diet compared with FPBM30 and FPBM40 groups ( < 0.05). The group fed the FPBM30 diet showed significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity than the control group. According to the analysis of the data by the polynomial regression, the inclusion of FPBM at 11.17-25.14% can be applied effectively in the diets of tilapia for better growth performance and health condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996487PMC
January 2020

A novel method to detect bovine sex pheromones using l-tyrosine-capped silver nanoparticles: Special reference to nanosensor based estrus detection.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jan 17;203:111747. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Pheromone Technology Lab, Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

In the present study, a simple and a selective colorimetric method for pheromone detection to diagnose estrus in cattle was established based on the l-tyrosine functionalized silver nanoparticles (l-TyrAgNPs). The synthesized silver nanoparticles was spotted by color change (colorless to pale yellow) due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In order to confirm, Ag nanoparticles was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV- Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the pre-colored Ag colloids could be turned from yellow to reddish-brown by the addition of the sex pheromones such as acetic acid or propionic acid, which may have potential application in the colorimetric sensor. The augmented optical nature of nanoparticles furnishes a suitable base to develop a colorimetric sensor for bovine sex pheromones detection. In addition, the computational analyses are critically required to validate residual interactions of bovine odorant-binding protein (OBP) with pheromones. The method was successfully applied to the detection of acetic acid or propionic acid using a biological molecule l-Tyr AgNPs. These results clearly indicate that the biosynthesis of l-Tyr AgNPs can be used as a promising colorimetric sensor for accurate time of estrus prediction in bovine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111747DOI Listing
January 2020

Soil ciliates of the Indian Delhi Region: Their community characteristics with emphasis on their ecological implications as sensitive bio-indicators for soil quality.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Sep 17;26(6):1305-1313. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Acharya Narendra Dev College, University of Delhi, Govindpuri, Kalkaji, New Delhi, India.

The present investigation aims to study the diversity of ciliates from different habitats in and around Delhi, India, and the correlation of this diversity with soil quality {agricultural lands (site 1 and 2), dump yards (site 3 and 4), sewage treatment plant (site 5), residential land (site 6), landfill (site 7) and barren land (site 8)}. Various physicochemical parameters of the different soil samples were studied and analysed for soil texture, interstitial water, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen and phosphorous content, using standard protocols. Seventeen ciliate taxa belonging to four classes, seven orders, ten families, and 17 genera were recorded, with the maximum number of species (eleven) belonging to the class Spirotrichea. Ciliate diversity was highest at sites 5 and 6 and lowest at sites 1 and 2. sp. was the dominant species in the conditioned land (site 8), while the ciliate sp. was present in all the sites examined, showing the highest population density in the sewage treatment plant site (site 5). Statistical analysis showed that ciliate diversity was positively correlated to physicochemical parameters such as interstitial water, total organic matter and organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorous content. Analyses of spirotrichs/colpodids (S/C) ratio and diversity indices implied that the habitat conditions of sites 1, 2, 3 and 8 are relatively unfavourable for soil ciliates to flourish; while sites 4, 5, 6 and 7 provided more favourable conditions. The ubiquity of ciliate distribution suggests their important role in the soil food webs and nutrient cycling, and their community structure and specific characteristics appear to be of major importance for soil formation. A full understanding of soil ciliate diversity and physicochemical parameters helps to inform best practice for improving soil quality as well as conservation practices for sustainable development and management of farms and cultivated lands. In conclusion, ciliate diversity serves as an important and sensitive bio-indicator for soil quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733776PMC
September 2019

Impact of Water Pollution on Trophic Transfer of Fatty Acids in Fish, Microalgae, and Zoobenthos in the Food Web of a Freshwater Ecosystem.

Biomolecules 2019 06 14;9(6). Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This research work was carried out to determine the effects of water contamination on the fatty acid (FA) profile of periphyton, zoobenthos, two Chinese carps and a common carp ( and ), captured from highly polluted (HP), less polluted (LP), and non-polluted (NP) sites of the Indus river. We found that the concentration of heavy metals in the river water from the polluted locations exceeded the permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Fatty acid profiles in periphyton, zoobenthos, , , and in the food web of river ecosystems with different pollution levels were assessed. Lauric acid and arachidic acids were not detected in the biomass of periphyton and zoobenthos from HP and LP sites compared to NP sites. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosadienoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid were not recorded in the biomass samples of periphyton and zoobenthos in both HP and LP sites. Caprylic acid, lauric acid, and arachidic acid were not found in , , and captured from HP. In this study, 6 and 9 omega series FAs were identified in the muscle samples of , and captured from HP and LP sites compared to NP sites, respectively. Less polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in the muscle samples of , , and collected from HP than from LP. The heavy metals showed significant negative correlations with the total FAs in periphyton, zoobenthos, and fish samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9060231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627475PMC
June 2019

Mitochondrial Architecture Rearrangements Produce Asymmetrical Nonadaptive Mutational Pressures That Subvert the Phylogenetic Reconstruction in Isopoda.

