Publications by authors named "Fabio Ciceri"

396 Publications

QTc interval prolongation, inflammation, and mortality in patients with COVID-19.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Arrhythmia Unit and Electrophysiology Laboratories, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Systemic inflammation has been associated with corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation. The role of inflammation on QTc prolongation in COVID-19 patients was investigated.

Methods: Patients with a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute (Milan, Italy) between March 14, 2020, and March 30, 2020 were included. QTc-I was defined as the QTc interval by Bazett formula in the first ECG performed during the hospitalization, before any new drug treatment; QTc-II was the QTc in the ECG performed after the initiation of hydroxychloroquine drug treatment.

Results: QTc-I was long in 45 patients (45%) and normal in 55 patients (55%). Patients with long QTc-I were older and more frequently males. C-Reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count at hospitalization were higher in patients with long QTc-I and long QTc-II. QTc-I was significantly correlated with CRP levels at hospitalization. After a median follow-up of 83 days, 14 patients (14%) died. There were no deaths attributed to ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with long QTc-I and long QTc-II had a shorter survival, compared with normal QTc-I and QTc-II patients, respectively. In Cox multivariate analysis, independent predictors of mortality were age (HR = 1.1, CI 95% 1.04-1.18, p = 0.002) and CRP at ECG II (HR 1.1, CI 95% 1.0-1.1, p = 0.02).

Conclusions: QTc at hospitalization is a simple risk marker of mortality risk in COVID-19 patients and reflects the myocardial inflammatory status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-021-01033-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295006PMC
July 2021

Ruxolitinib for chronic steroid-refractory graft versus host disease: a single center experience.

Leuk Res 2021 Jun 11;109:106642. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCSS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant that severely impacts quality of life and long-term survival. About 50-to-60 % of patients treated with steroids require a further line of therapy due to lack of sustained response. Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, has recently been approved for the treatment of acute GvHD.

Methods: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate ruxolitinib efficacy and safety in a cohort of patients diagnosed with moderate (25 %) or severe (75 %) steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent chronic GvHD. Response evaluation was performed at three and six months.

Results: Thirty-six patients received ruxolitinib after a median of three previous lines (range, r 1-11) for a median of 8.6 months (r 1-51.6). Cutaneous GvHD was the most frequent presentation. We observed an overall response of 59 % (CR 9%, PR 50 %) at three months and 62 % (CR 15 %, PR 46 %) at six months. Two patients had hematologic disease recurrence and were censored at relapse; no other permanent discontinuation due to adverse events were documented. Cutaneous, oral, genital and ocular GvHD significantly improved after treatment. 2-year overall survival and 2-year transplant related mortality were 74 % and 19 % respectively. Ruxolitinib was associated with a significant reduction of steroid dose.

Conclusion: Ruxolitinib was confirmed to be a safe and effective option as salvage treatment also for advanced stages of chronic GvHD. Longer follow up is needed to evaluate durability of response. Prospective analyses on larger cohorts are ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2021.106642DOI Listing
June 2021

Perspectives and Emotional Experiences of Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia During ENESTPath Clinical Trial and Treatment-Free Remission: Rationale and Protocol of the Italian Substudy.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:638689. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Achievement of deep molecular response following treatment with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) allows for treatment-free remission (TFR) in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Successful TFR is defined as the achievement of a sustained molecular response after cessation of ongoing TKI therapy. The phase 3 ENESTPath study was designed to determine the required optimal duration of consolidation treatment with the second-generation TKI, nilotinib 300 mg twice-daily, to remain in successful TFR without relapse after entering TFR for 12 months. The purpose of this Italian 'patient's voice CML' substudy was to evaluate patients' psycho-emotional characteristics and quality of life through their experiences of stopping treatment with nilotinib and entering TFR. The purpose of the present contribution is to early present the study protocol of an ongoing study to the scientific community, in order to describe the study rationale and to extensively present the study methodology. Patients aged ≥18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of Philadelphia chromosome positive + CML in chronic phase and treated with front-line imatinib for a minimum of 24 months from the enrollment were eligible. Patients consenting to participate the substudy will have quality of life questionnaires and in-depth qualitative interviews conducted. The substudy will include both qualitative and quantitative design aspects to evaluate the psychological outcomes as assessed patients' emotional experience during and after stopping nilotinib therapy. Randomization is hypothesized to be a timepoint of higher psychological alert or distress when compared to consolidation and additionally any improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) due to nilotinib treatment is expected across the timepoints (from consolidation, to randomization, and TFR). An association is also expected between dysfunctional coping strategies, such as detachments and certain personality traits, and psychological distress and HRQoL impairments. Better HRQoL outcomes are expected in TFR compared to the end of consolidation. This substudy is designed for in-depth assessment of all potential psycho-emotional variables and aims to determine the need for personalized patient care and counselling, and also guide clinicians to consider the psychological well-being of patients who are considering treatment termination. NCT number: NCT01743989, EudraCT number: 2012-005124-15.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.638689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189147PMC
May 2021

After Action Reviews of COVID-19 response: Case study of a large tertiary care hospital in Italy.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: After-Action Reviews (AARs) are management tools used to evaluate the response to public health emergencies at the national and subnational level. Aim of this study is to apply available AAR models to assess and critically appraise COVID-19 response of San Raffaele Scientific Institute, a large university hospital in Milan, Italy.

