Publications by authors named "Fadia S AlBuhairan"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Urgent Need for Adolescent Physical Activity Policies and Promotion: Lessons from "Jeeluna".

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 21;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 21.

College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia.

Physical inactivity is a growing concern in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and globally. Data on physical activity (PA) trends, barriers, and facilitators among adolescents in KSA are scarce. This study aims to identify PA trends amongst adolescents in KSA and associated health and lifestyle behaviors. Data from "Jeeluna", a national study in KSA involving around 12,500 adolescents, were utilized. School students were invited to participate, and a multistage sampling procedure was used. Data collection included a self-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and blood sampling. Adolescents who performed PA for at least one day per week for >30 min each day were considered to "engage in PA". Mean age of the participants was 15.8 ± 0.8 years, and 51.3% were male. Forty-four percent did not engage in PA regularly. Only 35% engaged in PA at school, while 40% were not offered PA at school. Significantly more 10-14-year old than 15-19-year-old adolescents and more males than females engaged in PA (<0.01). Mental health was better in adolescents who engaged in PA (<0.01). Adolescents who engaged in PA were more likely to eat healthy food and less likely to live a sedentary lifestyle (<0.01). It is imperative that socio-cultural and demographic factors be taken into consideration during program and policy development. This study highlights the urgent need for promoting PA among adolescents in KSA and addressing perceived barriers, while offering a treasure of information to policy and decision makers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345490PMC
June 2020

Prevalence and predictors of metabolically healthy obesity in adolescents: findings from the national "Jeeluna" study in Saudi-Arabia.

BMC Pediatr 2018 08 23;18(1):281. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, AlDara Hospital and Medical Center, P.O. Box 1105, Riyadh, 11431, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Obese children and adolescents may vary with respect to their health profile, an observation that has been highlighted by the characterization of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of MHO amongst obese adolescents in Saudi-Arabia, and investigate the anthropometric, socio-demographic, and lifestyle predictors of MHO in this age group.

Methods: A national cross-sectional school-based survey (Jeeluna) was conducted in Saudi-Arabia in 2011-2012 (n = 1047 obese adolescents). Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were obtained. A multicomponent questionnaire covering socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, psychosocial and physical activity characteristics was administered. Classification of MHO was based on two different definitions. According to the first definition, subjects were categorized as MHO based on the absence of the following traditional cardiometabolic risk (CR) factors: systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90th percentile for age, sex, and height; triglycerides (TG) > 1.25 mmol/L; high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ≤1.02 mmol/L; glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L. The second definition of MHO was based on absence of any cardiometabolic risk factor, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.

Results: The prevalence of MHO ranged between 20.9% (IDF) and 23.8% (CR). Subjects with MHO were younger, less obese, had smaller waist circumference (WC) and were more likely to be females. Based on stepwise logistic regression analyses, and according to the IDF definition, body mass index (BMI) (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84-0.93) and WC (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96-0.98) were the only significant independent predictors of MHO. Based on the CR definition, the independent predictors of MHO included female gender (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.29-2.41), BMI (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and weekly frequency of day napping (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12). Analysis by gender showed that vegetables' intake and sleep indicators were associated with MHO in boys but not in girls.

Conclusion: The study showed that one out of five obese adolescents is metabolically healthy. It also identified anthropometric factors as predictors of MHO and suggested gender-based differences in the association between diet, sleep and MHO in adolescents. Findings may be used in the development of intervention strategies aimed at improving metabolic heath in obese adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1247-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107964PMC
August 2018

The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013.

PLoS One 2017 17;12(1):e0169575. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost-YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability-YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25-49 age group, with a peak in the 35-39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of diseases in the region.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169575PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5240956PMC
August 2017

