Publications by authors named "Fabrice Bauer"

82 Publications

Single-source dual energy CT to assess myocardial extracellular volume fraction in aortic stenosis before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Diagn Interv Imaging 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology, Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, CHU Nantes, 44000 Nantes, France.

Purpose: To assess myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measurement provided by a single-source dual-energy computed tomography (SSDE-CT) acquisition added at the end of a routine CT examination before transcatether aortic valve implantation (TAVI) compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Materials And Methods: Twenty-one patients (10 men, 11 women; mean age, 86±4.9 years [SD]; age range: 71-92 years) with severe aortic stenosis underwent standard pre-TAVI CT with additional cardiac SSDE-CT acquisition 7minutes after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast material and myocardial MRI including pre- and post-contrast T1-maps. Myocardial ECV and standard deviation (σECV) were calculated in the 16-segments model. ECV provided by SSDE-CT was compared to ECV provided by MRI, which served as the reference. Analyses were performed on a per-segment basis and on a per-patient involving the mean value of the 16-segments.

Results: ECV was slightly overestimated by SSDE-CT (29.9±4.6 [SD] %; range: 20.9%-48.3%) compared to MRI (29.1±3.9 [SD] %; range: 22.0%-50.7%) (P<0.0001) with a bias and limits of agreement of +2.3% (95%CI: -16.1%-+20.6%) and +2.5% (95%CI: -2.1%-+7.1%) for per-segment and per-patient-analyses, respectively. Good (r=0.81 for per-segment-analysis) to excellent (r=0.97 for per-patient-analysis) linear relationships (both P<0.0001) were obtained. The σECV was significantly higher at SSDE-CT (P<0.0001). Additional radiation dose from CT was 1.89±0.38 (SD) mSv (range: 1.48-2.47 mSv).

Conclusion: A single additional SSDE-CT acquisition added at the end of a standard pre-TAVI CT protocol can provide ECV measurement with good to excellent linear relationship with MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2021.03.003DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic importance of Kidney, Heart and Interstitial lung diseases (KHI triad) in PH: A machine learning study.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Oct 2;113(10):630-641. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

INSERM U1096, Normandie université, UNIROUEN, pulmonary hypertension referral centre 27/76, department of cardiac surgery, CHU de Rouen, FHU REMOD-VHF, 76000 Rouen, France.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a heterogeneous, severe and progressive disease with an impact on quality of life and life-expectancy despite specific therapies.

Aims: (i) to compare prognosis significance of each PH subgroup in a cohort from a referral center, (ii) to identify phenotypically distinct high-risk PH patient using machine learning.

Methods: Patients with PH were included from 2002 to 2019 and routinely followed-up. We collected clinical, laboratory, imaging and hemodynamic variables. Four-year survival rate of each subgroups was then compared. Next, phenotypic domains were imputed with 5 eigenvectors for missing values and filtered if the Pearson correlation coefficient was>0.6. Thereafter, agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used for grouping phenotypic variables and patients: a heat map was generated and participants were separated using Penalized Model-Based Clustering. P<0.05 was considered significant.

Results: 328 patients were prospectively included (mean age 63±18 yo, 46% male). PH secondary to left heart disease (PH-LHD) and lung disease (PH-LD) had a significantly increased mortality compared to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients: HR=2.43, 95%CI=(1.24-4.73) and 2.95, 95%CI=(1.43-6.07) respectively. 25 phenotypic domains were pinpointed and 3 phenogroups identified. Phenogroup 3 had a significantly increased mortality (log-rank P=0.046) compared to the others and was remarkable for predominant pulmonary disease in older male, accumulating cardiovascular risk factors, and simultaneous three major comorbidities: coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease and interstitial lung disease.

Conclusion: PH-LHD and PH-LD has 2-fold and 3-fold increase in mortality, respectively compared with PAH. PH patients with simultaneous kidney-cardiac-pulmonary comorbidities were identified as having high-risk of mortality. Specific targeted therapy in this phenogroup should be prospectively evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.05.011DOI Listing
October 2020

Epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic management of patients with chronic heart failure who use smartphones: Potential impact of a dedicated smartphone application (report from the OFICSel study).

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jan 28;114(1):51-58. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Cardiology Department, Centre de Référence Amyloses Cardiaques et des Cardiomyopathies, CHU Henri Mondor, AP-HP, 94010 Creteil, France.

Background: The effectiveness of transitional care services for patients discharged from hospital after acute heart failure is challenging, especially in terms of reducing subsequent heart failure hospitalizations. The increased adoption of smartphone applications in society offers a new opportunity to interact with patients to avoid rehospitalization. Thus, electronic health (e-health) can enhance the impact of existing therapeutic education programmes.

Aims: To determine the prevalence of smartphone use among patients with chronic heart failure, and to assess the epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic management of these patients, with a broader aim of developing smartphone-based therapeutic education programmes for patients.

Methods: The French Observatoire français de l'insuffisance cardiaque et du sel (OFICSel) registry was conducted in 2017 by 300 cardiologists, and included both inpatients and outpatients who had been hospitalized for heart failure at least once in the previous 5 years. Data collection included demographic and heart failure-related variables, which were provided by the cardiologist and by the patient via a questionnaire.

Results: Among the 2822 patients included, 2517 completed the questionnaire. Of this total, 907 patients (36%) were smartphone users. Compared with non-users, smartphone users were younger, were more frequently men, more frequently lived in cities, had a higher educational level and were more frequently professionally active. Smartphone users less frequently had diabetes, hypertension, atrial fibrillation or ischaemic cardiopathy. Only 22% of patients were actively participating in a therapeutic education programme.

Conclusion: Smartphones were used by more than one-third of patients with heart failure in France in 2017, underscoring the feasibility of developing a smartphone application to deliver therapeutic education to the population with chronic heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.05.006DOI Listing
January 2021

The dangerous and contradictory prognostic significance of PVR<3WU when TAPSE<16mm in postcapillary pulmonary hypertension.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 10 23;7(5):2398-2405. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Advanced Heart Failure Clinic and Pulmonary Hypertension Referral Center 27/76, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, F76000, France.