Methods: We designed an AAR based on the key-informant interview format, following the methodology proposed by the 2019 World Health Organization Guidance for AAR. After systematic assessment of the hospital reorganization, we conducted 36 semi-structured interviews to professionals with executive, clinical, technical and administrative roles. We designed an ad-hoc questionnaire exploring four areas: (i) staff management; (ii) logistics and supplies; (iii) COVID-19 diagnosis and clinical management; (iv) communication.

Results: Overall, the hospital response was evaluated as effective and sufficiently prompt. Participants stressed the relevance of: (i) strong governance and coordination; (ii) readiness and availability of healthcare personnel; (iii) definition of a model of care based on a multidisciplinary approach. Challenges were reported for communication management and staff training.

Conclusions: This study is one of the first applications of the AAR to the COVID-19 response in hospital settings, which can be successfully adapted or scaled up to other settings in order to implement preparedness strategies for future public health emergencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8239549PMC
June 2021

Dysglycemia after COVID-19 pneumonia: a six-month cohort study.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

San Raffaele Diabetes Research Institute, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy.

Aim: The aim of this study was to understand whether the dysglycemia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection persists or reverts when the viral infection resolves.

Methods: We analyzed fasting blood glucose (FBG) after hospital discharge in a cohort of 621 adult cases with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia.

Results: At admission, 18.8% of the patients in our cohort had pre-existing diabetes, 9.3% fasting glucose in the diabetes range without a prior diagnosis (DFG), 26% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 44.9% normal fasting glucose (NFG), while 2% had no FBG available. FBG categories were similarly distributed in the 71 patients without confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. During follow-up (median time 6 month) FBG was available for 321 out of the 453 (70.9%) surviving patients and showed a trend to a marginal increase [from 97 (87-116) to 100 (92-114) mg/dL; p = 0.071]. Transitions between FBG categories were analyzed in subjects without pre-existing diabetes (265 out of 321). We identified three groups: (i) patients who maintained or improved FBG during follow-up [Group A, n = 185; from 100 (86-109) to 94 (88-99) mg/dL; p < 0.001]; (ii) patients who moved from the NFG to IFG category [Group B, n = 66: from 89 (85-96) to 106 (102-113) mg/dl; p < 0.001]; (iii) patients who maintained or reached DFG during follow-up [Group C, n = 14: from 114 (94-138) to 134 (126-143) mg/dl; p = 0.035]. Male sex and ICU admission during the hospitalization were more prevalent in Group C compared to Group A or B.

Conclusions: Six months after the SARS-CoV-2 infection DFG was evident in only few patients who experienced severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-021-01751-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177035PMC
June 2021

Posttransplantation Cyclophosphamide- and Sirolimus-Based Graft-Versus-Host-Disease Prophylaxis in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has emerged as a promising graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from haploidentical donors and more recently in matched donor transplants. Herein, we describe our real-life experience on 249 adult patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, from HLA-matched related (MRD), HLA-matched unrelated (MUD), or mismatched related donors (MMRD). Patients received unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), using a GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy and sirolimus. Mycophenolate mofetil was added in MUD or MMRD. In the HLA-matched donor group (MRD, n = 48, MUD, n = 50), the cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GvHD was 23% and 9% at 100 days, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 25% at 2 years, severe only for 5% of the patients. The cumulative incidences of relapse and transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 31% and 9% at 2 years, respectively. The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 72% and progression-free survival (PFS) 60%; the composite endpoint of GvHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 52% at 2 years. In the haploidentical donor group (n = 151), we documented a cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD of 35% and 20% at 100 days, respectively, and a cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD of 39% at 2 years. We observed severe chronic GVHD in 15% of the patients. The cumulative incidence of relapse and TRM was 32% and 25% at 2 years, respectively. The 2-year OS was 48%, whereas PFS was 43%; GRFS was 28% at 2 years. However, more patients in the haploidentical group presented high/very high disease risk index (DRI) and higher HCT-comorbidity index. In patients classified in the low-intermediate DRI, 2-year GRFS was 53% in MRD, 65% in MUD, and 46% in haploidentical HSCT (P = .33). Sirolimus-PTCy platform deserves further investigation as an alternative to calcineurin-inhibitor-based GVHD prophylaxis for all donor sources. In patients presenting a low-intermediate DRI, this strategy translates in relevant survival independently from the transplant source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.023DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19 and stem cell transplantation; results from an EBMT and GETH multicenter prospective survey.

