Publications by authors named "Fabrizio Gregori"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outcome Features Analysis in Intramedullary Tumors of the Cervicomedullary Junction: A Surgical Series.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 May 4;82(3):225-231. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Object:  The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of surgery for different cervicomedullary lesions on symptomatic pattern expression and postoperative outcome. We focused on specific outcome features of the early and late postoperative assessments. The former relies on surgery-related transient and permanent morbidity and feasibility of radicality in eloquent areas, whereas the latter on long-term course in lower grade tumors and benign tumorlike lesions (cavernomas, etc.).

Material And Methods:  We retrospectively analyzed 28 cases of intramedullary tumors of the cervicomedullary junction surgically treated at our institution between 1990 and 2018. All cases were stratified for gender, histology, macroscopic appearance, location, surgical approach, and presence of a plane of dissection (POD). Mean follow-up was 5.6 years and it was performed via periodic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional assessments (Karnofsky Performance Scale [KPS] and modified McCormick [MC] grading system).

Results:  In all, 78.5% were low-grade tumors (or benign lesions) and 21.5% were high-grade tumors. Sixty-one percent underwent median suboccipital approach, 18% a posterolateral approach, and 21% a posterior cervical approach. Gross total resection was achieved in 54% of cases, near-total resection (>90%) in 14%, and subtotal resection (50-90%) in 32% of cases. Early postoperative morbidity was 25%, but late functional evaluation in 79% of the patients showed KPS > 70 and MC grade I; only 21% of cases showed KPS < 70 and MC grades II and III at late follow-up. Mean overall survival was 7 years in low-grade tumors or cavernomas and 11.7 months in high-grade tumors. Progression-free survival at the end of follow-up was 71% (evaluated mainly on low-grade tumors).

Conclusions:  The surgical goal should be to achieve maximal cytoreduction and minimal postoperative neurologic damage. Functional outcome is influenced by the presence of a POD, radicality, histology, preoperative status, and employment of advanced neuroimaging planning and intraoperative monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1719080DOI Listing
May 2021

Efficacy of Daptomycin-Containing Regimen for Treatment of Staphylococcal or Enterococcal Vertebral Osteomyelitis: A Prospective Clinical Experience.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Internal Medicine Unit, Policlinico Casilino, 00169 Rome, Italy.

Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is a compelling clinical entity for clinicians, because of its insidious and indolent course that makes diagnosis difficult. A concern is reported about the choice of antibiotic regimens, duration of therapy, and criteria to switch to oral therapy. We conducted a prospective observational study. All consecutive hospitalized patients with a confirmed diagnosis of VO caused by staphylococcal or enterococcal strains were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the analysis of clinical cure at the end of therapy. A propensity score for receiving therapy with daptomycin was added to the model. During the study period, 60 episodes of confirmed VO were observed. The main etiology of infection was methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (29%). Overall, clinical failure at end of therapy was reported in 11 (18.3%) patients. Logistic regression analysis, after propensity score, showed that >2 vertebrae involved (OR 2.4, CI95% 1.12-5.24, = 0.002) and inadequate drainage of infection (OR 4.8, CI95% 2.45-8.51, < 0.001) were independently associated with failure of therapy, while the use of a daptomycin-containing-regimen (OR 0.15, CI 95% 0.04-0.46, < 0.001) with clinical cure. VO caused by staphylococcal or enterococcal strains is associated with an important rate of clinical failure. Daptomycin-containing regimen was strongly associated with clinical cure. Considering that over 70% of VO etiology is caused by Gram-positive strains but the etiology of infection is obtained in about 75% of cases, these data may help physicians to choose the appropriate antibiotic regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9120889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764531PMC
December 2020

Traumatic Sacral Fractures: Navigation Technique in Instrumented Stabilization.

World Neurosurg 2019 Nov;131:399-407

Department of Human Neurosciences, Neurosurgery, UOD Emergency Orthopaedic Traumatology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Sacral fractures are a challenge regarding treatment and classification. Surgical techniques using spinal navigation systems can improve treatment, especially if used in collaboration among different specialists.