Aims: In 2019, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) < 3WU was adopted to stratify patients at low risk in pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) as well those with isolated PH-LHD. We sought to evaluate whether supervised machine learning with decision tree analysis, which provides more information than Cox Proportional analysis by forming a hierarchy of multiple covariates, confirms this risk stratification.

Methods And Results: Two hundred two consecutive patients (mean age: 69 ± 11 years, female: 42%) with mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 20 mmHg and wedge pressure > 15 mmHg were recruited. Transpulmonary pressure gradient ⩾̸ 12 mmHg, PVR ⩾̸ 3WU, diastolic pressure gradient ⩾̸ 7 mmHg, pulmonary arterial capacitance < 1.1 mL/mmHg, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) < 16 mm, peak systolic tissue Doppler velocity < 10 cm/s, right ventricular end-diastolic area ⩾̸ 25 cm were the seven categorical values entered into the model due to their prognostic significance in PH. We used the chi-squared automatic interaction detection method to predict mortality. Each node and branch were compared using survival analysis at 6-year follow-up. Mean pulmonary artery pressure, wedge pressure, cardiac index, and PVR were 40.3 ± 10.0 mmHg, 22.3 ± 7.1 mmHg, 2.9 ± 0.8 L/min/m , and 3.6 ± 2.1WU, respectively. Among the seven dichotomous, TAPSE was first selected following by PVR. Compared with patients with PVR < 3WU and TAPSE ⩾̸ 16 mm, patients with PVR ⩾̸ 3WU and TAPSE ⩾̸ 16 mm, or patients with PVR ⩾̸ 3WU and TAPSE<16 mm had significantly increased mortality, HR = 3.0, 95% CI = [1.4-6.4], P = 0.006 and HR = 3.3, 95% CI = [1.6-6.9], P = 0.002, respectively, while patients with PVR < 3WU and TAPSE < 16 mm exhibited the worst prognosis, HR = 7.2, 95% CI = [3.3-15.9], P = 0.0001.

Conclusions: Used for solving regression and classification problems, decision tree analysis confirms that PVR and TAPSE have to be analysed together in PH-LHD and revealed the dangerous and contradictory prognostic significance of PVR < 3WU when TAPSE<16 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524100PMC
October 2020

Phenotype and Outcomes of Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 09;202(6):843-852

School of Medicine, Université Paris-Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a rare and largely unknown complication of NF1. To describe characteristics and outcomes of PH-NF1. We reported the clinical, functional, radiologic, histologic, and hemodynamic characteristics, response to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-approved drugs, and transplant-free survival of patients with PH-NF1 from the French PH registry. We identified 49 PH-NF1 cases, characterized by a female/male ratio of 3.9 and a median (minimum-maximum) age at diagnosis of 62 (18-82) years. At diagnosis, 92% were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. The 6-minute-walk distance was 211 (0-460) m. Pulmonary function tests showed low Dl (30% [12-79%]) and severe hypoxemia (Pa 56 [38-99] mm Hg). Right heart catheterization showed severe precapillary PH with a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 45 (10) mm Hg and a pulmonary vascular resistance of 10.7 (4.2) Wood units. High-resolution computed tomography images revealed cysts (76%), ground-glass opacities (73%), emphysema (49%), and reticulations (39%). Forty patients received PAH-approved drugs with a significant improvement in functional class and hemodynamic parameters. Transplant-free survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 87%, 54%, and 42%, respectively, and four patients were transplanted. Pathologic assessment showed nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and major pulmonary vascular remodeling. PH-NF1 is characterized by a female predominance, a low Dl, and severe functional and hemodynamic impairment. Despite a potential benefit of PAH treatment, prognosis remains poor, and double-lung transplantation is an option for eligible patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202001-0105OCDOI Listing
September 2020

Direct measurement of cardiac stiffness using echocardiographic shearwave imaging during open-chest surgery: A pilot study in human.

Echocardiography 2020 05 10;37(5):722-731. Epub 2020 May 10.

Pulmonary Hypertension and Advanced Heart Failure Clinic, Department of Cardiac Surgery, INSERM U1096, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Purpose: Cardiac stiffness is a marker of diastolic function with a strong prognostic significance in many heart diseases that is not measurable in clinical practice. This study investigates whether elastometry, a surrogate for organ stiffness, is measurable in the heart using ShearWave Imaging.

Methods: In 33 anesthetized patients scheduled for cardiac surgery, ShearWave imaging was acquired epicardially using a dedicated ultrasound machine on the left ventricle parallel to the left anterior descending coronary artery in a loaded heart following the last cardiac beat. Cardiac elastometry was measured offline using the Young modulus with customized software.

Results: Overall, the ejection fraction was 61 ± 10%. E/A and E/e' ratios were 1.0 ± 0.5 and 10.5 ± 4.1, respectively. Cardiac elastometry averaged 15.3 ± 5.3 kPa with a median of 18 kPa. Patients with high elastometry >18 kPa were older (P = .04), had thicker (P = .02) but smaller LV (P = .004), had larger left atria (P = .05) and a higher BNP level (P = .04). We distinguished three different transmural elastometry patterns: higher epicardial, higher endocardial, or uniformly distributed elastometry.

Conclusion: Elastometry measurement was feasible for the human heart. This surrogate for cardiac stiffness dichotomized patients with low and high elastometry, and provided three different phenotypes of transmural elastometry with link to diastolic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14626DOI Listing
May 2020

Physical activity for patients with heart failure: Position paper from the heart failure (GICC) and cardiac rehabilitation (GERS-P) Working Groups of the French Society of Cardiology.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2019 Nov 18;112(11):723-731. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

UMR-S 942, service de cardiologie, hôpital Lariboisière, université de Paris, AP-HP, 75010 Paris, France.