Health in times of uncertainty in the eastern Mediterranean region, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Authors:
Ali H Mokdad Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar Farah Daoud Charbel El Bcheraoui Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Ibrahim Khalil Ashkan Afshin Marwa Tuffaha Raghid Charara Ryan M Barber Joseph Wagner Kelly Cercy Hannah Kravitz Matthew M Coates Margaret Robinson Kara Estep Caitlyn Steiner Sara Jaber Ali A Mokdad Kevin F O'Rourke Adrienne Chew Pauline Kim Mohamed Magdy Abd El Razek Safa Abdalla Foad Abd-Allah Jerry P Abraham Laith J Abu-Raddad Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh Abdulwahab A Al-Nehmi Ali S Akanda Hanan Al Ahmadi Mazin J Al Khabouri Faris H Al Lami Zulfa A Al Rayess Deena Alasfoor Fadia S AlBuhairan Saleh F Aldhahri Suliman Alghnam Samia Alhabib Nawal Al-Hamad Raghib Ali Syed Danish Ali Mohammad Alkhateeb Mohammad A AlMazroa Mahmoud A Alomari Rajaa Al-Raddadi Ubai Alsharif Nihaya Al-Sheyab Shirina Alsowaidi Mohamed Al-Thani Khalid A Altirkawi Azmeraw T Amare Heresh Amini Walid Ammar Palwasha Anwari Hamid Asayesh Rana Asghar Ali M Assabri Reza Assadi Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Talal Bakfalouni Mohammed O Basulaiman Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Amit R Bhakta Zulfiqar A Bhutta Aref A Bin Abdulhak Soufiane Boufous Rupert R A Bourne Hadi Danawi Jai Das Amare Deribew Eric L Ding Adnan M Durrani Yousef Elshrek Mohamed E Ibrahim Babak Eshrati Alireza Esteghamati Imad A D Faghmous Farshad Farzadfar Andrea B Feigl Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Irina Filip Florian Fischer Fortuné G Gankpé Ibrahim Ginawi Melkamu Dedefo Gishu Rahul Gupta Rami M Habash Nima Hafezi-Nejad Randah R Hamadeh Hayet Hamdouni Samer Hamidi Hilda L Harb Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand Mohammad T Hedayati Pouria Heydarpour Mohamed Hsairi Abdullatif Husseini Nader Jahanmehr Vivekanand Jha Jost B Jonas Nadim E Karam Amir Kasaeian Nega Assefa Kassa Anil Kaul Yousef Khader Shams Eldin A Khalifa Ejaz A Khan Gulfaraz Khan Tawfik Khoja Ardeshir Khosravi Yohannes Kinfu Barthelemy Kuate Defo Arjun Lakshmana Balaji Raimundas Lunevicius Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer Reza Malekzadeh Morteza Mansourian Wagner Marcenes Habibolah Masoudi Farid Alem Mehari Abla Mehio-Sibai Ziad A Memish George A Mensah Karzan A Mohammad Ziad Nahas Jamal T Nasher Haseeb Nawaz Chakib Nejjari Muhammad Imran Nisar Saad B Omer Mahboubeh Parsaeian Emmanuel K Peprah Aslam Pervaiz Farshad Pourmalek Dima M Qato Mostafa Qorbani Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Kazem Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Sajjad Ur Rahman Rajesh K Rai Saleem M Rana Sowmya R Rao Amany H Refaat Serge Resnikoff Gholamreza Roshandel Georges Saade Mohammad Y Saeedi Mohammad Ali Sahraian Shadi Saleh Lidia Sanchez-Riera Maheswar Satpathy Sadaf G Sepanlou Tesfaye Setegn Amira Shaheen Saeid Shahraz Sara Sheikhbahaei Kawkab Shishani Karen Sliwa Mohammad Tavakkoli Abdullah S Terkawi Olalekan A Uthman Ronny Westerman Mustafa Z Younis Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Faiez Zannad Gregory A Roth Haidong Wang Mohsen Naghavi Theo Vos Abdullah A Al Rabeeah Alan D Lopez Christopher J L Murray

Lancet Glob Health 2016 10 25;4(10):e704-13. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: The eastern Mediterranean region is comprised of 22 countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Since our Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), the region has faced unrest as a result of revolutions, wars, and the so-called Arab uprisings. The objective of this study was to present the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in the eastern Mediterranean region as of 2013.

Methods: GBD 2013 includes an annual assessment covering 188 countries from 1990 to 2013. The study covers 306 diseases and injuries, 1233 sequelae, and 79 risk factors. Our GBD 2013 analyses included the addition of new data through updated systematic reviews and through the contribution of unpublished data sources from collaborators, an updated version of modelling software, and several improvements in our methods. In this systematic analysis, we use data from GBD 2013 to analyse the burden of disease and injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region specifically.

