Dr Fadia A El-Marakby, Dr. Pub.Health Sc. - High Institute of Public Health - Alexandria University

Dr Fadia A El-Marakby

Dr. Pub.Health Sc.

High Institute of Public Health

Alexandria University

Alexandria, Alexandria | Egypt

Main Specialties: Public Health

Additional Specialties: Occupational Hygiene and Air Pollution


Top Author

Dr Fadia A El-Marakby, Dr. Pub.Health Sc. - High Institute of Public Health - Alexandria University

Dr Fadia A El-Marakby

Dr. Pub.Health Sc.

Introduction

I am a stuff member of Occupational Health and Air Pollution at the High Institute of Public Health. I am intersted in Occupational and Environmantal Risk Managment, Assessment and Control of Occupational and Environmental hazards, and Air Pollution Control. In the future, I hope to have a chance to make researches about the New Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health.
As regards my job as a leader of OHS team, I hope to have a well - experinced and trained team to fullfill the requirements of QI and to face the stuggles of working in a changing world of work.
Concerning my job as an excutive manager of Occupational Health and Air Pollution Studies & Research Unit, I hope to go on through my plan to modify and develop our infra structure. Lastly, and the first of all i hope to have a team work who love, respest and co-operate with each other ISA.

Primary Affiliation: High Institute of Public Health - Alexandria, Alexandria , Egypt

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:


View Dr Fadia A El-Marakby’s Resume / CV

Education

Jun 1997
High Institute of Public Health
Doctorate Degree of Public Health Sciences
Majoring Occupational Hygiene and Air Pollution

Experience

Mar 2018
Head of Occupational Health and Air Pollution Depart.High Institute of Public Health. Alexandria UnivercityPlanning for Acheiving the
Planning for Acheiving the scientific and teaching objectives of the department
The reference is the mission and vission of the departement
Jun 2017
Pro. of Occupational Hygiene and Air Pollution
High Institute of Public Health Staff Member
Supervision of Master and Doctorate Thesis
Jul 2015
Occupational Health Unit Managing Director
Community services through giving scientific Consultings inh the field of Occupational health and air pollution
Study the occupational exposures within the different occupations
May 2015
Acting the Head of Occupational Health and Air Pollution Depart.High Institute of Public Health. Alexandria Univercity
Planning for Acheiving the scientific and teaching objectives of the department
The reference is the mission and vission of the departement

Publications

14Publications

116Reads

100Profile Views

Control of occupational exposure to phenol in industrial wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery in Alexandria, Egypt: An intervention application case study.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2016 11;13(11):D208-14

a Occupational Health and Air Pollution Department , High Institute of Public Health HIPH, Alexandria University , Alexandria , Egypt.

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Source
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15459624.2016.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1200193DOI Listing
November 2016
106 Reads
1.170 Impact Factor

Occupational Exposure to Some Environmental Physical Factors as Related to Productivity in the Garment Industry of Egypt

JHIPH, vol. (46), no. (2),46-57

Journal of High Institute of Public Health

Background: Garment industry in Egypt has been estimated in 2008 to be about 458 enterprises (employing 103,000 workers) representing 42.0% of the overall textile and garments industries, and 4.8% of the total private sector enterprises. Al-Mahalla Al-Kubra, which is the greatest city of El- Gharbia Governorate houses 263 (57.4%) of these enterprises (employing 12,209 workers). The occupational exposure to physical hazards may adversely affect workers' comfort, health, performance and productivity. Objective(s): This study was designed to assess the relation between work stresses imposed by exposure to physical hazards and productivity in Garment industry in that city. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in five garment enterprises in Al-Mahalla Al-Kobra city. The five enterprises included two public and three private sector units, representing 12% of the total number of garments' workers within the city. The collected data included data from records, workers' and employers' or managers' interview, and the results of the physical hazards' assessments. Since it was difficult to calculate the workers' productivities directly from enterprises' records, the productivities of the workers were computed as follows: % of productivity = Standard workers' productivity (100%) - % deficiency in his or her productivity from the standard. Results: The higher percent productivity reported in the Private sector enterprises (86.5%, 86.5% and 100% in C, D, and E enterprises respectively) than in the Public (71.5% and 54.7% in A and B enterprises respectively) may be attributed to the production payment regimen common in the former than in the latter. The workers in the Private-sector enterprises were keen to achieve the greatest production to get maximum payment. This may also interpret the considerably higher workers' attendance (less absenteeism) among Private-sector workers than in the Public-sector ones. Conclusions: The deleterious effects of workers' exposure to physical hazards; heat, noise and vibration, and improper illumination on their productivity are clearly demonstrated in the present study. Attention should be directed towards the control of these hazards and improving the work environment of the garment industry in Egypt, particularly in the Public sector enterprises. Key Words: Ready Made Garment Industry, Productivity, Physical Hazards, Al-Mahalla Al-Kubra, Egypt