Leukemia 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

This study reports on 382 COVID-19 patients having undergone allogeneic (n = 236) or autologous (n = 146) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) or to the Spanish Group of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (GETH). The median age was 54.1 years (1.0-80.3) for allogeneic, and 60.6 years (7.7-81.6) for autologous HCT patients. The median time from HCT to COVID-19 was 15.8 months (0.2-292.7) in allogeneic and 24.6 months (-0.9 to 350.3) in autologous recipients. 83.5% developed lower respiratory tract disease and 22.5% were admitted to an ICU. Overall survival at 6 weeks from diagnosis was 77.9% and 72.1% in allogeneic and autologous recipients, respectively. Children had a survival of 93.4%. In multivariate analysis, older age (p = 0.02), need for ICU (p < 0.0001) and moderate/high immunodeficiency index (p = 0.04) increased the risk while better performance status (p = 0.001) decreased the risk for mortality. Other factors such as underlying diagnosis, time from HCT, GVHD, or ongoing immunosuppression did not significantly impact overall survival. We conclude that HCT patients are at high risk of developing LRTD, require admission to ICU, and have increased mortality in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01302-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171362PMC
June 2021

Physical and psychological sequelae at three months after acute illness in COVID-19 survivors.

Panminerva Med 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy -

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may leave behind an altered health status early after recovery. We evaluated the clinical status of COVID-19 survivors at three months after hospital discharge.

Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years, evaluated at one (M1) and three (M3) months post-discharge were enrolled. 251 patients (71.3% males, median [IQR] age 61.8 [53.5-70.7] years) were included. Median (IQR) time from discharge to M3 was 89 (79.5-101) days. Primary outcome was residual respiratory dysfunction (RRD), defined by tachypnea, moderate to very severe dyspnea, or peripheral oxygen saturation ≤95% on room air at M3.

Results: RRD was found in 30.4% of patients, with no significant difference compared with M1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and length of stay were independent predictors of RRD at multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio, OR, [95% confidence interval, CI] 4.13 [1.17-16.88], p 0.033; OR [95% CI] 1.02 [1.00-1.04], p 0.047, respectively). Obesity and C-reactive protein levels upon admission were additional predictors at regression tree analysis. Impaired quality of life (QoL) was reported by 53.2% of patients. Anxiety and insomnia were each present in 25.5% of patients, and PTSD in 22.4%. No difference was found between M1 and M3 in QoL, anxiety or PTSD. Insomnia decreased at M3. Current major psychiatric disorder as well as anxiety, insomnia and PSTD at M1 independently predicted PTSD at M3.

Conclusions: Clinical damage may persist at three months after discharge in COVID-19 survivors. Post-recovery follow-up is an essential component of patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04399-8DOI Listing
June 2021

A multicentre, multinational, prospective, observational registry study of defibrotide in patients diagnosed with veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after haematopoietic cell transplantation: an EBMT study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Hematology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This multinational, prospective, observational study (NCT03032016), performed by the EBMT, enrolled patients treated with defibrotide from April 2015 to July 2018. This analysis focused on defibrotide-treated patients with VOD/SOS post-HCT. The primary endpoint was incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) of interest up to 12 months post-HCT in patients with severe VOD/SOS. Overall, 104 defibrotide-treated patients with VOD/SOS post-HCT were enrolled: 62 had severe VOD/SOS and comprised the primary study population, including 36 with multi-organ dysfunction/failure (MOD/MOF). SAEs of interest occurred in 20 of 62 (32%) severe VOD/SOS patients; the most common by category were infection (24%) and bleeding (13%). In patients with severe VOD/SOS, the Kaplan-Meier-estimated Day 100 survival rate was 73% (95% CI: 60%, 82%) with VOD/SOS resolution by Day 100 in 45 of 62 (73%) patients. MOD/MOF resolved in 19 of 36 (53%) patients with MOD/MOF at VOD/SOS diagnosis. Results from this multicentre registry study build on prior defibrotide studies supporting the utility of defibrotide for the treatment of VOD/SOS post-HCT. These results provide additional real-world evidence of the effectiveness and safety of defibrotide in patients with VOD/SOS post-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01265-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Epicardial adipose tissue characteristics, obesity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 06 3;31(7):2156-2164. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aims: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

Methods And Results: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO/FiO was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO/FiO identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19.