Physical activity is important in heart failure to improve functional capacity, quality of life and prognosis, and is a class IA recommendation in the European Society of Cardiology guidelines (Ponikowski et al., 2016). The benefits of exercise training are widely recognized. Cardiac rehabilitation centres offer tailored exercise training to patients with heart failure, as part of specialized multidisciplinary care, alongside pharmacological treatment optimization and patient education. After cardiac rehabilitation, maintenance of regular physical activity long term is essential, as the benefits of exercise training vanish within a few weeks. Unfortunately, only 10% of patients benefit from a cardiac rehabilitation programme after hospitalization for acute heart failure, and the majority of patients do not pursue long-term physical activity. In this paper, two Working Groups of the French Society of Cardiology (the heart failure group [Groupe Insuffisance Cardiaque et Cardiomyopathies; GICC] and the cardiac rehabilitation group [Groupe Exercice Réadaptation Sport et Prévention; GERS-P]) discuss the obstacles to broader access to cardiac rehabilitation centres, and propose ways to improve the diffusion of cardiac rehabilitation programmes and encourage long-term adherence to physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2019.07.003DOI Listing
November 2019

Midterm procedural and clinical outcomes of percutaneous paravalvular leak closure with the Occlutech Paravalvular Leak Device.

EuroIntervention 2020 Feb;15(14):1251-1259

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, University School of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the Occlutech Paravalvular Leak Device (PLD) for the percutaneous closure of paravalvular leaks (PVL).

Methods And Results: Patients with PVL were enrolled at 21 sites from nine countries. Indications for PVL closure were heart failure and/or haemolytic anaemia. Endpoint measures were changes in PV regurgitation grade, NYHA class and requirement for haemolysis-related transfusion. One-hundred and thirty-six patients with mitral (67.6%) or aortic (32.4%) leaks were included (mean age 66.7 years, 58% male); 31% had multiple PVLs. The proportion of patients with NYHA Class III/IV decreased from 77.3% at baseline to 16.9% at latest follow-up. The proportion of patients with need for haemolysis-related blood transfusion decreased from 36.8% to 5.9% and from 8.3% to 0% for ML patients and AL patients, respectively. All-cause mortality was 7.4%. Complications included interference with valve leaflets (0.7%), transient device embolisation (percutaneously solved) (0.7%), late device embolisation (0.7%), recurrent haemolytic anaemia (2.2%), new-onset haemolytic anaemia (0.7%), valve surgery (2.2%), need for repeat closure (0.7%), complications at femoral puncture site (0.7%) and arrhythmias requiring treatment (4.4%).

Conclusions: PVL closure with the Occlutech PLD demonstrated a high success rate associated with significant clinical improvement and a relatively low rate of serious complications. Visual summary. PVL characteristics, leak approach, device types and midterm procedural and clinical outcomes of percutaneous paravalvular leak closure with the Occlutech® PLD. Transcatheter PVL closure with the specifically designed PLD was demonstrated to be effective with a relatively low rate of major complications. Procedural success for ML and AL closure was high with a low rate of residual or recurrent leaks. Significant improvement of NYHA class, and reduction of haemolytic anaemia and transfusion dependency were achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-19-00517DOI Listing
February 2020

Light chain lambda myeloma with fatal AL cardiac amyloidosis in a 21-year-old patient: A case report and review.

Clin Case Rep 2019 Jun 7;7(6):1171-1177. Epub 2019 May 7.

Inserm U1245 and Department of Hematology Centre Henri Becquerel and Normandie Univ UNIROUEN Rouen France.

Multi-organ AL amyloidosis is a therapeutic challenge because of light chain deposits severely damaging the function of concerned organs. Cardiac involvement, which leads to concentric hypertrophy of both ventricles, is particularly severe and leads to poor prognosis regardless of combination chemotherapy. This case pinpoints the relevance of combining clinical, histological, and echocardiographic information in the management of this complex and life-threatening disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6552948PMC
June 2019

Pulmonary hypertension in chronic heart failure: definitions, advances, and unanswered issues.

ESC Heart Fail 2018 10 20;5(5):755-763. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Henry Mondor Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Heart Failure and Amyloidosis Unit, Inserm/UPEC: U955, GRC Amyloid Research Institute, 51 Avenue Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94000, Créteil, France.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common and severe complication of heart failure (HF). Consequently, HF is the leading cause of PH. For many years, specialists have attempted to better understand the pathophysiology of PH in HF, to define its prevalence and its impact on prognosis in order to improve the therapeutic management of these patients. Nowadays, despite the recent guidelines published on the subject, several points remain unclear or debated, and until now, no study has demonstrated the efficacy of any treatment. The aim of this review is to report the evolution of the concepts on post-capillary PH (diagnosis, prevalence, prognosis, and therapeutics). The main issues are raised, focusing especially on the link between structural alterations and haemodynamic abnormalities, to discuss the possible reasons for treatment failures and future potential targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165943PMC
October 2018

Multimodality imaging guidance for percutaneous paravalvular leak closure: Insights from the multi-centre FFPP register.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2018 Jun - Jul;111(6-7):421-431. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Faculté de médecine Paris-Sud, hôpital Marie-Lannelongue, université Paris-Sud, Paris-Saclay, 92350 Le Plessis-Robinson, France.

Background: Percutaneous paravalvular leak (PVL) closure has emerged as a palliative alternative to surgical management in selected high-risk patients. Percutaneous procedures are challenging, especially for mitral PVL. Accurate imaging of the morphologies of the defects is mandatory, together with precise guidance in the catheterization laboratory to enhance success rates.

Aims: To describe imaging modalities used in clinical practice to guide percutaneous PVL closure and assess the potential of new imaging tools.

Methods: Data from the 'Fermeture de Fuite paraprothétique' (FFPP) register were used. The FFPP register is an international multi-institutional collaborative register started in 2017 with a retrospective and a prospective part. A descriptive analysis of multimodality imaging used to guide PVL closure in clinical practice was performed.

Results: Data from 173 procedures performed in 19 centres from three countries (France, Belgium and Poland) were collected, which included eight cases of PVL following transcatheter valve replacement. Transoesophageal echocardiography was used in 167 cases (96.5%) and 3D echocardiography in 87.4% of cases. In one case, 3D-echocardiography was fused with fluoroscopy images in real time using echonavigator software. Details about multimodality imaging were available from a sample of 31 patients. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) was performed before 10 of the procedures. In one case, fusion between preprocedural cardiac CT angiography data and fluoroscopy data was used. In two cases, a 3D model of the valve with PVL was printed.

Conclusion: Echocardiography, particularly the 3D mode, is the cornerstone of PVL imaging. Other imaging modalities, such as cardiac CT and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, may be of complementary interest. New techniques such as imaging fusion and printing may further facilitate the percutaneous approach of PVLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2018.05.001DOI Listing
October 2018

Assessment of structural valve deterioration of transcatheter aortic bioprosthetic balloon-expandable valves using the new European consensus definition.