Methods: Between 2015 and 2017, we treated 25 consecutive cases of sacral fracture. Twelve patients (48%) underwent mechanical ventilation due to hypovolemic shock for severe thoracoabdominal trauma; bleeding was blocked with pelvic packing in 9 cases (36%) and transcatheter embolization in 2 cases (8%). External fixation was used in 7 cases (28%). In 20 cases (80%) spinal fractures were associated. All patients were operated on using spinal navigation by a team of neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons.

Results: The mean time from first observation to surgery was 18 days (range 8-31). Surgical treatment consisted of iliosacral fixation in 19 cases (76%) and spinopelvic fixation in 6 cases (24%). The mean number of screws for spinopelvic fixation was 9.67 (range 6-17) with a mean operation time of 323.67 minutes (range 247-471); in iliosacral osteosynthesis the mean screw number was 1.37 (range 1-3) and mean surgical time was 78.93 minutes (range 61-130). Postoperative computed tomography showed the correct screw placement. Wound infection occurred in 2 cases (8%), managed with vacuum-assisted closure therapy; in 1 case (4%) a sacral screw was removed for decubitus.

Conclusions: Navigation systems in instrumented spinopelvic and sacropelvic reconstruction provide greater safety, reducing learning times and malpositioning. Multidisciplinary management allows us to achieve optimal results, especially when the sacral fracture is combined with spinal and pelvic lesions. The use of navigation systems could represent an important advancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.07.050DOI Listing
November 2019

Evolution of the Anterior Approach in Lumbar Spine Fusion.

World Neurosurg 2019 Nov;131:391-398

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy; Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

The anterior approach to lumbar spine fusion, termed anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), is becoming increasingly popular, with numerous recognized indications, well-defined advantages, and potential complications. From its first theoretical description in 1932 and the first operation published in 1933 to the more recently reported less invasive procedures, an anterior approach to the lumbar spine has many technical variations. Here we describe the evolution of the anterior approach to the lumbar spine, from a hugely invasive transperitoneal route to the current minimally invasive retroperitoneal approach. Many advantages have been advocated for the ALIF approach, and some issues about intraoperative and postoperative complications need to be evaluated in a more specific and homogeneous manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.07.023DOI Listing
November 2019

Arachnoid cyst in young soccer players complicated by chronic subdural hematoma: personal experience and review of the literature.

Acta Neurol Belg 2020 Apr 25;120(2):235-246. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Human Neurosciences, Division of Neurosurgery, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital intracranial benign cavities originating from the meninges during embryological development. Several studies have shown the existence of a relationship between AC and a higher risk to develop ipsilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) especially in a young population. In the presence of an AC, the practice of sport activities may expose young patients to minor head trauma and to an increased risk of developing CSH. We describe three cases of young soccer players with AC associated with CSH. Then, we performed a literature review of all the reported cases in the literature of patients younger than 18 years with AC-associated CSH related to sport practice. A total of 33 cases, including the three cases reported by us, are analyzed. Soccer is the most represented sport activity in this association (39% of cases). The treatment of choice is surgical in all patients, with burr hole or craniotomy in similar proportions. In one-third of patients, the AC has been fenestrated. Outcome is good in all the reported cases. We reviewed the main pathogenic theories, the main surgical strategies described in literature, as well as recurrence rate of CSH, the association of AC and cranial deformities, and the clinical outcome. AC might be associated with skull deformities, but their real incidence remains unclear. The clinical detection of such anomalies should suggest performing further radiological investigations. If the presence of AC is confirmed, the practice of sport activities should not be avoided, as the real incidence of AC-associated CSH is not clear yet and the reported outcomes in literature are good. Surgical treatment of AC-associated CSH should be hematoma removal through burr hole, reserving AC fenestration only for cases with intracystic bleeding or recurrences. The surgeon should adequately advise and inform the young patients and their families that they could have an increased risk of developing CSH given by the presence of the AC, and that they should be referred to a neurosurgical center if they become symptomatic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-019-01224-1DOI Listing
April 2020

Treatment algorithm for spontaneous spinal infections: A review of the literature.