Trial Registration: NCT04318366.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.04.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091800PMC
June 2021

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide containing regimens after matched sibling, matched unrelated and haploidentical donor transplants in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission, a comparative study of the ALWP of the EBMT.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 May 28;14(1):84. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Hematology, and INSERM UMRs 938, Hopital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: There is no information on the impact of donor type in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) using homogeneous graft-versus-host (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR1 that had received HCT with PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis from HLA-matched sibling (MSD) (n = 78), matched unrelated (MUD) (n = 94) and haploidentical family (Haplo) (n = 297) donors registered in the EBMT database between 2010 and 2018. The median follow-up period of the entire cohort was 2.2 years.

Results: Median age of patients was 38 years (range 18-76). Compared to MSD and MUD, Haplo patients received peripheral blood less frequently. For Haplo, MUD, and MSD, the cumulative incidence of 100-day acute GVHD grade II-IV and III-IV, and 2-year chronic and extensive chronic GVHD were 32%, 41%, and 34% (p = 0.4); 13%, 15%, and 15% (p = 0.8); 35%, 50%, and 42% (p = 0.01); and 11%, 17%, and 21% (p = 0.2), respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality was 20%, 20%, and 28% (p = 0.8); and 21%, 18%, and 21% (p = 0.8) for Haplo, MUD, and MSD, respectively. The leukemia-free survival, overall survival and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival for Haplo, MUD, and MSD was 59%, 62%, and 51% (p = 0.8); 66%, 69%, and 62% (p = 0.8); and 46%, 44%, and 35% (p = 0.9), respectively. On multivariable analysis, transplant outcomes did not differ significantly between donor types. TBI-based conditioning was associated with better LFS.

Conclusions: Donor type did not significantly affect transplant outcome in patient with ALL receiving SCT with PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01094-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161915PMC
May 2021

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in patients with COVID-19.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; Unit of Immunology, Rheumatology, Allergy and Rare Diseases (UniRAR), IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2021.05.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127514PMC
May 2021

Respiratory Impairment Predicts Response to IL-1 and IL-6 Blockade in COVID-19 Patients With Severe Pneumonia and Hyper-Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2021;12:675678. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Restraining maladaptive inflammation is considered a rationale strategy to treat severe (COVID-19) but available studies with selective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines have not provided unequivocal evidence of survival advantage. Late administration is commonly regarded as a major cause of treatment failure but the optimal timing for anti-cytokine therapy initiation in COVID-19 patients has never been clearly established.

Objectives: To identify a window of therapeutic opportunity for maximizing the efficacy of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockade in COVID-19.

Methods: Survival at the longest available follow-up was assessed in severe hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra, tocilizumab, sarilumab, or standard of care, stratified according to respiratory impairment at the time of treatment initiation.

Results: 107 patients treated with biologics and 103 contemporary patients treated with standard of care were studied. After a median of 106 days of follow-up (range 3-186), treatment with biologics was associated with a significantly higher survival rate compared to standard therapy when initiated in patients with a PaO/FiO ≥ 100 mmHg (p < 0.001). Anakinra reduced mortality also in patients with PaO/FiO < 100 mmHg (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: IL-1 and IL-6 blocking therapies are more likely to provide survival advantage in hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients when initiated before the establishment of severe respiratory failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.675678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117339PMC
May 2021

Quantitative assessment of lung involvement on chest CT at admission: Impact on hypoxia and outcome in COVID-19 patients.

Clin Imaging 2021 Sep 29;77:194-201. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Experimental Imaging Center, Radiology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy; School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Background: The aim of this study was to quantify COVID-19 pneumonia features using CT performed at time of admission to emergency department in order to predict patients' hypoxia during the hospitalization and outcome.

Methods: Consecutive chest CT performed in the emergency department between March 1st and April 7th 2020 for COVID-19 pneumonia were analyzed. The three features of pneumonia (GGO, semi-consolidation and consolidation) and the percentage of well-aerated lung were quantified using a HU threshold based software. ROC curves identified the optimal cut-off values of CT parameters to predict hypoxia worsening and hospital discharge. Multiple Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the capability of CT quantitative features, demographic and clinical variables to predict the time to hospital discharge.

Results: Seventy-seven patients (median age 56-years-old, 51 men) with COVID-19 pneumonia at CT were enrolled. The quantitative features of COVID-19 pneumonia were not associated to age, sex and time-from-symptoms onset, whereas higher number of comorbidities was correlated to lower well-aerated parenchyma ratio (rho = -0.234, p = 0.04) and increased semi-consolidation ratio (rho = -0.303, p = 0.008). Well-aerated lung (≤57%), semi-consolidation (≥17%) and consolidation (≥9%) predicted worst hypoxemia during hospitalization, with moderate areas under curves (AUC 0.76, 0.75, 0.77, respectively). Multiple Cox regression identified younger age (p < 0.01), female sex (p < 0.001), longer time-from-symptoms onset (p = 0.049), semi-consolidation ≤17% (p < 0.01) and consolidation ≤13% (p = 0.03) as independent predictors of shorter time to hospital discharge.