Findings: The leading cause of death in the region in 2013 was ischaemic heart disease (90·3 deaths per 100 000 people), which increased by 17·2% since 1990. However, diarrhoeal diseases were the leading cause of death in Somalia (186·7 deaths per 100 000 people) in 2013, which decreased by 26·9% since 1990. The leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) was ischaemic heart disease for males and lower respiratory infection for females. High blood pressure was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 2013, with an increase of 83·3% since 1990. Risk factors for DALYs varied by country. In low-income countries, childhood wasting was the leading cause of DALYs in Afghanistan, Somalia, and Yemen, whereas unsafe sex was the leading cause in Djibouti. Non-communicable risk factors were the leading cause of DALYs in high-income and middle-income countries in the region. DALY risk factors varied by age, with child and maternal malnutrition affecting the younger age groups (aged 28 days to 4 years), whereas high bodyweight and systolic blood pressure affected older people (aged 60-80 years). The proportion of DALYs attributed to high body-mass index increased from 3·7% to 7·5% between 1990 and 2013. Burden of mental health problems and drug use increased. Most increases in DALYs, especially from non-communicable diseases, were due to population growth. The crises in Egypt, Yemen, Libya, and Syria have resulted in a reduction in life expectancy; life expectancy in Syria would have been 5 years higher than that recorded for females and 6 years higher for males had the crisis not occurred.

Interpretation: Our study shows that the eastern Mediterranean region is going through a crucial health phase. The Arab uprisings and the wars that followed, coupled with ageing and population growth, will have a major impact on the region's health and resources. The region has historically seen improvements in life expectancy and other health indicators, even under stress. However, the current situation will cause deteriorating health conditions for many countries and for many years and will have an impact on the region and the rest of the world. Based on our findings, we call for increased investment in health in the region in addition to reducing the conflicts.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30168-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660972PMC
October 2016

Bullying in early adolescence: An exploratory study in Saudi Arabia.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2016 Jun 4;3(2):64-70. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background And Objectives: This study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of bullying among intermediate school students in Saudi Arabia to inform preventive measures.

Materials And Methods: Qualitative methods were applied. The study was conducted at four intermediate schools. Students, parents, and school professionals participated, and data were collected through observations, interviews, and focus groups. Emergent themes and subthemes were identified through coding.

Results: A total of 91 individuals participated: 40 students, 31 school professionals, and 20 parents/caregivers. Three main themes and multiple subthemes were identified: 1) types of bullying, 2) factors encouraging bullying, and 3) the impact of bullying. The lack of safe environments, recreational facilities, and inconsistencies in addressing problematic behaviors were subthemes that were found to be conducive to bullying, whereas dislike of school, racism, aggressiveness, and social isolation were emergent subthemes that were reflective of the potential impact of bullying. With this process, a model for bullying practices is described.

Conclusion: A better understanding of the bullying experiences among adolescents has been obtained. Preventive measures need to target the factors that the participants identified as conducive to bullying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpam.2016.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372424PMC
June 2016

Global and National Burden of Diseases and Injuries Among Children and Adolescents Between 1990 and 2013: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study.

Authors:
Hmwe H Kyu Christine Pinho Joseph A Wagner Jonathan C Brown Amelia Bertozzi-Villa Fiona J Charlson Luc Edgar Coffeng Lalit Dandona Holly E Erskine Alize J Ferrari Christina Fitzmaurice Thomas D Fleming Mohammad H Forouzanfar Nicholas Graetz Caterina Guinovart Juanita Haagsma Hideki Higashi Nicholas J Kassebaum Heidi J Larson Stephen S Lim Ali H Mokdad Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Shaun V Odell Gregory A Roth Peter T Serina Jeffrey D Stanaway Awoke Misganaw Harvey A Whiteford Timothy M Wolock Sarah Wulf Hanson Foad Abd-Allah Semaw Ferede Abera Laith J Abu-Raddad Fadia S AlBuhairan Azmeraw T Amare Carl Abelardo T Antonio Al Artaman Suzanne L Barker-Collo Lope H Barrero Corina Benjet Isabela M Bensenor Zulfiqar A Bhutta Boris Bikbov Alexandra Brazinova Ismael Campos-Nonato Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Rajiv Chowdhury Cyrus Cooper John A Crump Rakhi Dandona Louisa Degenhardt Robert P Dellavalle Samath D Dharmaratne Emerito Jose A Faraon Valery L Feigin Thomas Fürst Johanna M Geleijnse Bradford D Gessner Katherine B Gibney Atsushi Goto David Gunnell Graeme J Hankey Roderick J Hay John C Hornberger H Dean Hosgood Guoqing Hu Kathryn H Jacobsen Sudha P Jayaraman Panniyammakal Jeemon Jost B Jonas André Karch Daniel Kim Sungroul Kim Yoshihiro Kokubo Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer G Anil Kumar Anders Larsson Janet L Leasher Ricky Leung Yongmei Li Steven E Lipshultz Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Raimundas Lunevicius Ronan A Lyons Marek Majdan Reza Malekzadeh Taufiq Mashal Amanda J Mason-Jones Yohannes Adama Melaku Ziad A Memish Walter Mendoza Ted R Miller Charles N Mock Joseph Murray Sandra Nolte In-Hwan Oh Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Katrina F Ortblad Eun-Kee Park Angel J Paternina Caicedo Scott B Patten George C Patton David M Pereira Norberto Perico Frédéric B Piel Suzanne Polinder Svetlana Popova Farshad Pourmalek D Alex Quistberg Giuseppe Remuzzi Alina Rodriguez David Rojas-Rueda Dietrich Rothenbacher David H Rothstein Juan Sanabria Itamar S Santos David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Amira Shaheen Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Vegard Skirbekk Karen Sliwa Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Dan J Stein Timothy J Steiner Lars Jacob Stovner Bryan L Sykes Karen M Tabb Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Alan J Thomson Andrew L Thorne-Lyman Jeffrey Allen Towbin Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Tommi Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Elisabete Weiderpass Robert G Weintraub Andrea Werdecker James D Wilkinson Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes Charles D A Wolfe Yuichiro Yano Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Mohsen Naghavi Christopher J L Murray Theo Vos