EuroIntervention 2018 06 8;14(3):e264-e271. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, FHU REMOD-VHF, Rouen, France.

Aims: Durability of transcatheter aortic bioprosthetic valves remains a major issue. Standardised definitions of deterioration and failure of bioprosthetic valves have recently been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess structural transcatheter valve deterioration (SVD) and bioprosthetic valve failure (BVF) using these new definitions.

Methods And Results: All TAVI patients implanted up to September 2012 with a minimal theoretical five-year follow-up were included. Systematic clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was performed annually. New standardised definitions were used to assess durability of transcatheter aortic bioprosthetic valves. From 2002 to 2012, 378 patients were included. Mean age and logistic EuroSCORE were 83.3±6.8 years and 22.8±13.1%. Thirty-day mortality was 13.2%. Nine patients had SVD including two severe forms and two patients had definite late BVF. The incidence of SVD and BVF at eight years was 3.2% (95% CI: 1.45-6.11) and 0.58% (95% CI: 0.15-2.75), respectively.

Conclusions: Even though limited by the poor survival of the very high-risk/compassionate early population, our data do not demonstrate any alarm concerning transcatheter aortic valve durability. Careful prospective assessment in younger and lower-risk patients and comparison with surgical bioprosthetic valves are required for further assessment of the long-term durability of transcatheter valves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-18-00015DOI Listing
June 2018

Assessment of potential heart donors: A statement from the French heart transplant community.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2018 Feb 23;111(2):126-139. Epub 2017 Dec 23.

Service de cardiologie, hôpital cardiologique, centre hospitalier régional et universitaire de Lille, 59000 Lille, France.

Assessment of potential donors is an essential part of heart transplantation. Despite the shortage of donor hearts, donor heart procurement from brain-dead organ donors remains low in France, which may be explained by the increasing proportion of high-risk donors, as well as the mismatch between donor assessment and the transplant team's expectations. Improving donor and donor heart assessment is essential to improve the low utilization rate of available donor hearts without increasing post-transplant recipient mortality. This document provides information to practitioners involved in brain-dead donor management, evaluation and selection, concerning the place of medical history, electrocardiography, cardiac imaging, biomarkers and haemodynamic and arrhythmia assessment in the characterization of potential heart donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2017.12.001DOI Listing
February 2018

Heart rate and risk of death among patients with Pulmonary Hypertension: A 12-lead ECG analysis.

Respir Med 2017 Nov 22;132:42-49. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, CHU de Caen, Caen F-14000, France; Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Medical School, Caen F-14000, France. Electronic address:

Background: Despite the emergence of new therapies, Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) still has a high mortality. Several clinical, echocardiographic, biological or hemodynamic prognostic factors have been identified but are of limited predictive value for survival. We aimed to assess whether heart rate (HR) and all ECG abnormalities measured on a 12-lead ECG may help to better identify patients at high risk of death in this population.

Methods And Results: 296 patients followed in a registry were included with all types of PH, except group 2 of the WHO clinical classification. After a median follow-up of 10 years, age, male sex, NYHA III/IV status and, among all ECG parameters, HR and corrected QT interval were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis, HR, age and male sex remained significant independent predictors of mortality. HR has a higher predictive value in the 238 patients in sinus rhythm. In addition, only HR was significantly correlated with clinical and hemodynamic PH prognostic factors.

Conclusion: HR measured on a 12-lead ECG at the time of the diagnosis is a strong independent predictor of mortality in PH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2017.09.008DOI Listing
November 2017

Incidence, Prognostic Impact, and Predictive Factors of Readmission for Heart Failure After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2017 12;10(23):2426-2436

Department of Cardiology, Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, Rouen University Hospital, INSERM U1096, Rouen, France.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, prognostic impact, and predictive factors of readmission for congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with severe aortic stenosis treated by transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Background: TAVR is indicated in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in whom surgery is considered high risk or is contraindicated. Readmission for CHF after TAVR remains a challenge, and data on prognostic and predictive factors are lacking.

Methods: All patients who underwent TAVR from January 2010 to December 2014 were included. Follow-up was achieved for at least 1 year and included clinical and echocardiographic data. Readmission for CHF was analyzed retrospectively.

Results: This study included 546 patients, 534 (97.8%) of whom were implanted with balloon-expandable valves preferentially via the transfemoral approach in 87.8% of cases. After 1 year, 285 patients (52.2%) had been readmitted at least once, 132 (24.1%) for CHF. Patients readmitted for CHF had an increased risk for death (p < 0.0001) and cardiac death (p < 0.0001) compared with those not readmitted for CHF. On multivariate analysis, aortic mean gradient (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 0.99; p = 0.03), post-procedural blood transfusion (HR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.13 to 5.56; p = 0.009), severe post-procedural pulmonary hypertension (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.07; p < 0.0001), and left atrial diameter (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.01; p = 0.02) were independently associated with CHF readmission at 1 year.

Conclusions: Readmission for CHF after TAVR was frequent and was strongly associated with 1-year mortality. Low gradient, persistent pulmonary hypertension, left atrial dilatation, and transfusions were predictive of readmission for CHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2017.09.010DOI Listing
December 2017

Head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography and dobutamine-stress echocardiography in the evaluation of acute chest pain with normal ECG findings and negative troponin tests: A prospective multicenter study.

Int J Cardiol 2017 Aug 2;241:463-469. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

University Paris Descartes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Department of Radiology, and INSERM 970 PARCC, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To perform a head-to-head comparison of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and dobutamine-stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients presenting recent chest pain when troponin and ECG are negative.

Methods: Two hundred seventeen patients with recent chest pain, normal ECG findings, and negative troponin were prospectively included in this multicenter study and were scheduled for CCTA and DSE. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA), was performed in patients when either DSE or CCTA was considered positive or when both were non-contributive or in case of recurrent chest pain during 6month follow-up. The presence of coronary artery stenosis was defined as a luminal obstruction >50% diameter in any coronary segment at ICA.