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April 2016
4 Reads

The influence of additives on diesel engine performance and the ecological parameters

Journal of Soil Sc. and Agri. Engineering, Vol. 5 (6) 2014

Journal of Soil Sc. and Agri. Engineering

Background: In recent years, regulations have targeted the reduction of sulfur and aromatics in diesel fuel in order to obtain cleaner air quality. Unfortunately, the processes that remove sulfur and aromatics also remove components (polyaromatics and nitrogen compounds) that help provide the fuel with its lubricating properties. As a result, the new low-sulfur petroleum diesel fuels tend to lack sufficient lubricity necessary for lubrication of internal moving parts of diesel engine. The aim study was: to improve biodiesel properties by using additives. Materials and Methods: Diesel engine 26.12 kW was used to test different types of solvents to enhance biodiesel properties and its performance in the diesel engine. Biodiesel was produced from waste vegetable oil and additives which have been used are acetone, gasoline, kerosene, diesel and turpentine for this study. Thirty six different additives to biodiesel were tested and compared with diesel fuel. The stack emissions measurement system consisted of a probe to sample gaseous emissions from the exhaust combustion effluents in the stack pipe at a rate of 2.8 L/min connected to a direct reading combustion gas analyzer IMR 1400 (IMR Environmental Equipment, Inc., USA). In each test series CO, NOx, CO2 concentration, LMT, combustion efficiency and exhaust temperature were recorded. Biodiesel has been made in a pilot biodiesel plant which manufactured at Research and Tractor Test Station in Sabahia – Alexandria. The pilot plant consists of two processors with heater for each one and three agitating pumps, 1-chemical mixing tank and washing tank. The biodiesel production capacity of the plant is 400 liters per day and the reaction time per batch is about 1-hour. Results and Discussion: The engine performance, specific fuel consumption, and emission were tested on PTO tractor at 540 rpm. The percent of specific fuel consumption increased from 2 to 20 % for B0 to B97 fuels. The exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and amount of diesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 370 ºC for B100 among the three load conditions. The diesel gas exhaust temperature was observed as 420 ºC at the highest load. The CO2 emission was higher than biodiesel fuel B100 by about 11.5% at the highest load. The carbon monoxide reduction by biodiesel was 14, 21 and 12 percent at 10, 12.5 and 17.5 kW load conditions respectively. The NOx emissions from biodiesel was increased by 15, 16 and 17 percent higher than that of the diesel at 10, 12.5 and 17.5 kW load conditions respectively. Conclusion: The additives improved both engine power and fuel consumption. The treatment which contained 50% biodiesel (B50) generates extra power than the others for all treatments under study. Key words: Biodiesel, Additives, The engine performance, specific fuel consumption, emissions

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February 2014
3 Reads

Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

Volume 2014, Article ID 675673, 10 pages

e Scientific World Journal

Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 gH2Sm−3 h−1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5.

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February 2014
4 Reads

Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2012 Dec;87(5-6):131-6

aOccupational Hygiene and Air Pollution, Occupational Health and Air Pollution Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt bOccupational Safety and Health Department, Ministry of Health, Khartoum State, Sudan.

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Source
http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:land
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.EPX.0000422587.87067.9bDOI Listing
December 2012
10 Reads

Personal Exposure to EMF emitted from Household Electrical Appliances in Alexandria

JHIPH. 2012, vol.(42),No.(2)

Journal of High institute of public health

Background: The general public has become increasingly concerned about potential adverse health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields arise mainly from the transmission and use of electrical energy from common household current. Electromagnetic fields in homes depend on many factors, including the distance from local power lines, the number and type of electrical appliances in use at home, and the configuration and position of household electrical wiring. The aim of the study was to determine levels of exposure to EMF at home. Methods: Thirteen electrical appliances, which are most commonly used at home, were selected. For each appliance two sets of measurements were taken. The first set was at a distance of 3 cm. The second set was at a distance of 100 cm. Taking of these two sets was important to declare the effect of the distance on the strength of the EMF value. In case of the PC, measurements were divided into 2 sets using two different monitors which were cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD).In case of washing machine; measurements were taken in different washing steps. In case of the electric fan, measurements were taken in different locations especially in the backward were the motor was located. Measurements were taking using an EMF-Tester.