J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2019 Jan-Mar;10(1):3-9

Department of Human Neurosciences, Division of Neurosurgery, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Primary spinal infections are rare pathologies with an estimated incidence of 5% of all osteomyelitis. The diagnosis can be challenging and this might result in a late identification. The etiological diagnosis is the primary concern to determine the most appropriate treatment. The aim of this review article was to identify the importance of a methodological attitude toward accurate and prompt diagnosis using an algorithm to aid on spinal infection management.

Methods: A search was done on spinal infection in some databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Embasco, and Scopus.

Results: Literature reveals that on the basis of a clinical suspicion, the diagnosis can be formulated with a rational use of physical, radiological, and microbiological examinations. Microbiological culture samples can be obtained by a percutaneous computed tomography-guided procedure or by an open surgical biopsy. When possible, the samples should be harvested before antibiotic treatment is started. Indications for surgical treatment include neurological deficits or sepsis, spine instability and/or deformity, presence of epidural abscess and failure of conservative treatment.

Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach involving both a spinal surgeon and an infectious disease specialist is necessary to better define the treatment strategy. Based on literature findings, a treatment algorithm for the diagnosis and management of primary spinal infections is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_115_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469318PMC
April 2019

Recurrent lumbar disc herniation: Is there a correlation with the surgical technique? A multivariate analysis.

J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2018 Oct-Dec;9(4):260-266

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Division of Neurosurgery, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: The recurrence of a lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common cause of poor outcome following lumbar discectomy. The aim of this study was to assess a potential relationship between the incidence of recurrent LDH and the surgical technique used. Furthermore, we tried to define the best surgical technique for the treatment of recurrent LDH to limit subsequent recurrences.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 979 consecutive patients treated for LDH. A multivariate analysis tried to identify a possible correlation between (1) the surgical technique used to treat the primary LDH and its recurrence; (2) technique used to treat the recurrence of LDH and the second recurrence; and (3) incidence of recurrence and clinical outcome. Data were analyzed with the Pearson's Chi-square test for its significance.

Results: In 582 cases (59.4%), a discectomy was performed, while in 381 (40.6%), a herniectomy was undertaken. In 16 cases, a procedure marked as "other" was performed. Among all patients, 110 (11.2%) had a recurrence. Recurrent LDH was observed in 55 patients following discectomy (9.45%), in 45 following herniectomy (11.8%), and in 10 (62.5%) following other surgery. Our data showed that 90.5% of discectomies and 88.2% of the herniectomies had a good clinical outcome, whereas other surgeries presented a recurrence rate of 62.5% (Pearson's χ< 0.001). No statistical differences were observed between discectomy or herniectomy, for the treatment of the recurrence, and the incidence for the second recurrences ( > 0.05). A significant statistical correlation emerged between the use of other techniques and the incidence for the second recurrences ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The recurrence of an LDH is one of the most feared complications following surgery. Although the standard discectomy has been considered more protective toward the recurrence compared to herniectomy, our data suggest that there is no significant correlation between the surgical technique and the risk of LDH recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_94_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364357PMC
February 2019

Development of a delayed acute epidural hematoma following contralateral epidural hematoma evacuation: case report and review of literature.

Acta Neurol Belg 2019 Mar 26;119(1):15-20. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Human Neurosciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