Conclusion: Quantification of pneumonia features on admitting chest CT predicted hypoxia worsening during hospitalization and time to hospital discharge in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.04.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081746PMC
September 2021

Second allogeneic transplants for multiple myeloma: a report from the EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, INSERM, Infinite, U1286, Lille, France.

The EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party performed a retrospective analysis of 215 patients who underwent a second allo-HCT for myeloma between 1994 and 2017, 159 for relapse and 56 for graft failure. In the relapse group, overall survival (OS) was 38% (30-46%) at 2 years and 25% (17-32%) at 5 years. Patients who had a HLA-identical sibling (HLAid-Sib) donor for their first and second transplants had superior OS (5 year OS: HLAid-Sib/HLAid-Sib: 35% (24-46%); Others 9% (0-17%), p < 0.001). There was a significantly higher incidence of acute grade II-IV GvHD in those patients who had also developed GvHD following their initial HLA-identical sibling allo-HCT (HLAid-Sib/HLAid-Sib: 50% (33-67%); Other 22% (8-36%), p = 0.03). More as opposed to fewer than 2 years between transplants was associated with superior 5-yr OS (31% (21-40%) vs. 10% (1-20%), P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, consecutive HLA-identical sibling donor transplants conferred a significant OS advantage (0.4 (0.24-0.67), p < 0.001). In the graft failure group, OS was 41% at 2 years. In summary, a second allo-HCT using a HLA-identical sibling donor, if available, provides the best transplant outcomes for relapsed myeloma in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01286-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic COVID-19 is persistent and critical for survival.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2670. Epub 2021 May 11.

Viral Evolution and Transmission Unit, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Understanding how antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 evolve during infection may provide important insight into therapeutic approaches and vaccination for COVID-19. Here we profile the antibody responses of 162 COVID-19 symptomatic patients in the COVID-BioB cohort followed longitudinally for up to eight months from symptom onset to find SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, as well as antibodies either recognizing SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and nucleoprotein, or specific for S2 antigen of seasonal beta-coronaviruses and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 flu virus. The presence of neutralizing antibodies within the first weeks from symptoms onset correlates with time to a negative swab result (p = 0.002), while the lack of neutralizing capacity correlates with an increased risk of a fatal outcome (p = 0.008). Neutralizing antibody titers progressively drop after 5-8 weeks but are still detectable up to 8 months in the majority of recovered patients regardless of age or co-morbidities, with IgG to spike antigens providing the best correlate of neutralization. Antibody responses to seasonal coronaviruses are temporarily boosted, and parallel those to SARS-CoV-2 without dampening the specific response or worsening disease progression. Our results thus suggest compromised immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike to be a major trait of COVID-19 patients with critical conditions, and thereby inform on the planning of COVID-19 patient care and therapy prioritization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22958-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113594PMC
May 2021

Blood neurofilament light chain and total tau levels at admission predict death in COVID-19 patients.

J Neurol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aims: Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 range from asymptomatic, to mild, moderate or severe disease evolution including fatal outcome. Thus, early predictors of clinical outcome are highly needed. We investigated markers of neural tissue damage as a possible early sign of multisystem involvement to assess their clinical prognostic value on survival or transfer to intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: We collected blood from 104 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 the day of admission to the emergency room and measured blood neurofilament light chair (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and total tau protein levels.

Results: We found that NfL, GFAP, and tau were significantly increased in patients with fatal outcome, while NfL and UCH-L1 in those needing ICU transfer. ROC and Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that total tau levels at admission accurately predict mortality.

Conclusions: Blood neural markers may provide additional prognostic value to conventional biomarkers used to predict COVID-19 outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10595-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108733PMC
May 2021

Allelic HLA Matching and Pair Origin Are Favorable Prognostic Factors for Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Neoplastic Hematologic Diseases: An Italian Analysis by the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Cellule Staminali e Terapie Cellulari, Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry, and Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 16;27(5):406.e1-406.e11. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Stem Cell Transplant and Cellular Therapies Unit, Department of Hemato-Oncology and Radiotherapy, Grande Ospedale Metropolitano "Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli", Reggio Calabria, Italy.