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February 2012
3 Reads

Occupational Safety of Different Industrial Sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan Part 2: Analysis of Occupational Accidents

JHIPH. 2012, vol.(42),No.(2)

Journal of High institute of public health

Background: Accident analysis is a tool which can be used to obtain accurate information about the combined accident factors that when fixed, prevent reoccurrence. It includes recording and documenting work-related injuries. It is carried out mainly for the purpose of identifying unsafe working conditions and establishing program priorities. The aim of the study was to analyze the previous accidents which occurred during 2005-2007 in various industrial sectors of Khartoum State, Sudan. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study, the sample of which was selected to include all injured workers during the period from 2005-2007 in the industrial enterprises employing 50 workers or more in Khartoum State, Sudan. The data were collected by reviewing accident records of both enterprises and Administration of Industrial Safety and by face to face interview of injured workers and supervisors using pre-designed questionnaires. Results: The caught in or between things represented the highest accident incidence rate. The machines were the major cause of accidents in Omdurman locality. In addition, machines were the major cause of amputation, crushing and broken bones (86.8%, 44.4% and 33.3%, respectively). Head injuries recorded the highest incidence rates in food and chemical industries. The defective or lack of appropriate equipment/tool recorded the highest accidents percentage in engineering (58.6%).Using defective equipment and failure to use the available equipment/tool recorded the highest accidents percentage in oils and soap industry (80%). Conclusion and recommendation: The most frequent type of accident among injured workers in the different industrial sectors was the caught in or between things and the main cause of accidents was machines, which represented the majority of accident causes. The enhancement of laws and regulations on occupational safety and health is recommended. Key words: Accident analysis, accident type, unsafe acts, unsafe personal factors, unsafe workplace conditions.

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February 2012
3 Reads

Attitudes of OHS Inspectors towards Practicing Factory Inspection in Egypt

JHIPH, vol.(38),No.Conference(3):14-32

Journal of High institute of public health

Workplace inspection is part of a comprehensive health and safety program in which the workplace is closely examined on a regular basis of identifying and reviewing potential and actual hazards associated with equipment, tools, and industrial processes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the process of factory inspection as a tool of pertaining safety and welfare of employees in Egypt as well as to study the attitudes of inspectors who are responsible for the process of factory inspection in Egypt. The present study is conducted on 210 inspectors .145 of them are belong to different industrial, commercial, and service enterprises in Egypt and classified as group [A]. The other 65 inspectors are members of the Ministry of Labor in Egypt and classified as group [B]. Two forms of questionnaires are formed to provide personal, professional, and attitudinal data. Percentages of males in group [A] inspectors (95.2%) are greatly higher than that in group [B] (46.0%). The bachelor degree in group [B] inspectors (89%) is more predominant than in group [A] inspectors (50.3%). The main source of OSH knowledge for group [A] inspectors is the training programs (75%), while, it is the practical training or by asking seniors for group[B]. The predominant aims of inspectors are safe work environment, safe workers and mitigation of occupational hazards. Some of job descriptions are identical. There are significant variation between the two groups of inspectors in how they evaluate work environment, (P=0.00001*). Only 78% and 91% of groups [A]and [B] inspectors respectively know the Egyptian Labor Law No.12-2003. In case of danger, 73%of group[A] and 72% of group[B] inspectors take action(s) coincide with their responsibilities as informing management. There is non significant variation between their opinion regarding the importance of the field of OSH and environment. Factory inspection is an important tool in assisting OHS programs. Efforts should be directed to enrich knowledge of inspectors continuously. Legislative knowledge is also needed. Inspectors should be continuously encouraged and supported from all involved authorities; this will help them do perfectly. Employers should be encouraged to fulfill the requirements of OHS programs