Results: ICA was performed in 75 (34.6%) patients. Coronary artery stenosis was identified in 37 (17%) patients. For CCTA, the sensitivity was 96.9% (95% CI 83.4-99.9), specificity 48.3% (29.4-67.5), positive likelihood ratio 2.06 (95% CI 1.36-3.11), and negative likelihood ratio 0.07 (95% CI 0.01-0.52). The sensitivity of DSE was 51.6% (95% CI 33.1-69.9), specificity 46.7% (28.3-65.7), positive likelihood ratio 1.03 (95% CI 0.62-1.72), and negative likelihood ratio 1.10 (95% CI 0.63-1.93). The CCTA: DSE ratio of true-positive and false-positive rates was 1.70 (95% CI 1.65-1.75) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.91-1.09), respectively, when non-contributive CCTA and DSE were both considered positive. Only one missed acute coronary syndrome was observed at six months.

Conclusions: CCTA has higher diagnostic performance than DSE in the evaluation of patients with recent chest pain, normal ECG findings, and negative troponine to exclude coronary artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.02.129DOI Listing
August 2017

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and heart failure.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2016 Nov 8;109(11):641-650. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Faculty of Medicine Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, University Paris 6, Department of Cardiology, AP-HP, Saint-Antoine Hospital, 75012 Paris, France.

Thromboembolism contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF), and atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the main factors promoting this complication. As they share many risk factors, HF and AF frequently coexist, and patients with both conditions are at a particularly high risk of thromboembolism. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are direct antagonists of thrombin (dabigatran) and factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban), and were designed to overcome the limitations of vitamin K antagonists. Compared with warfarin in non-valvular AF, NOACs demonstrated non-inferiority with better safety, most particularly for intracranial haemorrhages. Therefore, the European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend NOACs for most patients with non-valvular AF. Subgroups of patients with both AF and HF from the pivotal studies investigating the safety and efficacy of NOACs have been analysed and, for each NOAC, results were similar to those of the total analysis population. A recent meta-analysis of these subgroups has confirmed the better efficacy and safety of NOACs in patients with AF and HF - particularly the 41% decrease in the incidence of intracranial haemorrhages. The prothrombotic state associated with HF suggests that patients with HF in sinus rhythm could also benefit from treatment with NOACs. However, in the absence of clinical trial data supporting this indication, current guidelines do not recommend anticoagulant treatment of patients with HF in sinus rhythm. In conclusion, recent analyses of pivotal studies support the use of NOACs in accordance with their indications in HF patients with non-valvular AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2016.08.001DOI Listing
November 2016

Clinical Value of Natriuretic Peptides in Predicting Time to Dialysis in Stage 4 and 5 Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(8):e0159914. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Service de Néphrologie, CHU Hôpitaux de Rouen, Rouen, France.

Background: Anticipating the time to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is an important but challenging issue. Natriuretic peptides are biomarkers of ventricular dysfunction related to poor outcome in CKD. We comparatively investigated the value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as prognostic markers for the risk of RRT in stage 4 and 5 CKD patients, and in foretelling all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events within a 5-year follow-up period.

Methods: Baseline plasma BNP (Triage, Biosite) and NT-proBNP (Elecsys, Roche) were measured at inclusion. Forty-three patients were followed-up during 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis, with log-rank testing and hazard ratios (HR), were calculated to evaluate survival without RRT, cardiovascular events or mortality. The independent prognostic value of the biomarkers was estimated in separate Cox multivariate analysis, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), creatininemia and comorbidities.

Results: During the first 12-month follow-up period, 16 patients started RRT. NT-proBNP concentration was higher in patients who reached endpoint (3221 ng/L vs 777 ng/L, p = 0.02). NT-proBNP concentration > 1345 ng/L proved significant predictive value on survival analysis for cardiovascular events (p = 0.04) and dialysis within 60 months follow-up (p = 0.008). BNP concentration > 140 ng/L was an independent predictor of RRT after 12 months follow-up (p<0.005), and of significant predictive value for initiation of dialysis within 60 months follow-up.

Conclusions: Our results indicate a prognostic value for BNP and NT-proBNP in predicting RRT in stage 4 and 5 CKD patients, regarding both short- and long-term periods. NT-proBNP also proved a value in predicting cardiovascular events. Natriuretic peptides could be useful predictive biomarkers for therapeutic guidance in CKD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0159914PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4993513PMC
July 2017

A Prospective Analysis of Early Discharge After Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2016 09 27;118(6):866-872. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Department of Cardiology, Rouen University Hospital, INSERM U 1096, Rouen, France.

As transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) becomes more routinely used, the recommended duration of monitoring after uncomplicated TAVI remains indeterminate. Retrospective analysis suggests that discharge within 72 hours is safe, but prospective data are largely lacking. We therefore prospectively assess the feasibility and safety of early discharge (within 72 hours) after transfemoral TAVI using Edwards SAPIEN-XT and SAPIEN-3 prostheses. Patients undergoing elective transfemoral TAVI were assessed prospectively for early discharge home. Feasibility and safety (death or repeat hospitalization within 30 days of discharge) of early discharge were assessed. Causes for failure of early discharge were assessed by prospective data collection and multivariate analysis. Of 130 patients, 76 (59%) were discharged early. Death or repeat hospitalization within 30 days occurred only in 4 cases (5%) among patients who discharged early: repeat hospitalization within 30 days was required in 3 early-discharge patients (4%), and there was a single death at 30 days. By multivariate analysis, factors associated with delayed discharge were blood transfusion (hazard ratio 13.85, 95% CI 1.61 to 119.40, p = 0.017) and pacemaker implantation (hazard ratio 4.47, 95% CI 1.34 to 14.26, p = 0.012). In conclusion, early discharge after elective transfemoral TAVI with SAPIEN-XT/SAPIEN-3 prostheses is safe and attainable in a large proportion of patients, with no evident compromise in safety. Factors associated with failure of early discharge are postprocedural blood transfusion and permanent pacemaker implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.06.035DOI Listing
September 2016

Trends over the past 4 years in population characteristics, 30-day outcomes and 1-year survival in patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2016 Aug-Sep;109(8-9):457-64. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles-Nicolle, Université de Rouen, Inserm U1096, Rouen, France.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is recommended in patients with severe aortic stenosis that is either inoperable or at high-risk for surgical valve replacement.