HLA molecules are important for immunoreactivity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Cellule Staminali e Terapie Cellulari, Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry, and Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti promoted a retrospective observational study to evaluate HLA matching and the impact of allelic HLA mismatching and non-HLA factors on unrelated Italian HSCT outcomes. From 2012 to 2015, 1788 patients were enrolled in the study. The average donor age was 29 years and the average recipient age was 49 years. As a conditioning regimen, 71% of the patients received myeloablative conditioning. For GVHD prophylaxis, 76% received either antithymocyte or anti-T lymphocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, and methotrexate. Peripheral blood was the stem cell source in 80%. The median duration of follow-up was 53 months. Regarding HLA matching, 50% of donor-recipient pairs were 10/10 matched, 38% had 1 mismatch, and 12% had 2 or more mismatches. A total of 302 pairs shared Italian origin. Four-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, GVHD-free relapse-free survival, and relapse rates were 49%, 40%, 22%, and 34%, respectively. The 4-year NRM was 27%, and the 100-day cumulative incidence of grade ≥II acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 26%. In multivariate analysis, 9/10 and ≤8/10 HLA allele-matched pairs were associated with worse OS (P = .04 and .007, respectively), NRM (P = .007 and P < .0001, respectively), and grade III-IV aGVHD (P = .0001 and .01, respectively). Moreover, the incidences of grade II-IV aGVHD (P = .001) and chronic GVHD (P = .002) were significantly lower in Italian pairs. In conclusion, 10/10 HLA matching is a favorable prognostic factor for unrelated HSCT outcome in the Italian population. Moreover, the presence of 2 HLA-mismatched loci was associated with a higher NRM (P < .0001) and grade II-IV aGVHD (P = .006) and a poorer OS (P = .001) compared with 1 HLA-mismatched locus in early or intermediate disease phases. Finally, we found that Italian donor and recipient origin is a favorable prognostic factor for GVHD occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.021DOI Listing
May 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with cord blood versus mismatched unrelated donor with post-transplant cyclophosphamide in acute myeloid leukemia.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 May 3;14(1):76. Epub 2021 May 3.

EBMT ALWP Office, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using a mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) and cord blood transplantation (CBT) are valid alternatives for patients without a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. Here, we compared the allo-HCT outcomes of CBT versus single-allele-mismatched MMUD allo-HCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in acute myeloid leukemia.

Methods: Patients who underwent a first CBT without PTCy (N = 902) or allo-HCT from a (HLA 9/10) MMUD with PTCy (N = 280) were included in the study. A multivariate regression analysis was performed for the whole population. A matched-pair analysis was carried out by propensity score-based 1:1 matching of patients (177 pairs) with known cytogenetic risk.

Results: The incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 6 months was 36% versus 32% (p = 0.07) and 15% versus 11% (p = 0.16) for CBT and MMUD cohorts, respectively. CBT was associated with a higher incidence of graft failure (11% vs. 4%, p < 0.01) and higher 2-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) (30% vs. 16%, p < 0.01) compared to MMUD. In the multivariate analysis, CBT was associated with a higher risk of, NRM (HR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.46-2.99, p < 0.0001), and relapse (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1-1.83, p = 0.05), which resulted in worse leukemia-free survival (LFS) (HR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.34-2.12, p < 0.0001), overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.33-2.17, p < 0.0001), and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.21-1.83, p < 0.0001) compared to MMUD. The risk of grade II-IV acute GVHD (p = 0.052) and chronic GVHD (p = 0.69) did not differ significantly between the cohorts. These results were confirmed in a matched-pair analysis.

Conclusions: CBT was associated with lower LFS, OS, and GRFS due to higher NRM, compared to MMUD allo-HCT with PTCy. In the absence of a fully matched donor, 9/10 MMUD with PTCy may be preferred over CBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01086-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8094558PMC
May 2021

Comparing outcomes of a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant using HLA-matched unrelated versus T-cell replete haploidentical donors in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a study of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Hematology, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University and INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains undefined. We compared outcomes using HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUD) versus haploidentical donors in this population. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The MUD allo-HCT group comprised 104 patients (male = 56, 54%), median age 36 years, mostly (76%) with B-cell phenotype in complete remission (CR) (CR2/CR3 + = 76, 73%). The 61 patients (male = 38, 62%) in the haploidentical group were younger, median age 30 years (p = 0.002), had mostly (79%) a B-cell phenotype and the majority were also in CR at time of the second allo-HCT (CR2/CR3 + = 40, 66%). Peripheral blood stem cells was the most common cell source in both, but a significantly higher number in the haploidentical group received bone marrow cells (26% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001). A haploidentical donor second allo-HCT had a 1.5-fold higher 2-year OS (49% vs. 31%), albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.13). A longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse was associated with improved OS, leukemia-free survival, graft-versus-host disease-free-relapse-free survival, and lower cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality. Results suggest no major OS difference when choosing either a MUD or haploidentical donor for ALL patients needing a second allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01317-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Breakthrough Invasive Fungal Infections in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;7(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy.