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November 2008
5 Reads

Occupational hazards and safety in railways maintenance

JHIPH, vol.(38),No.(2): 344-353

Journal of High institute of public health

Occupational hazards typically associated with locomotive and railcar maintenance activities may include physical, chemical, and biological hazards as well as confined space entry hazards. The aim of the present study is to assess the occupational hazards among workers involved in locomotive and railcar maintenance activities and to evaluate Occupational health and safety performance. Physical and chemical hazards are evaluated. On comparing with TLVs, the exposure range has slightly exceeded the TLVs among workers in smithery and welding who are exposed to heat stress of (23.4-27.5)˚C, with the mean of 25.58 1.5 and (22.2-27.5) ˚C, with the mean of 25.24 2.1 respectively. Workers in welding and wood working are exposed to noise of (78.4-102.0) dB (A) with the mean of 90.96  10.6, and (84.0-100.0) dB (A) with the mean of 90.98  6.7respectively. Although workers in wood working are exposed to insufficient lighting in the range of (100-190) lux with the mean of 140  35.4, workers in thermal station and compressors station are exposed to defective lighting in the range of (60-360) lux with the mean of 164  121.2 and (70-520) lux with the mean of 248 176.8 due to improper light distribution as lighting was only adequate near gates. Exposures to chemical hazards are below the limits except for acid mists in batteries recharging process; this may be due to the limitation of the area in spite of the fact that the area is opened. Other hazards may include the potential for fire and explosion during the conduct of hot work in storage tank systems. Confined spaces may include access to railroad tank and cars during repair and maintenance. The need for improvement of occupational safety and health standards in the unorganized sector assumes very high priority. It is required to provide machinery and equipment which are safe and also to maintain guards in position and working order while a machine or equipment is in use. Specific requirements relating to protective equipment for eyes, for workers entering confined spaces or working at heights have been made. In terms of the administration of the OSH legislations, there has been a lack of educational and awareness effort. The general approach has been to make legislation and expect compliance while the need is for a proactive approach to reach out the persons responsible for compliance through well designed educational/awareness campaigns. Railway maintenance is considered one of the unorganized sectors in Egypt. Data base and health education are recommended.

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April 2008
3 Reads

Benefit-Cost analysis of an audiometric screening program for workers in a textile factory in Alexandria, Egypt.

J Alex. Fac. of Med. vol (43), no(2): 367-374

Journal of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine

Objective to investigate the benefit-cost ratio of audiometric screening as a preventive program for early detection of hearing impairment for textile workers exposed to noise. Method: the study was conducted at a textile plant in Alexandria. The study included all workers in the plant (n=34). Data was collected through a specifically designed interview schedule to obtain data about a socio-demographic and clinical variables such as age, income, history of hearing problems. Hearing impairment was measured through an audiometric procedure including measurement of hearing threshold at different frequencies using a portable audiometer. Noise levels were measured in all divisions of the plant using a sound level meter. Results: Noise assessment revealed that levels of exposure exceeded TLV [90dB(A)]. Audiometric screening revealed that four workers had TTS and two of them suffered from PTS. Cost analysis demonstrated that the cost of hearing aid per patient amounted to E.L. 3370.92. The screening program proved to be highly cost-beneficial, since the benefit-cost ratio amounted to 238.569 at 3% discount rate. This supports the conclusion that an audiometric screening program is highly recommended at least from an economic point of view since each pound spent on it saves at least E.L. 238 for the society.

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April 2007
2 Reads

VOCs- Enrichment Factor as an Indicator of IAQ and Health Problems in Economic Residences in Alexandria

JHIPH, vol.(34),No.(1): 225-244

Journal of High institute of public health

indoor air quality of 5 blocks in Alexandria was investigated. VOCs-enrichment factor [VEF], that is potentially useful in IAO investigations was evaluated in this study. Concentrations of VOCs and CO2 were determined for 26 units and VEF was calculated. 100 housewives were selected randomly for the study [20 from each block]. For each subject, an interview, general and systemic examination, pulmonary function tests, and radiological examination were carried out. The most frequent complaint among the study population was the nonspecific complaints [51%] followed by respiratory system complaints [34%], while 28% of the studied sample reported mental complaints. There have been many studies in residences, but few include both VOCs and CO2 concentrations. Although VOCs concentrations vary over a large range of concentrations for indoor [0.150-2.989 mg/in3] and for outdoor [0.123-2.975 mg/rn3], the presence of elevated VOCs indicates strong contaminating source in the building. Outdoor VOOs concentration can be quite variable reflecting vehicular, commercial, and industrial emissions. CO2 is a crude indicator of ventilation efficiency. 65% of units had VEF of about 1 indicating that bioeffluent emissions prevail, 23% of units had VEF >5 which indicates existence of strong abiotic VOCs sources, and 12% of units had VEF < 0.3 which indicates existence of large combustion source of CO2. Adverse health responses potentially caused by VOCs in nonindustrial indoor environment are irritant, systemic, and toxic effect. In addition, symptoms such as headache, fatigue, and mental confusion are indicators of the presence of combusion products such as CO2 . The VEF is applicable to residences and the present study suggests that people suspecting a connection between their health impairment and housing conditions should be taken seriously.