Aims: To evaluate trends in the feasibility and safety of transfemoral TAVI over the past 4 years.

Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, all consecutive patients undergoing TAVI in our institution were included in a prospective registry. Population characteristics and 30-day and 1-year outcomes were analysed. Outcomes were classified according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2.

Results: Overall, 429 patients underwent TAVI; transfemoral access was used in 368 (85.7%). The proportion of patients treated via a transfemoral approach increased (70.1% to 89.9%; P<0.0001) and the use of prior balloon aortic valvuloplasty decreased (44.7% to 11.2%; P<0.0001). The mean logistic EuroSCORE decreased significantly from 19.4±10.9% to 15.8±8.7% (P=0.01). The 30-day mortality rate did not change significantly (6.4% vs. 5.6%; P=0.99). Similarly, rates of major vascular complications (12.8% vs. 15.4%; P=0.87) and stroke (2.1% vs. 1.4%; P=0.75) remained unchanged. Mean length of stay after TAVI decreased significantly from 8.9±11.3 days to 4.8±4.7 days (P=0.002) and 72 (50.3%) patients were discharged early in 2013. One-year survival increased significantly from 81.0% to 94.4% (P=0.03).

Conclusions: Over the past 4 years, TAVI has been increasingly performed using a transfemoral approach. Treated patients are at lower-risk with less co-morbidity. Thirty-day mortality and complications remained unchanged, but length of stay after TAVI and 1-year mortality decreased dramatically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2016.01.016DOI Listing
January 2017

Initial dual oral combination therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Eur Respir J 2016 06 17;47(6):1727-36. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Univ. Paris-Sud, Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France AP-HP, Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France INSERM UMR_S 999, Hôpital Marie-Lannelongue, Le Plessis-Robinson, France.

Treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been underpinned by single-agent therapy to which concomitant drugs are added sequentially when pre-defined treatment goals are not met.This retrospective analysis of real-world clinical data in 97 patients with newly diagnosed PAH (86% in New York Heart Association functional class III-IV) explored initial dual oral combination treatment with bosentan plus sildenafil (n=61), bosentan plus tadalafil (n=17), ambrisentan plus tadalafil (n=11) or ambrisentan plus sildenafil (n=8).All regimens were associated with significant improvements in functional class, exercise capacity, dyspnoea and haemodynamic indices after 4 months of therapy. Over a median follow-up period of 30 months, 75 (82%) patients were still alive, 53 (71%) of whom received only dual oral combination therapy. Overall survival rates were 97%, 94% and 83% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively, and 96%, 94% and 84%, respectively, for the patients with idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH and anorexigen-induced PAH. Expected survival rates calculated from the French equation for the latter were 86%, 75% and 66% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively.Initial combination of oral PAH-targeted medications may offer clinical benefits, especially in PAH patients with severe haemodynamic impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02043-2015DOI Listing
June 2016

A prospective study of the 6 min walk test as a surrogate marker for haemodynamics in two independent cohorts of treatment-naïve systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Aug 31;75(8):1457-65. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France AP-HP, Service de Pneumologie, DHU Thorax Innovation, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France INSERM U999, Centre Chirurgical Marie-Lannelongue, LabEx LERMIT, Le Plessis-Robinson, France.

Objectives: Despite the wide use of the 6 min walk distance (6MWD), no study has ever assessed its validity as a surrogate marker for haemodynamics and predictor of outcome in isolated pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH). We designed this work to address this issue.

Methods: Treatment-naïve patients with SSc-PAH were prospectively included from two sources: the French PAH Network (a prospective epidemiological cohort) (n=83) and randomised clinical trials submitted for drug approval (Food and Drug Administration) (n=332). Correlations between absolute values of the 6MWD and haemodynamics at baseline, as well as between variations of 6MWD and haemodynamics during follow-up, were studied in both populations.

Results: In the French cohort, baseline cardiac output (CO) (R(2)=0.19, p=0.001) and New York Heart Association class (R(2)=0.10, p<0.001) were significantly and independently correlated with baseline 6MWD in multivariate analysis. A significant, independent, but weaker, correlation with CO was also found in the Food and Drug Administration sample (R(2)=0.04, p<0.001). During follow-up, there was no association between the changes in 6MWD and haemodynamic parameters in patients under PAH-specific treatments.

Conclusions: In SSc-PAH, CO independently correlates with 6MWD at baseline, but accounts for a small amount of the variance of 6MWD in both study samples. This suggests that other non-haemodynamic factors could have an impact on the walk distance. Moreover, variations of 6MWD do not reflect changes in haemodynamics among treated patients. Our results suggest that 6MWD is not an accurate surrogate marker for haemodynamic severity, nor an appropriate outcome measure to assess changes in haemodynamics during follow-up in treated SSc-PAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207336DOI Listing
August 2016

Early dynamic left intraventricular obstruction is associated with hypovolemia and high mortality in septic shock patients.

Crit Care 2015 Jun 17;19:262. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

Service de Réanimation Médicale, CHU Sud 80054, cedex 1, France.

Introduction: Based on previously published case reports demonstrating dynamic left intraventricular obstruction (IVO) triggered by hypovolemia or catecholamines, this study aimed to establish: (1) IVO occurrence in septic shock patients; (2) correlation between the intraventricular gradient and volume status and fluid responsiveness; and (3) mortality rate.

Method: We prospectively analyzed patients with septic shock admitted to a general ICU over a 28-month period who presented Doppler signs of IVO. Clinical characteristics and hemodynamic parameters as well as echocardiographic data regarding left ventricular function, size, and calculated mass, and left ventricular outflow Doppler pattern and velocity before and after fluid infusions were recorded.

Results: During the study period, 218 patients with septic shock were admitted to our ICU. IVO was observed in 47 (22%) patients. Mortality rate at 28 days was found to be higher in patients with than in patients without IVO (55% versus 33%, p < 0.01). Small, hypercontractile left ventricles (end-diastolic left ventricular surface 4.7 ± 2.1 cm(2)/m(2) and ejection fraction 82 ± 12%), and frequent pseudohypertrophy were found in these patients. A rise ≥12% in stroke index was found in 87% of patients with IVO, with a drop of 47% in IVO after fluid infusion.