Genome Biol Evol 2019 07;11(7):1797-1812

Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P.R. China.

The phylogeny of Isopoda, a speciose order of crustaceans, remains unresolved, with different data sets (morphological, nuclear, mitochondrial) often producing starkly incongruent phylogenetic hypotheses. We hypothesized that extreme diversity in their life histories might be causing compositional heterogeneity/heterotachy in their mitochondrial genomes, and compromising the phylogenetic reconstruction. We tested the effects of different data sets (mitochondrial, nuclear, nucleotides, amino acids, concatenated genes, individual genes, gene orders), phylogenetic algorithms (assuming data homogeneity, heterogeneity, and heterotachy), and partitioning; and found that almost all of them produced unique topologies. As we also found that mitogenomes of Asellota and two Cymothoida families (Cymothoidae and Corallanidae) possess inversed base (GC) skew patterns in comparison to other isopods, we concluded that inverted skews cause long-branch attraction phylogenetic artifacts between these taxa. These asymmetrical skews are most likely driven by multiple independent inversions of origin of replication (i.e., nonadaptive mutational pressures). Although the PhyloBayes CAT-GTR algorithm managed to attenuate some of these artifacts (and outperform partitioning), mitochondrial data have limited applicability for reconstructing the phylogeny of Isopoda. Regardless of this, our analyses allowed us to propose solutions to some unresolved phylogenetic debates, and support Asellota are the most likely candidate for the basal isopod branch. As our findings show that architectural rearrangements might produce major compositional biases even on relatively short evolutionary timescales, the implications are that proving the suitability of data via composition skew analyses should be a prerequisite for every study that aims to use mitochondrial data for phylogenetic reconstruction, even among closely related taxa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601869PMC
July 2019

Phylogenetic analysis of Infectious Bursal Disease viruses according to newly proposed model of classification into geno-groups.

J Infect Public Health 2019 May - Jun;12(3):410-418. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), the disease causes immunosuppression which leads to secondary infections among rearing poultry flocks. Characterization of the virus is important for its control and eradication. The circulating IBDVs are classified on the basis of their antigenic and pathogenic properties. The virus is categorised as classical, variant and very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). IBDV is a non-envelop, icosahedral double stranded virus. Viral protein 2 (VP2) is the major structural protein of capsid that determines the host-pathogen relationship. The aim of this study was to characterise the IBD virus of Pak-Asian region.

Methodology: IBDV suspected flocks were examined in Punjab, Pakistan from 2014-2018. Two hundred and fifty samples were collected with complete history of the disease. The suspected samples were collected from broiler, layer and rural poultry farms. RNA was extracted and hyper-variable region of VP2 gene was amplified using specific primers. Nucleotide sequence of the VP2 gene was determined and its Amino Acid sequence was deduced. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was also performed.

Results: The current classifications based in a hyper-variable region of the capsid protein VP2 (hvVP2), classification of IBDVs is split into newly proposed geno-groups according to Jackwood group. Among these prevailing, some IBDVs are limited geographically whereas, others are reported cosmopolitan. Genetic alterations are continuously playing role in evolution of new strains of the virus.

Conclusion: During this study it was found that isolates of IBDV fall in first three geno-groups. Most of the geno-groups are prevalent around the world, whereas the mutated and re-assorted ones are confined in particular areas of the globe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2018.12.012DOI Listing
June 2019

Assessing water quality and classifying trophic status for scientifically based managing the water resources of the Lake Timsah, the lake with salinity stratification along the Suez Canal.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 29;25(7):1247-1256. Epub 2018 May 29.

Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Lake Timsah is considered as the biggest water body at Ismailia City with a surface area of 14 km. It is a saline shallow water basin lies approximately mid-way between the south city of Suez and the north city of Port Said at 3035'46.55"N and 3219'30.54″E. Because it receives water with high and low salinities, salinity stratification is producing in the Lake Timsah, with values of 14-40‰ for the surface water and over 40‰ for the bottom water. The temperature of the lake water decreased to below 19 °C in the winter and rose to above 29 °C in the summer; the concentration of dissolved oxygen ranged between 6.5 and 12.2 l and the pH fluctuated between 7.9 in its lower value and 8.2 in its higher value. Water transparency was very low as indicated by Secchi disc readings recorded during this study and varied between 0.3 and 2.7 m. The main chemical nutrient (phosphorus) reached its highest levels of 96 µg l in winter and their lowest values of 24 µg l during summer. This nutrient concentration is high especially by comparing with those of unpolluted marine waters, but is typical of the more eutrophic coastal waters worldwide. The composition and abundance of phytoplankton with dominancy of diatoms and increased population density (20,986 cell l) reflect the eutrophic condition of the lake. The intensive growth of phytoplankton was enriched by high concentration of chlorophyll with annual values ranged between 6.5 and 56 µg l. The objective of the present work was quantitative assessment of the quality of the water of the Lake Timsah using different approaches. During the present study, three different approaches were applied for the quantitative assessment of Lake Timsah water quality: the trophic state index (TST); trophic level index (TLI) and water quality index (WQI). Application of the trophic state and trophic level indices (TSI & TLI) revealed that the Lake Timsah has trophic indices of 60 and 5.2 for TSI and TLI, respectively. Both indices reflected the eutrophic condition of the lake waters and confirmed that the eutrophication is a major threat in the Lake Timsah. On the other hand, the WQI calculated for the Lake Timsah during the present study with an average of 49 demonstrated that the water of the Lake Timsah is bad and unsuitable for main and/or several uses. Moreover, WQI allows accounting for several water resource uses and can serve a more robust than TSI and/or TLI and can be used effectively as a comprehensive tool for water quality quantification. In conclusion, the three subjective indices used for the assessment process for the lake water are more suitable and effective for needs of the sustainable water resources protection and management of the Lake Timsah.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6252019PMC
November 2018

The complete mitochondrial genome of Cymothoa indica has a highly rearranged gene order and clusters at the very base of the Isopoda clade.

PLoS One 2018 4;13(9):e0203089. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, and State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China.

As a result of great diversity in life histories and a large number of described species, taxonomic and phylogenetic uncertainty permeates the entire crustacean order of Isopoda. Large molecular datasets capable of providing sufficiently high phylogenetic resolution, such as mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes), are needed to infer their evolutionary history with confidence, but isopod mitogenomes remain remarkably poorly represented in public databases. We sequenced the complete mitogenome of Cymothoa indica, a species belonging to a family from which no mitochondrial genome was sequenced yet, Cymothoidae. The mitogenome (circular, 14484 bp, A+T = 63.8%) is highly compact, appears to be missing two tRNA genes (trnI and trnE), and exhibits a unique gene order with a large number of rearrangements. High compactness and the existence of palindromes indicate that the mechanism behind these rearrangements might be associated with linearization events in its evolutionary history, similar to those proposed for isopods from the Armadillidium genus (Oniscidea). Isopods might present an important model system to study the proposed discontinuity in the dynamics of mitochondrial genomic architecture evolution. Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood) conducted using nucleotide sequences of all mitochondrial genes resolved Oniscidea and Cymothoida suborders as paraphyletic. Cymothoa indica was resolved as a sister group (basal) to all remaining isopods, which challenges the accepted isopod phylogeny, where Cymothoida are the most derived, and Phreatoicidea the most basal isopod group. There is growing evidence that Cymothoida suborder might be split into two evolutionary distant clades, with parasitic species being the most basal split in the Isopoda clade, but a much larger amount of molecular resources carrying a high phylogenetic resolution will be needed to infer the remarkably complex evolutionary history of this group of animals with confidence.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203089PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6122833PMC
February 2019

Aquatic ecosystem health and trophic status classification of the Bitter Lakes along the main connecting link between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Feb 6;25(2):204-212. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The Bitter Lakes are the most significant water bodies of the Suez Canal, comprising 85% of the water volume, but spreading over only 24% of the length of the canal. The present study aims at investigation of the trophic status of the Bitter Lakes employing various trophic state indices, biotic and abiotic parameters, thus reporting the health of the Lake ecosystem according to the internationally accepted classification criteria's. The composition and abundance of phytoplankton with a dominance of diatoms and a decreased population density of 4315-7376 ind. l reflect the oligotrophic nature of this water body. The intense growth of diatoms in the Bitter Lakes depends on silicate availability, in addition to nitrate and phosphate. If the trophic state index (TSI) is applied to the lakes under study it records that the Bitter Lakes have an index under 40. Moreover, in the total chlorophyll- measurements of 0.35-0.96 µg l there are more indicative of little algal biomass and lower biological productivity. At 0.76-2.3 µg l, meanwhile, the low quantity of Phosphorus is a further measure of low biological productivity. In the Bitter Lakes, TN/TP ratios are high and recorded 147.4, and 184.7 for minimum and maximum ratios, respectively. These values indicate that in Bitter lakes, the limiting nutrient is phosphorus and confirm the oligotrophic status of the Bitter Lakes. The latter conclusion is supported by Secchi disc water clarity measurements, showing that light can penetrate, and thus algae can photosynthesize, as deep as >13 m. This study, therefore, showed that the Bitter Lakes of the Suez Canal exhibit oligotrophic conditions with clear water, low productivity and with no algal blooming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816010PMC
February 2018

Aerobic and anaerobic biosynthesis of nano-selenium for remediation of mercury contaminated soil.