JAMA Pediatr 2016 Mar;170(3):267-87

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce.

Objective: To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged <5 years), older children (aged 5-9 years), and adolescents (aged 10-19 years) between 1990 and 2013 in 188 countries from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study.

Evidence Review: Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies, maternal and child death surveillance, and other sources covering 14,244 site-years (ie, years of cause of death data by geography) from 1980 through 2013 were used to estimate cause-specific mortality. Data from 35,620 epidemiological sources were used to estimate the prevalence of the diseases and sequelae in the GBD 2013 study. Cause-specific mortality for most causes was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model strategy. For some infectious diseases (eg, HIV infection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR 2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates.

Findings: Of the 7.7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013, 6.28 million occurred among younger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections among younger children (905.059 deaths; 95% UI, 810,304-998,125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38,325 deaths; 95% UI, 30,365-47,678), and road injuries among adolescents (115,186 deaths; 95% UI, 105,185-124,870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95% UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12% global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38% global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33% of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among children and adolescents occurred in just 5 countries: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia.

Conclusions And Relevance: Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among children and adolescents is critical to guide investment and inform policies. Monitoring these trends over time is also key to understanding where interventions are having an impact. Proven interventions exist to prevent or treat the leading causes of unnecessary death and disability among children and adolescents. The findings presented here show that these are underused and give guidance to policy makers in countries where more attention is needed.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5076765PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4276DOI Listing
March 2016

Time for an Adolescent Health Surveillance System in Saudi Arabia: Findings From "Jeeluna".

J Adolesc Health 2015 Sep;57(3):263-9

Department of Pediatrics, King Abdullah Specialized Children's Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: With the increasing burden of noncommunicable disease, adolescence is viewed as an opportune time to prevent the onset of certain behaviors and promote healthy states. Although adolescents comprise a considerable portion of Saudi Arabia's population, they have received insufficient attention and indicators of their health status, as a first step in a prevention cycle are unavailable. This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the health risk behaviors and health status of adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This cross-sectional, school-based study was carried out in all 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. Through multistage, cluster, random sampling, intermediate, and secondary school students were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire addressing health risk behaviors and health status, clinical anthropometric measurements, and laboratory investigations.

Results: A total of 12,575 adolescents participated. Various health risk behaviors, including dietary and sedentary behaviors, lack of safety measures, tobacco use, bullying, and violence were highly prevalent. Twenty-eight percent of adolescents reported having a chronic health condition, 14.3% reported having symptoms suggestive of depression, 30.0% were overweight/obese, and 95.6% were vitamin D deficient.

Conclusion: Behaviors and conditions known to persist into adulthood and result in morbidity and premature mortality are prevalent among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Preventive measures and local health policies are urgently needed and can impact adolescents and future adults. Establishing adolescent health surveillance is necessary to monitor trends and impacts of such measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.06.009DOI Listing
September 2015

Adolescent and Young Adult Health in the Arab Region: Where We Are and What We Must Do.