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January 2004
2 Reads

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO SELENIUM AMONG WORKERS IN RUBBER TIRE REPAIR SHOPS

JHIPH, vol.(34),No.(1): 49-54

Journal of High institute of public health

Selenium concentration was determined in six tire repair shops in Alexandria. Concentrations of selenium were determined in tire damages repair, electric spot heater, and buffing positions. The results obtained revealed that there was a significant difference between the concentration of selenium in tire damages repair position and its concentration in electric spot heater position (t=2.47, 0.003*). Also, there was a significant difference between the concentrations of selenium in electric spot heater position and its concentration in buffing position (t=2.86, 0.002*). But, the difference between the concentrations of selenium in tire damages repair and in buffing positions was not significant. Workers at rubber tire repair shops were exposed to concentrations of selenium in the range of 0.7-7.3 µg/m3. This range is quietly below TLV of selenium (0.2 mg/m3), but this concentration is nearly equal to lower end of range of concentration reported to produce slight tracheobronchitis in 9 out of 62 exposed workers in a selenium rectifier plant. The present study determines the levels of selenium in the environment of rubber tire repair shops.

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January 2004
2 Reads

Impact of different occupational exposures on health status of greenhouses workers”

JHIPH, vol. (32), no. (2),313-330

Journal of High institute of public health

Occupational exposure of greenhouse workers hasn't yet been studied in Egypt, so that the present work is an endavour to explore the different potential occupational hazards and their impact on greenhouse workers. Chlormequat, a plant growth regulator, was the main chemical factor affecting workers in nine research greenhouses in Antoniades Research Branch in Alexandria. Concentrations of chlormequat before, during and after its application were determined. Temperature, percentage relative humidity and heat stress were determined in the nine research greenhouses. Twenty workers and twenty subjects matched control group were examined biologically and clinically. The results obtained revealed that, the treatment increased significantly the total carbohydrate, K and Ca% of leaves content, while the increase of % total chlorophyll was insignificant. Chlormequat concentration during application exceeded much the short term exposure limit (STEL) (728.8 and 300 µg/m3 respectively). The addition of citric acid as a sticky substance decreased significantly the concentration of chlormequat (P<0.0001). The residual concentration after five applications slightly exceeded the STEL. Application of chlormequat increased significantly % relative humidity and decreased mean temperature by 2oC. The micronuclues frequency has shown significant increase in exposed workers than in control subjects (P < 0.0001). The exposed workers might have mutagen induced abnormal DNA repair response. Health problems among exposed workers were mainly asthma, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and dermatitis. The present work highlights the potential occupational hazards in greenhouses and their health effects.

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April 2002
2 Reads

Study the acidic deposition phenomenon over Alexandria city

J Egy.Pub. Health Ass. vol.(83), No.(1&2):147-164

Journal of the Egyptian public Health Association

Acid deposition commonly occurs due to conversion of primary acidic pollutants (SO2 & NO2) into secondary pollutants (H2SO4 & HNO3 and their salts). The main natural sources of acid deposition in Alexandria include lightening and microbial processes. Anthropogenic sources include traffic, industrial, fuel burning, and incineration activities. Acid deposition has ecological and economic effects in addition to health effects. The objective of this study is to assess acidity of dry and wet depositions in the atmosphere of Alexandria. Dry samples were collected as settled dust using plastic jar. Wet samples were collected as rain water using polyethylene bottle. All samples were analyzed for pH, sulfates, and nitrates. The relatively high pH values observed in depositions of Alexandria city (6.950.22) and (7.140.49) for settled dust and rain water respectively indicating the conversion of the formed acids (H2SO4 & HNO3) into their salts. This explanation was confirmed by the relatively high concentrations of sulfates and nitrates. The average values was (14.34.21 g/km2/month and 20.59.5mg/L for sulfates), and (22.610.6 g/km2/month and 0.5±0.32 mg/L for nitrates) for settled dust and rainwater samples respectively. It can be concluded that Alexandria is a lucky city regarding acidity of the atmosphere due to its geographic, topographic, and meteorological features. Building up acid deposition monitoring network that covers all Egyptian cities to be a nucleus for African network, using new technologies that reduce emission of acid deposition precursors and alternative sources of energy, implementing and enforcing regulations and standards for major pollutants, and increasing public awareness are recommended.

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3 Reads