Chemosphere 2017 Mar 5;170:266-273. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China; Geomicrobiology Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK.

Selenium (Se) nanoparticles are often synthesized by anaerobes. However, anaerobic bacteria cannot be directly applied for bioremediation of contaminated top soil which is generally aerobic. In this study, a selenite-reducing bacterium, Citrobacter freundii Y9, demonstrated high selenite reducing power and produced elemental nano-selenium nanoparticles (nano-Se) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The biogenic nano-Se converted 45.8-57.1% and 39.1-48.6% of elemental mercury (Hg) in the contaminated soil to insoluble mercuric selenide (HgSe) under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfonate enhanced Hg remediation, probably owing to the release of intracellular nano-Se from the bacterial cells for Hg fixation. The reaction product after remediation was identified as non-reactive HgSe that was formed by amalgamation of nano-Se and Hg. Biosynthesis of nano-Se both aerobically and anaerobically therefore provides a versatile and cost-effective remediation approach for Hg-contaminated surface and subsurface soils, where the redox potential often changes dramatically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.020DOI Listing
March 2017

Morphology and morphogenesis of a new oxytrichid ciliate, n. sp. (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae) from Delhi, India.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2016 Nov 14;23(6):789-794. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The morphology and morphogenesis of a new oxytrichid ciliate, n. sp. were studied and after protargol impregnation. The new ciliate was isolated from the sewage sludge at Delhi Jal Board Sewage Treatment Plant located at Rithala, Delhi, India, using the non-flooded Petri dish method. n. sp. is characterized as follows: flexible dorsoventrally flattened ellipsoidal body; -pattern undulating membranes; adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) occupied about 39% of the body length, and consists of around 26 membranelles; large and deep buccal cavity; colorless subpellicular granules present in groups and arranged around the bases of dorsal bristles; 4 macronuclear nodules; 2 micronuclei; 18 fronto-ventral-transverse (FVT) cirri in typical -pattern; 6 dorsal rows of bristles; 3 caudal cirri; about 16 right and 15 left marginal cirri; n. sp. is a new species on the basis of the combination of morphological, morphometric and morphogenetic characteristic features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5109498PMC
November 2016

Microbial-meiofaunal interrelationships in coastal sediments of the Red Sea.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2016 May 15;23(3):327-34. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Population density and biomass of bacteria and meiofauna were investigated seasonally in the sediments of the north-western bank of Red Sea. Samples of sediments were collected seasonally from three different stations to determine microphytobenthic biomass (chlorophyll a), protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and total organic matter concentrations. These investigations revealed that microbial components tended to increase their dominancy, whereas sensitive meiofauna were extremely reduced during the entire study period. Thus a very low density of the total meiofauna (with an annual average of 109 ± 26 ind./10 cm(2)) was recorded whilst the benthic microbial population densities exhibited higher values (ranging from 0.31 ± 0.02 × 10(8) to 43.67 ± 18.62 × 10(8)/g dry sediment). These changes in the relative importance analysis of benthic microbial components versus meiofaunal ones seem to be based on the impact of organic matter accumulation on the function and structure of these benthic communities. Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates showed very low concentration values, and the organic matter mostly consisted of carbohydrates, reflecting lower nutritional values for benthic fauna in general and meiofauna in particular. The distribution of microbial and meiofaunal communities seems to be dependent on the quality of the organic matter rather than on its quantity. Total organic matter concentrations varied between 5.8 and 7.6 mg/g, with organic carbon accounting for only 32% of the total organic matter. Chlorophyll a attained very low values, fluctuating between 0.11 and 0.56 μg/g, indicating the oligotrophy of the studied area. The very low concentration of chlorophyll a in the Red Sea sediment suggests that the sedimentary organic matter, heterotrophic bacteria and/or protozoa constitute an alternative resource that is consumed by meiofauna when algae are less abundant. Protozoa, therefore, represent the "missing link in bacteria-meiofauna interaction in the Red Sea marine sediment ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.01.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818335PMC
May 2016
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