J Adolesc Health 2015 Sep;57(3):249-51

Department of Pediatrics, King Abdullah Specialized Children's Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Adolescent Health Research Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.06.010DOI Listing
September 2015

Determining child maltreatment incidence in Saudi Arabia using the ICAST-CH: a pilot study.

Child Abuse Negl 2015 Apr 15;42:174-82. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

National Family Safety Program, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City-Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia.

Studies in other countries, including countries with mandated reporting by professionals and a long history of recognition of the problem, have found child abuse to be seriously under reported. This population-based pilot study was conducted to determine the magnitude of adolescents' exposure to CAN at home, and to identify ethical and methodological challenges to conducting a survey on a culturally sensitive subject. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Kharj city in 2011-2012. Through a stratified multistage cluster random sampling of schools, a sample of adolescents (15-18 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child: Home version (ICAST-CH) was used for data collection. The previous year's incidence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to violence were assessed. A total of 2,043 students participated in the study (mean age, 16.6 years; 58%, female). The incidence of psychological abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect, and sexual abuse were 74.9%, 57.5%, 50.7%, 50.2%, and 14.0%, respectively. Female participants were at higher risk for psychological and physical abuse, exposure to violence, and neglect, but not for sexual abuse. The rates and gender distribution of CAN at home differ from findings of health-based records. Our results are comparable to other regional population-based studies. Thus, population-based data are necessary to inform and guide professionals and decision makers for prevention policies and resource allocation. Insights to ethical and methodological challenges surrounding the sensitive nature of this type of study are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.08.016DOI Listing
April 2015

Advancing adolescent health and health services in Saudi Arabia: exploring health-care providers' training, interest, and perceptions of the health-care needs of young people.

Adv Med Educ Pract 2014 4;5:281-7. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements witnessed in child health. Though Saudi Arabia has a large adolescent population, adolescent health-care only began to emerge in recent years, yet widespread uptake has been very limited. Health-care providers are key in addressing and providing the necessary health-care services for adolescents, and so this study was conducted with the aim of identifying opportunities for the advancement of knowledge transfer for adolescent health services in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This Web-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at four hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses were invited to participate in an online survey addressing their contact with adolescent patients, and training, knowledge, and attitudes towards adolescent health-care.

Results: A total of 232 professionals participated. The majority (82.3%) reported sometimes or always coming into contact with adolescent patients. Less than half (44%), however, had received any sort of training on adolescent health during their undergraduate or postgraduate education, and only 53.9% reported having adequate knowledge about the health-care needs of adolescents. Nurses perceived themselves as having more knowledge in the health-care needs of adolescents and reported feeling more comfortable in communicating with adolescents as compared with physicians. The majority of participants were interested in gaining further skills and knowledge in adolescent health-care and agreed or strongly agreed that adolescents have specific health-care needs that are different than children or adults (82.3% and 84.0%, respectively). With respect to health services, the majority (85.8%) believed that adolescents should be hospitalized in adolescent-specific wards. Only 26.7% of health-care providers believed that patients should be transferred from child to adult health-care services at 12-13 years of age, as is currently practiced in the country.

Conclusion: A gap exists between the training, knowledge and skills of health-care providers, and the needs to address health-care issues of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This coupled with the fact that health-care providers are interested in gaining more knowledge and skills and are supportive of changes in the health-care system provides an opportunity for building local capacity and instituting medical and nursing education and health-care reform that can better serve the needs of the country's young population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S66272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159223PMC
September 2014

Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Authors:
Marie Ng Tom Fleming Margaret Robinson Blake Thomson Nicholas Graetz Christopher Margono Erin C Mullany Stan Biryukov Cristiana Abbafati Semaw Ferede Abera Jerry P Abraham Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh Tom Achoki Fadia S AlBuhairan Zewdie A Alemu Rafael Alfonso Mohammed K Ali Raghib Ali Nelson Alvis Guzman Walid Ammar Palwasha Anwari Amitava Banerjee Simon Barquera Sanjay Basu Derrick A Bennett Zulfiqar Bhutta Jed Blore Norberto Cabral Ismael Campos Nonato Jung-Chen Chang Rajiv Chowdhury Karen J Courville Michael H Criqui David K Cundiff Kaustubh C Dabhadkar Lalit Dandona Adrian Davis Anand Dayama Samath D Dharmaratne Eric L Ding Adnan M Durrani Alireza Esteghamati Farshad Farzadfar Derek F J Fay Valery L Feigin Abraham Flaxman Mohammad H Forouzanfar Atsushi Goto Mark A Green Rajeev Gupta Nima Hafezi-Nejad Graeme J Hankey Heather C Harewood Rasmus Havmoeller Simon Hay Lucia Hernandez Abdullatif Husseini Bulat T Idrisov Nayu Ikeda Farhad Islami Eiman Jahangir Simerjot K Jassal Sun Ha Jee Mona Jeffreys Jost B Jonas Edmond K Kabagambe Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa Andre Pascal Kengne Yousef Saleh Khader Young-Ho Khang Daniel Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Jonas M Kinge Yoshihiro Kokubo Soewarta Kosen Gene Kwan Taavi Lai Mall Leinsalu Yichong Li Xiaofeng Liang Shiwei Liu Giancarlo Logroscino Paulo A Lotufo Yuan Lu Jixiang Ma Nana Kwaku Mainoo George A Mensah Tony R Merriman Ali H Mokdad Joanna Moschandreas Mohsen Naghavi Aliya Naheed Devina Nand K M Venkat Narayan Erica Leigh Nelson Marian L Neuhouser Muhammad Imran Nisar Takayoshi Ohkubo Samuel O Oti Andrea Pedroza Dorairaj Prabhakaran Nobhojit Roy Uchechukwu Sampson Hyeyoung Seo Sadaf G Sepanlou Kenji Shibuya Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Gitanjali M Singh Jasvinder A Singh Vegard Skirbekk Nicolas J C Stapelberg Lela Sturua Bryan L Sykes Martin Tobias Bach X Tran Leonardo Trasande Hideaki Toyoshima Steven van de Vijver Tommi J Vasankari J Lennert Veerman Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Claire Wang XiaoRong Wang Elisabete Weiderpass Andrea Werdecker Jonathan L Wright Y Claire Yang Hiroshi Yatsuya Jihyun Yoon Seok-Jun Yoon Yong Zhao Maigeng Zhou Shankuan Zhu Alan D Lopez Christopher J L Murray Emmanuela Gakidou

Lancet 2014 Aug 29;384(9945):766-81. Epub 2014 May 29.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013.

Methods: We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Findings: Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down.

Interpretation: Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4624264PMC
August 2014

Multidimensional model to assess the readiness of Saudi Arabia to implement evidence based child maltreatment prevention programs at a large scale.

Child Abuse Negl 2014 Mar 31;38(3):527-32. Epub 2013 Aug 31.

Department of Violence & Injury Prevention, World health organization.

There has been increased awareness of child maltreatment in Saudi Arabia recently. This study assessed the readiness for implementing large-scale evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs in Saudi Arabia. Key informants, who were key decision makers and senior managers in the field of child maltreatment, were invited to participate in the study. A multidimensional tool, developed by WHO and collaborators from several middle and low income countries, was used to assess 10 dimensions of readiness. A group of experts also gave an objective assessment of the 10 dimensions and key informants' and experts' scores were compared. On a scale of 100, the key informants gave a readiness score of 43% for Saudi Arabia to implement large-scale, evidence-based CM prevention programs, and experts gave an overall readiness score of 40%. Both the key informants and experts agreed that 4 of the dimensions (attitudes toward child maltreatment prevention, institutional links and resources, material resources, and human and technical resources) had low readiness scores (<5) each and three dimensions (knowledge of child maltreatment prevention, scientific data on child maltreatment prevention, and will to address child maltreatment problem) had high readiness scores (≥5) each. There was significant disagreement between key informants and experts on the remaining 3 dimensions. Overall, Saudi Arabia has a moderate/fair readiness to implement large-scale child maltreatment prevention programs. Capacity building; strengthening of material resources; and improving institutional links, collaborations, and attitudes toward the child maltreatment problem are required to improve the country's readiness to implement such programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.08.001DOI Listing
March 2014

Self reported awareness of child maltreatment among school professionals in Saudi Arabia: impact of CRC ratification.

Child Abuse Negl 2011 Dec 9;35(12):1032-6. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

National Family Safety Program, King Abdulaziz Medical City, and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, P.O. Box 22490, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire.

Results: A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it.

Conclusion: The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.10.002DOI Listing
December 2011