The formation of a post-traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEDH) is a rare but well-described complication in the literature. It is defined as an extradural bleeding not evident at the first computed tomography (CT) scan performed after trauma, but evidenced by further radiological evaluations. The most supported hypothesis about the mechanism responsible for the formation of a DEDH concerns above all the loss of a tamponade effect given by the reduction of intracranial pressure with medical or surgical treatment. A 30-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with an epidural hematoma (EDH) associated with a linear calvarial bitemporal coronal fracture. A few hours after the surgical procedure for hematoma evacuation, the patient developed a DEDH contralateral to the site of surgical procedure. The literature review identified other 27 analogue cases. The presence of a calvarial fracture contralateral to the site of a craniotomy and the intraoperative brain swelling during EDH removal are suspicious for the development of DEDH. A CT scan has to be urgently performed in this situation. The timing of postoperative radiological examinations after EDH removal has to consider possible complications and has to be balanced on the basis of patient's clinical condition and neuroradiological data, such as skull fractures or intraoperative anomalies. The development of a DEDH after the surgical removal of an EDH is a rare event, characterized by a high mortality rate. DEDH develops preferentially on the contralateral side and with a concomitant skull fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-1049-yDOI Listing
March 2019

Isolated Pediatric Intramedullary Schwannoma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

World Neurosurg 2018 Jul 9;115:417-420. Epub 2018 May 9.

Division of Neurosurgery A, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Intramedullary (IM) schwannomas are rare entities representing 0.3%-1% of intramedullary tumors and 1.1% of spinal schwannomas. Beside many theories proposed, their rare occurrence might be related to the absence of Schwann cells in the spinal cord. Pediatric IM schwannomas are uncommon, and in the absence of neurofibromatosis they are extremely rare. To date, few cases have been reported in the literature.

Case Description: We describe the case of an 8-year-old female affected by a progressive paraparesis. Neuroradiologic investigations showed an oval-shaped mass at the level of T10-T11. The patient underwent surgery, performed under neurophysiologic monitoring. The patient was operated on with complete removal of the lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful.

Conclusions: The clinical, neuroradiologic, and intraoperative findings are presented, along with a review of the literature. Despite the number of lesions potentially compressing the spinal cord, IM schwannoma is rare but should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.04.220DOI Listing
July 2018

Spontaneous Spinal Discitis and Spondylodiscitis: Clinicotherapeutic Remarks.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2017 Oct-Dec;8(4):642-646

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Division of Neurosurgery, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_67_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709891PMC
December 2017

Comment on "Controversies about Interspinous Process Devices in the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spine Diseases: Past, Present, and Future".

Biomed Res Int 2017 11;2017:6545361. Epub 2017 May 11.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Division of Neurosurgery A, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/6545361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5444032PMC
November 2018

Correlation Between Timing of Surgery and Outcome in ThoracoLumbar Fractures: Does Early Surgery Influence Neurological Recovery and Functional Restoration? A Multivariate Analysis of Results in Our Experience.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2017 ;124:231-238

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Division of Neurosurgery, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Background: Treatment for spinal trauma is affected by both nonmodifiable and modifiable variables. The aim of this study was to compare early surgery with intermediate and late surgery to determine the benefits of spinal reconstruction in neurological recovery and functional restoration in patients with thoracolumbar fractures.

Methods: In order to identify correlations between treatment timing, fracture site, neurological recovery, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score restoration, and rehabilitation prognosis in patients with thoracic and lumbar fractures, we conducted a multivariate analysis of the results of surgery, at our institution, in 166 consecutive patients with unstable thoracolumbar fractures with or without neurological impairment. We conducted a literature review (1988-2012) and compared our results with those already published.

Results: Regardless of the location and type of fracture, early surgery resulted in a reduction of median hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, as well as a reduction of nosocomial complications. Regardless of the type of fracture and preoperative ASIA score, thoracic fractures had the worst outcome. Early treatment seemed to have better results, depending on the preoperative ASIA score.

Conclusion: Early surgery in patients with thoracolumbar fractures with incomplete neurological damage could positively affect neurological recovery, functional restoration, length of hospital and ICU stay, and associated comorbidity. Thoracic fractures had the worst outcome. Early surgery seemed to have better results if the initial ASIA score was good. The better the ASIA score on admission, the better was the outcome. Surgical timing did not affect the outcome when the ASIA score was A or E.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39546-3_35DOI Listing
November 2017

Efficacy, Security, and Manageability of Gelified Hemostatic Matrix in Bleeding Control during Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Surgery: FloSeal versus Surgiflo.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2016 Mar 9;77(2):139-43. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Accurate hemostasis in surgical practice is critical. The need for optimal atraumatic hemostasis has become compelling in neurosurgery. A simple and safe gelified hemostatic matrix is often used. This prospective study evaluates two different hemostatics, FloSeal (Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, Illinois, United States) and Surgiflo (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey, United States), for bleeding control during spine surgery, considering their efficacy, safety, and ease of use.