Conclusion: Left IVO is a frequent event in septic shock patients with an important correlation with fluid responsiveness. The mortality rate was found to be higher in these patients in comparison with patients without obstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-015-0980-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4522114PMC
June 2015

New echocardiographic predictors of clinical outcome in patients presenting with heart failure and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: a subanalysis of the Ka (Karolinska) Ren (Rennes) Study.

Eur J Heart Fail 2015 Jul 29;17(7):680-8. Epub 2015 May 29.

Cardiology department & CIC-IT U 804, Hôpital Pontchaillou-CHU Rennes, Rennes University Health Centre, rue Henri Le Guillou, 35000, Rennes, France.

Objectives: To identify electrocardiographic and echocardiographic predictors of mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) in the KaRen study.

Background: KaRen is a prospective, observational study of the long-term outcomes of patients presenting with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Method: We identified 538 patients who presented with acute cardiac decompensation, a >100 pg/mL serum b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or >300 pg/mL N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >45%. After 4-8 weeks of standard treatment, 413 patients (mean age = 76 ± 9 years, 55.9% women) returned for analyses of their clinical status, laboratory screen, and detailed electrocardiographic and Doppler echocardiographic recordings. They were followed for a mean of 28 months thereafter. The primary study endpoint was time to death from all causes or first hospitalization for heart failure.

Results: Mean LVEF was 62.4 ± 6.9% and median NT-proBNP 1410 pmol/L. PR interval >200 ms was present in 11.2% of patients and 14.9% had a >120 ms QRS duration, with left bundle branch block in only 6.3%. Over a mean follow-up of 28 months, 177 patients (42.9%) reached a primary study endpoint, including 61 deaths and 116 hospitalizations for heart failure. After adjustment for age, gender, New York Heart Association class, atrial fibrillation history, creatinine, sodium, BNP, ejection fraction, and right ventricular fractional shortening, only E/e' remained as a predictor, with a hazard ratio = 1.49 and P = 0.0012.

Conclusion: The incidence of hospitalizations for HF and deaths in KaRen was high and E/e' predicted adverse clinical outcomes. These observations should help in the risk stratification and therapy of HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.291DOI Listing
July 2015

Feasibility and safety of early discharge after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Edwards SAPIEN-XT prosthesis.

Am J Cardiol 2015 Apr 31;115(8):1116-22. Epub 2015 Jan 31.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Charles Nicolle, University Hospital of Rouen, Rouen, France.

There is currently no consensus on the duration of hospitalization required after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We report the feasibility and safety of early discharge after TAVI with the Edwards SAPIEN-XT prosthesis. From 2009 to 2013, 337 patients underwent transfemoral TAVI with the Edwards SAPIEN-XT prosthesis using local anesthesia and were discharged home either early (≤3 days, Early Discharge group, n = 121) or after 3 days (Late Discharge group, n = 216). The primary end point of the study combined death and rehospitalization from discharge to 30-day follow-up. Patients in the Early Discharge group were less symptomatic (New York Heart Association class ≥III: 64.5% vs 75.5%, p = 0.01) and had less renal failure (creatinine: 102.1 ± 41.0 vs 113.3 ± 58.9 μmol/L, p = 0.04), atrial fibrillation (33.1% vs 46.3%, p = 0.02), and previous balloon aortic valvuloplasty (11.6% vs 23.1%, p = 0.01) and were more likely to have a pacemaker before TAVI (16.5% vs 8.3%, p = 0.02). Pre-existing pacemaker (p = 0.05) and the absence of acute kidney injury (p = 0.02) were independent predictors of an early discharge, whereas previous balloon aortic valvuloplasty (p = 0.03) and post-TAVI blood transfusions (p = 0.002) were independent predictors of late discharge. The primary end point occurred in 4 patients (3.3%) in the Early Discharge group and in 11 patients (5.1%) in the Late Discharge group (p = 0.58). In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that early discharge after transfemoral TAVI using the Edwards SAPIEN-XT prosthesis is feasible and safe in selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.01.546DOI Listing
April 2015

Single-source dual-energy CT angiography with reduced iodine load in patients referred for aortoiliofemoral evaluation before transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact on image quality and radiation dose.

Eur Radiol 2014 Nov 25;24(11):2659-68. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Department of Radiology, Rouen University Hospital, Cardiac MR/CT Unit, 1 Rue de Germont, 76031, Rouen CEDEX, France.

Objectives: To compare image quality and radiation dose of pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) aortoiliofemoral CT angiography (AICTA) provided by standard vs. dual-energy mode with reduced iodine load protocols.

Methods: One hundred and sixty-one patients underwent a two-step CTA protocol before TAVI including cardiac CTA with injection of 65 mL of iodinated contrast agent (ICA), immediately followed by AICTA. From this second acquisition, the following three different patient groups were identified: Group 1: 52 patients with standard AICTA (60 mL ICA, 100 kVp, mA automodulation); Group 2: 48 patients with dual-energy AICTA with 50 % iodine load reduction (30 mL ICA, fast kVp switching, 600 mA); Group 3: 61 patients with an identical protocol to Group 2, but exposed to 375 mA. The qualitative/subjective image quality (13-point score) and quantitative/objective image quality (contrast attenuation and image noise) were evaluated. The radiation dose was recorded.

Results: There was no significant difference in non-diagnostic images between the three protocols. Contrast attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher, whereas noise was significantly lower in the standard protocol (all P < 0.05). The radiation dose was lower in the dual-energy protocol at 375 mA (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Dual-energy AICTA before TAVI results in a reduction of iodine load while maintaining sufficient diagnostic information despite increased noise.

Key Points: • Dual-energy AICTA before TAVI results in a 50 % reduction of iodine load. •The reduction of iodine load maintains sufficient image quality despite increased noise. • Using 375 mA in dual-energy mode results in a reduction of radiation dose. • A high tube current setting (600 mA) should be used in overweight patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-014-3263-1DOI Listing
November 2014

Does residual aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation increase mortality in all patients? The importance of baseline natriuretic peptides.

Int J Cardiol 2014 May 15;173(3):436-40. Epub 2014 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiology, Charles Nicolle University Hospital, INSERM U1096, Rouen, France.