Despite the recent introduction of mold-active antifungal prophylaxis (MAP), breakthrough invasive fungal infections (b-IFI) still represent a possible complication and a cause of morbidity and mortality in hematological patients and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients (HSCT). Data on incidence and type of b-IFI are limited, although they are mainly caused by non- and non- molds and seem to depend on specific antifungal prophylaxis and patients' characteristics. Herein, we described the clinical presentation and management of two cases of rare b-IFI which recently occurred at our institution in patients undergoing HSCT and receiving MAP. The management of b-IFI is challenging due to the lack of data from prospective trials and high mortality rates. A thorough analysis of risk factors, ongoing antifungal prophylaxis, predisposing conditions and local epidemiology should drive the choice of antifungal treatments. Early broad-spectrum preemptive therapy with a lipid formulation of amphotericin-B, in combination with a different mold-active azole plus/minus terbinafine, is advisable. The therapy would cover against rare azole-susceptible and -resistant fungal strains, as well as atypical sites of infections. An aggressive diagnostic work-up is recommended for species identification and subsequent targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7050347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146885PMC
April 2021

Changes in Stem Cell Transplant activity and procedures during SARS-CoV2 pandemic in Italy: an Italian Bone Marrow Transplant Group (GITMO) nationwide analysis (TransCOVID-19 Survey).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

The Transplant Centers belonging to Gruppo Italiano per il Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO) conducted a survey with the aim of evaluating the effect of SARS-CoV2 pandemic on the allogeneic transplant activity in Italy. The pandemic period from 1/3/2020 to 31/7/2020 was compared with the same period in 2019. Overall, in 2020 there was a 2.4% reduction in the number of allo-HCT cases compared to 2019. Interestingly, this deflection did not affect the acute leukemia cases (+5.7% in 2020). The use of peripheral blood-derived stem cells (+10.7%) and cryopreservation (97.4% of the centers) was highly adopted in 2020. Despite the sanitary emergency, almost all of the surveyed centers declared no impact of SARS-CoV2 pandemic on the transplant timing and outcomes, and the sanitary policy was positively evaluated by the majority of centers. The emergency measures ensured that only a minority of the allo-HCT patients had been infected by SARS-CoV2; however, a mortality of 42.1% among the allo-HCT patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was recorded. This survey gives us the information that the GITMO Group reacted positively to the pandemic. Thanks to the emergency strategies, the Italian allo-HCT activity continued safely, showing only a minor deflection and offering the same probability of cure to the transplanted patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01287-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054130PMC
April 2021

Trend towards reduction in COVID-19 in-hospital mortality.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Apr 26;3:100059. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907731PMC
April 2021

The place of ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam for therapy of haematological patients with febrile neutropenia.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Jun 7;57(6):106335. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate ceftazidime/avibactam (C/A) and ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) use in haematological patients with febrile neutropenia receiving high-dose chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to assess C/A and C/T efficacy through infection-related mortality (IRM) and bacteraemia clearance for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) pre-engraftment blood-stream infections (PE-BSIs) between January-December 2018.

Results: Seventy patients underwent allogeneic HSCT: C/A and C/T were dispensed in 13% and 3%, respectively. C/A was administered as definite therapy for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) PE-BSI in four carriers (bacteraemia clearance in 5 days), empirical therapy for a clinically documented infection in two patients (one carrier with pneumonia and one non-carrier with shock) and empirical therapy for fever of unknown origin in three CR-Kp carriers. C/T was administered as definite therapy for carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CR-Pa) intra-abdominal infection in one carrier and empirical therapy for a clinically documented infection (pneumonia) in one non-carrier. Among patients without PE-BSIs and with Gram-positive bacteria PE-BSIs, IRM was 0% at +30 days; conversely, it was 30% in GNB PE-BSIs (two CR-Kp and one CR-Pa C/T-resistant). Thirty-nine patients underwent autologous HSCT: C/A and C/T were administered, respectively, as definite therapy for CR-Kp PE-BSI in one carrier (bacteraemia clearance in 3 days) and for Pa PE-BSI (three strains, one CR-Pa) in one non-carrier (bacteraemia clearance in 2 days). Overall, IRM at +30 days was 0%.

Conclusions: Monitoring multidrug-resistant GNB colonisation enabled selection of carriers who benefit from prompt administration of new antibiotics, improving HSCT outcomes in a high-risk population. C/A and C/T were effective in bacteraemia clearance; unfortunately, multidrug-resistant GNB PE-BSIs were still a burden to IRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2021.106335DOI Listing
June 2021