Materials And Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, we recruited 149 patients. Inclusion criteria were age between 25 and 80 years, diagnosis of degenerative or traumatic pathology of the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine, and persistent bleeding not responding to standard hemostatic techniques. All patients underwent laminectomy or laminoarthrectomy, with exposure of the perivertebral venous plexus. Our aim was to stop the bleeding completely in the operative field by application of hemostatic gel. All patients were evaluated during the follow-up period with a clinical and neurologic examination. All patients underwent a computed tomography scan 3 months after the intervention.

Results: We included 149 patients in our study: 98 men and 51 women. Overall, 92 patients were affected by a degenerative condition and 57 by traumatic pathology. A total of 42 patients had anticoagulant and/or antiaggregant therapy preoperatively. In all cases, massive bleeding originated from the epidural venous plexus. FloSeal was used in 86 cases and Surgiflo in 63. A complete hemostasis was achieved in all patients within 3 minutes, 30 seconds and 7 minutes (FloSeal, 5 minutes, 35 seconds ± 52 seconds; Surgiflo, 5 minutes, 32 seconds ± 54 seconds). Statistical analysis did not show any association between coagulation time and hemostatics, age, sex, and the pathology treated. Previous therapy with antiaggregants and/or anticoagulants determined a slight increase in the time of hemostasis without any statistical differences. The clinical and radiological follow-up showed no evidence of postsurgical hematomas.

Conclusions: Comparative analysis of the two products did not show any relevant differences in terms of efficacy and ease of use or their effectiveness in bleeding control. Their use was valid even in patients who used antiaggregant/anticoagulant drugs preoperatively. Both FloSeal and Surgiflo can be considered good choices for controlling bleeding in spinal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1558413DOI Listing
March 2016

Hidden spondylolisthesis: unrecognized cause of low back pain? Prospective study about the use of dynamic projections in standing and recumbent position for the individuation of lumbar instability.

Neuroradiology 2015 Jun 26;57(6):583-8. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Division of Neurosurgery, "Sapienza" University of Rome - Policlinico Umberto I, viale del Policlinico 155, 00181, Rome, Italy,

Introduction: Dynamic X-rays (DXR) are widely recognized as an effective method to detect lumbar instability (LI). They are usually performed with the patient in standing position (SDXR). In our opinion, standing position inhibits micromovements of the lumbar segment interested by the listhesis, thanks to paravertebral muscles antalgic contraction and augmented tone. We aim to demonstrate that DXR in recumbent position (RDXR), reducing the action of paravertebral muscles, can discover hypermovements not evidenced in SDXR.

Methods: Between January 2011 and January 2013, we studied 200 consecutive patients with lumbar degenerative disease with MRI, SDXR, and RDXR. We aimed to find a correlation between low back or radicular pain and the presence of a spondylolisthesis not showed by the SDXR, but showed by the RDXR.

Results: We analysed 200 patients: of the 133 not pathologic in SDXR, 43 patients (32.3 %) showed an hypermovement in RDXR (p = 0.0001) without any significant correlation between hidden listhesis and age, sex, or level involved.

Conclusions: The aim of our study is to determine whether in patients with lumbalgy without evidence of listhesis in SDXR, pain can be attributed to a faccettal syndrome or to a spondylolisthesis. Consequence of pain is augmented muscular tone of the paravertebral musculature, particularly in standing position. Augmented muscular tone tries to inhibit the pain generator, attempting to limit the slippage of the involved segment. In patients examined in RDXR, the tone of paravertebral musculature is reduced, showing the hidden spondylolisthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-015-1513-9DOI Listing
June 2015