Background: Aortic regurgitation (AR) is an important complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and even moderate AR is associated with increased mortality after TAVI. The association with decreased survival is unclear. We aimed to analyse the impact of AR after TAVI as a function of baseline NT-proBNP.

Methods: We included 236 consecutive patients implanted in our centre with the SAPIEN and SAPIEN XT valves, via the transfemoral route. AR was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. NT-proBNP was measured 24h before implantation and patients were divided according to the median value.

Results: Median age was 85 years (80-89) and 137 (58.1%) were women. Patients with high NT-proBNP had lower left ventricular ejection fraction: 52% (35-65) vs. 63% (55-70), p<0.001, larger telediastolic diameters: 56 mm (49-61) vs. 52 mm (46-56), p=0.01, and more severe aortic stenosis: 0.62 ± 0.15 cm(2) vs. 0.70 ± 0.2 cm(2), p<0.001. Pre-procedural moderate or severe AR (42% vs. 26%, p=0.013) and mitral regurgitation (56% vs. 36%, p=0.004) were more common in the high NT-proBNP group. After TAVI, moderate or severe AR occurred in 26% of patients and was associated with increased 2-year mortality only in the low NT-proBNP group, while patients in the high NT-proBNP group were not affected.

Conclusions: Moderate or severe AR after TAVI was not associated with increased 2-year mortality in patients with high baseline NT-proBNP. Our data suggest that the impact of AR after TAVI is absent in patients with significant pre-procedural AR or mitral regurgitation and more severe aortic stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.03.011DOI Listing
May 2014

Effect of the ellipsoid shape of the left ventricular outflow tract on the echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve area in aortic stenosis.

J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 2014 Jan-Feb;8(1):52-7. Epub 2014 Jan 11.

Department of Radiology, Cardiac CT/MR Unit, Rouen University Hospital, 1 rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen, France; Inserm U1096, Rouen, France; University of Rouen, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, Rouen, France.

Background: Previous studies showed discrepancies between echocardiographic and multidector row CT (MDCT) measurements of aortic valve area (AVA).

Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the ellipsoid shape of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), as shown and measured by MDCT, on the assessment of AVA by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with severe aortic stenosis.

Methods: This retrospective single-center study involved 49 patients with severe aortic stenosis referred before transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The AVA was deduced from the continuity equation on TTE and from planimetry on cardiac MDCT. Area of the LVOT was calculated as follows: on TTE, from the measurement of LVOT diameter on parasternal long-axis view; on MDCT, from manual planimetry by using multiplanar reconstruction perpendicular to LVOT.

Results: At baseline, correlation of TTE vs MDCT AVA measurements was moderate (R = 0.622; P < .001). TTE underestimated AVA compared with MDCT (0.66 ± 0.15 cm2 vs. 0.87 ± 0.15 cm2; P < .001). After correcting the continuity equation with the LVOT area as measured by MDCT, mean AVA drawn from TTE did not differ from MDCT (0.86 ± 0.2 cm2) and correlation between TTE and MDCT measurements increased (R = 0.704; P < .001).

Conclusion: Assuming that LVOT area is circular with TTE results in constant underestimation of the AVA with the continuity equation compared with MDCT planimetry. The elliptical not circular shape of LVOT largely explains these discrepancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcct.2013.12.006DOI Listing
October 2014

Baseline characteristics of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction included in the Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) study.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2014 Feb 30;107(2):112-21. Epub 2013 Dec 30.

Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Société française de cardiologie, Paris, France.

Background: Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) is a prospective observational study to characterize heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and to identify prognostic factors for long-term mortality and morbidity.

Aims: To report characteristics and echocardiography at entry and after 4-8 weeks of follow-up.

Methods: Patients were included following an acute heart failure presentation with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)>100 ng/L or N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP)>300 ng/L and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)>45%.

Results: The mean ± SD age of 539 included patients was 77 ± 9 years and 56% were women. Patient history included hypertension (78%), atrial tachyarrhythmia (44%), prior heart failure (40%) and anemia (37%), but left bundle branch block was rare (3.8%). Median NT-proBNP was 2448 ng/L (n=438), and median BNP 429 ng/L (n=101). Overall, 101 patients did not return for the follow-up visit, including 13 patients who died (2.4%). Apart from older age (80 ± 9 vs. 76 ± 9 years; P=0.006), there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between patients who did and did not return for follow-up. Mean LVEF was lower at entry than follow-up (56% vs. 62%; P<0.001). At follow-up, mean E/e' was 12.9 ± 6.1, left atrial volume index 49.4±17.8mL/m(2). Mean global left ventricular longitudinal strain was -14.6 ± 3.9%; LV mass index was 126.6 ± 36.2g/m(2).

Conclusions: Patients in KaRen were old with slight female dominance and hypertension as the most prevalent etiological factor. LVEF was preserved, but with increased LV mass and depressed LV diastolic and longitudinal systolic functions. Few patients had signs of electrical dyssynchrony (ClinicalTrials.gov.- NCT00774709).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2013.11.002DOI Listing
February 2014

Cardio-ventilatory responses to poikilocapnic hypoxia and hypercapnia in trained breath-hold divers.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2014 Feb 14;192:48-54. Epub 2013 Dec 14.

Faculté des sciences du sport, CETAPS, EA n°3832, Université de Rouen, France.

Trained breath-hold divers (BHDs) are exposed to repeated bouts of intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia during prolonged breath-holding. It has thus been hypothesized that their specific training may develop enhanced chemo-responsiveness to hypoxia associated with reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HCVR) and hypoxic ventilatory responses at rest (HVRr) and exercise (HVRe) were assessed in BHDs (n=7) and a control group of non-divers (NDs=7). Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) were also recorded. BHDs presented carbon dioxide sensitivity similar to that of NDs (2.85±1.41 vs. 1.85±0.93Lmin(-1)mmHg(-1), p>0.05, respectively). However, both HVRr (+68%) and HVRe (+31%) were increased in BHDs. CO and HR reached lower values in BHDs than NDs during the hypoxic exercise test. These results suggest that the exposure to repeated bouts of hypoxia/hypercapnia frequently experienced by trained breath-hold divers only enhances their chemo-responsiveness to poikilocapnic hypoxia, without altering HCVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2013.12.005DOI Listing
February 2014