Second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation using HLA-matched unrelated versus T-cell replete haploidentical donor and survival in relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 10;193(3):592-601. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Hematology, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University and INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains unknown. We compared overall survival (OS) using registry data from the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) involving 455 adults who received a second allo-HCT from a human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated (MUD) (n = 320) or a haploidentical (n = 135) donor. Eligibility criteria required adults aged ≥18 years who received a second allo-HCT for treating AML relapse between 2005 and 2019. The primary end-point was OS. There was no statistically significant difference in the median (interquartile range) age between the groups, MUD 46 (35-58) versus haploidentical 44 (33-53) years (P = 0·07). The median OS was not different between the MUD and the haploidentical groups (10 vs. 11 months, P = 0·57). Similarly, the 2-year OS was 31% for the MUD and 29% for the haploidentical donor groups. The OS was worse if the procedure was performed with active AML [hazard ratio (HR) 1·42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·07-1·89; P = 0·02]. Conversely, a longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse (>13·2 months) was associated with better OS (HR 0·50, 95% CI 0·37-0·69; P < 0·0001). The results of the present analysis limit the ability to recommend one donor type over another when considering a second allo-HCT for relapsed AML. Our findings highlight that best OS is achieved when receiving the second allo-HCT in complete remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17426DOI Listing
May 2021

Improved Outcomes of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Total Body Irradiation-Based Myeloablative Conditioning in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 02 11;27(2):171.e1-171.e8. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Paris Study Office/CEREST-TC, Paris, France.

The optimal myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for patients undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) is unknown. We studied the outcomes of total body irradiation (TBI)-based versus chemotherapy (CT)-based MAC regimens in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The study included 427 patients who underwent first haplo-HCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), following TBI-based (n = 188; 44%) or CT-based (n = 239; 56%) MAC. The median patient age was 32 years. Fludarabine-TBI (72%) and thiotepa-busulfan-fludarabine (65%) were the most frequently used TBI- and CT-based regimens, respectively. In the TBI and CT cohorts, 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 45% versus 37% (P = .05), overall survival (OS) was 51% versus 47% (P = .18), relapse incidence (RI) was 34% versus 32% (P = .44), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 21% versus 31% (P < .01). In the multivariate analysis, TBI was associated with lower NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.86; P = .01), better LFS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.98; P =.04), and increased risk for grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.34; P = .02) compared with CT-based MAC. The type of conditioning regimen did not impact RI, chronic GVHD, OS, or GVHD-free, relapse-free survival after adjusting for transplantation-related variables. TBI-based MAC was associated with lower NRM and better LFS compared with CT-based MAC in patients with ALL after haplo-HCT/PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.008DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcomes following second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis: a retrospective study of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

CHU de Lille, univ Lille, INSERM U1286, INFINITE, 59000, Lille, France.

Therapeutic management of patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis (MF) who experience relapse or graft failure following allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains heterogeneous. We retrospectively analyzed 216 patients undergoing a second allo-HCT for either relapse (56%) or graft failure (31%) between 2010 and 2017. Median age was 57.3 years (range 51-63). The same donor as for the first allo-HCT was chosen in 66 patients (31%) of whom 19 received an HLA-identical sibling donor, whereas a different donor was chosen for 116 patients (54%). Median follow-up was 40 months. Three-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 42% and 39%, respectively. Three-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse rates were 36% and 25%, respectively. Grade II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD occurred in 25% and 11% of patients, respectively, and the 3-year incidence of chronic GVHD was 33% including 14% for extensive grade. Graft-failure incidence at 1 year was 14%. In conclusion, our data suggest that a second allo-HCT is a potential option for patients failing first allo-HCT for MF albeit careful patient assessment is fundamental to identify individual patients who could benefit from this approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01271-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Editorial: Novel Immunological Biomarkers for Allogeneic HSCT Outcome.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:670822. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Unit of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.670822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994590PMC
March 2021

Natural killer cell alloreactivity in HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic transplantation: a study on behalf of the CTIWP of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I mismatches that trigger donor-versus-recipient natural killer (NK)-cell alloreactivity reduce the incidence of leukemia relapse and improve survival of acute myeloid leukemia patients after T-cell-depleted HLA-haplotype mismatched ("haploidentical") hematopoietic transplantation. In murine graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) models, alloreactive NK-cells also prevent GvHD. Here we report the results of a non-interventional, prospective study performed on behalf of the Cellular Therapy and Immunobiology Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The study was aimed at re-assessing the role of NK-cell alloreactivity in a cohort of haploidentical transplants performed in Europe between 2012 and 2015 and composed of unmanipulated, as well as T-cell-depleted transplants. One hundred thirty-eight patients with acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemias were analyzed. Eighty-six patients received ex-vivo T-cell-depleted transplants, 52 patients received unmanipulated transplants. Fifty patients were transplanted from NK alloreactive donors, 88 from non-NK alloreactive donors. NK cell alloreactivity did not impact on GvHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) in unmanipulated transplants (HR: 1.66 (0.9-3.1), p = 0.1). In contrast, it did impact beneficially on GRFS in T-cell-depleted transplants (HR: 0.6, (0.3-1.2), p = 0.14, interaction p < 0.001). This effect was the consequence of reduced incidences of acute and chronic GvHD and non-relapse mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01259-0DOI Listing
March 2021
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