Publications by authors named "Fabiano Oliveira"

103 Publications

Salivary Protease Inhibitors as Potential Anti-Tick Vaccines.

Front Immunol 2020 4;11:611104. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Physiology of Hematophagous Insects, Department of Parasitology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

is the main tick associated with human bites in Brazil and the main vector of , the causative agent of the most severe form of Brazilian spotted fever. Molecules produced in the salivary glands are directly related to feeding success and vector competence. In the present study, we identified sequences of salivary proteins that may be involved in hematophagy and selected three proteins that underwent functional characterization and evaluation as vaccine antigens. Among the three proteins selected, one contained a Kunitz_bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor domain (named AsKunitz) and the other two belonged to the 8.9 kDa and basic tail families of tick salivary proteins (named As8.9kDa and AsBasicTail). Expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding all three proteins was detected in the larvae, nymphs, and females at basal levels in unfed ticks and the expression levels increased after the start of feeding. Recombinant proteins rAs8.9kDa and rAsBasicTail inhibited the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, thrombin, and trypsin, whereas rAsKunitz inhibited only thrombin activity. All three recombinant proteins inhibited the hemolysis of both the classical and alternative pathways; this is the first description of tick members of the Kunitz and 8.9kDa families being inhibitors of the classical complement pathway. Mice immunization with recombinant proteins caused efficacies against A. females from 59.4% with rAsBasicTail immunization to more than 85% by immunization with rAsKunitz and rAs8.9kDa. The mortality of nymphs fed on immunized mice reached 70-100%. Therefore, all three proteins are potential antigens with the possibility of becoming a new tool in the control of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.611104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901972PMC
February 2021

Sports and Functional Training Improve a Subset of Obesity-Related Health Parameters in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Psychol 2020 21;11:589554. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

To investigate the effects of two different modes of physical activity on body composition, physical fitness, cardiometabolic risk, and psychological responses in female adolescents participating in a multi-disciplinary program. The 12-week randomized intervention included 25-adolescents with overweight divided into two groups: sports practice-SPG and functional training-FTG. The SPG intervention was divided into three sports: basketball, handball, and futsal. SPG participants performed one sport 3-times/week, over the course of 1 month. The FTG performed concurrent exercises 3-times/week. This study was registered in Clinical Trials Registry Platform under number: RBR-45ywtg and registered in Local Ethics Committee number: 2,505.200/2018. The intensity of physical exercises-PE was matched between groups by the rating of perceived exertion. The primary outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were physical fitness, cardiometabolic risk, and psychological responses. There was a significant time-effect for body mass, body mass index, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), all being reduced. There were increases over time for musculoskeletal mass, aerobic fitness, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) ( < 0.05). There was a group time interaction with body fat percentage being lower post-intervention in the SPG ( < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for the other variables. Both physical activity models were effective in improving a subset of obesity-related health parameters. The findings should be extended by further investigation using more sophisticated measures of energy expenditure. https://ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/, identifier: RBR-45ywtg.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.589554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859634PMC
January 2021

Potentially probiotic or postbiotic pre-converted nitrite from celery produced by an axenic culture system with probiotic lacticaseibacilli strain.

Meat Sci 2021 Apr 17;174:108408. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), 27600 000 Valença, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

The present study evaluated the use of the probiotic Lacticaseibacillus paracasei DTA-83 as a nitrite-reducing agent to produce potentially probiotic or postbiotic pre-converted nitrite from celery. The results obtained were compared to those achieved by direct addition of sodium nitrite for the typical reddish color formation in cooked pork sausages and the inhibitory potential against the growth of target microorganisms, including the clostridia group. Regarding the sausages color, similar findings were observed when comparing the use of pre-converted nitrite from celery produced by L. paracasei DTA-83 and the direct addition of sodium nitrite. Additionally, it presented an inhibitory effect against Salmonella spp., which was not observed with the direct addition of nitrite, revealing a potential strategy to control salmonellosis in the matrix. However, a non-equivalent preservative effect against Clostridium perfringens (INCQS 215) was determined. The results highlight a promising alternative to produce probiotic or postbiotic meat ingredients; however, further studies should be conducted to investigate doses that achieve microbial control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108408DOI Listing
April 2021

Engineering a vector-based pan-Leishmania vaccine for humans: proof of principle.

Sci Rep 2020 10 29;10(1):18653. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Vector Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD, 20852, USA.

Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases transmitted by sand fly vectors that deposit Leishmania spp. parasites in the host skin during blood feeding. Currently, available treatment options are limited, associated with high toxicity and emerging resistance. Even though a vaccine for human leishmaniasis is considered an achievable goal, to date we still do not have one available, a consequence (amongst other factors) of a lack of pre-clinical to clinical translatability. Pre-exposure to uninfected sand fly bites or immunization with defined sand fly salivary proteins was shown to negatively impact infection. Still, cross-protection reports are rare and dependent on the phylogenetic proximity of the sand fly species, meaning that the applicability of a sand fly saliva-based vaccine will be limited to a defined geography, one parasite species and one form of leishmaniasis. As a proof of principle of a future vector saliva-based pan-Leishmania vaccine, we engineered through a reverse vaccinology approach that maximizes translation to humans, a fusion protein consisting of immunogenic portions of PdSP15 and LJL143, sand fly salivary proteins demonstrated as potential vaccine candidates against cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. The in silico analysis was validated ex vivo, through T cell proliferation experiments, proving that the fusion protein (administered as a DNA vaccine) maintained the immunogenicity of both PdSP15 and LJL143. Additionally, while no significant effect was detected in the context of L. major transmission by P. duboscqi, this DNA vaccine was defined as partially protective, in the context of L. major transmission by L. longipalpis sand flies. Importantly, a high IFNγ response alone was not enough to confer protection, that mainly correlated with low T cell mediated Leishmania-specific IL-4 and IL-10 responses, and consequently with high pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios. Overall our immunogenicity data suggests that to design a potentially safe vector-based pan-Leishmania vaccine, without geographic restrictions and against all forms of leishmaniasis is an achievable goal. This is why we propose our approach as a proof-of principle, perhaps not only applicable to the anti-Leishmania vector-based vaccines' field, but also to other branches of knowledge that require the design of multi-epitope T cell vaccines with a higher potential for translation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75410-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596519PMC
October 2020

Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction by Blood-Feeding Arthropods Controls Skin Inflammation and Promotes Disease Tolerance.

Cell Rep 2020 10;33(4):108317

Vector Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. Electronic address:

Hematophagous vectors lacerate host skin and capillaries to acquire a blood meal, resulting in leakage of red blood cells (RBCs) and inflammation. Here, we show that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a pleiotropic cytoprotective isoenzyme that mitigates heme-mediated tissue damage, is induced after bites of sand flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Further, we demonstrate that erythrophagocytosis by macrophages, including a skin-residing CD163CD91 professional iron-recycling subpopulation, produces HO-1 after bites. Importantly, we establish that global deletion or transient inhibition of HO-1 in mice increases inflammation and pathology following Leishmania-infected sand fly bites without affecting parasite number, whereas CO, an end product of the HO-1 enzymatic reaction, suppresses skin inflammation. This indicates that HO-1 induction by blood-feeding sand flies promotes tolerance to Leishmania infection. Collectively, our data demonstrate that HO-1 induction through erythrophagocytosis is a universal mechanism that regulates skin inflammation following blood feeding by arthropods, thus promoting early-stage disease tolerance to vector-borne pathogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108317DOI Listing
October 2020

Implicating bites from a leishmaniasis sand fly vector in the loss of tolerance in pemphigus.

JCI Insight 2020 12 3;5(23). Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Transmission, Control and Immunobiology of Infections, LR11IPT02, Pasteur Institut de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.

A possible etiological link between the onset of endemic pemphigus in Tunisia and bites of Phlebotomus papatasi, the vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been previously suggested. We hypothesized that the immunodominant P. papatasi salivary protein PpSP32 binds to desmogleins 1 and 3 (Dsg1 and Dsg3), triggering loss of tolerance to these pemphigus target autoantigens. Here, we show using far-Western blot that the recombinant PpSP32 protein (rPpSP32) binds to epidermal proteins with a MW of approximately 170 kDa. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed the interaction of rPpSP32 with either Dsg1 or Dsg3. A specific interaction between PpSP32 and Dsg1 and Dsg3 was further demonstrated by ELISA assays. Finally, mice immunized with rPpSP32 twice per week exhibited significantly increased levels of anti-Dsg1 and -Dsg3 antibodies from day 75 to 120. Such antibodies were specific for Dsg1 and Dsg3 and were not the result of cross-reactivity to PpSP32. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge a specific binding between PpSP32 and Dsg1 and Dsg3, which might underlie the triggering of anti-Dsg antibodies in patients exposed to sand fly bites. We also confirmed the development of specific anti-Dsg1 and -Dsg3 antibodies in vivo after PpSP32 immunization in mice. Collectively, our results provide evidence that environmental factors, such as the exposure to P. papatasi bites, can trigger the development of autoimmune antibodies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.123861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714401PMC
December 2020

RNA-sequencing of the Nyssomyia neivai sialome: a sand fly-vector from a Brazilian endemic area for tegumentary leishmaniasis and pemphigus foliaceus.

Sci Rep 2020 10 19;10(1):17664. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Leishmaniasis encompasses a spectrum of diseases caused by a protozoan belonging to the genus Leishmania. The parasite is transmitted by the bite of sand flies, which inoculate the promastigote forms into the host's skin while acquiring a blood meal. Nyssomyia neivai is one of the main vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) in Brazil. Southeastern Brazil is an endemic region for TL but also overlaps with an endemic focus for pemphigus foliaceus (PF), also known as Fogo Selvagem. Salivary proteins of sand flies, specifically maxadilan and LJM11, have been related to pemphigus etiopathogenesis in the New World, being proposed as an environmental trigger for autoimmunity. We present a comprehensive description of the salivary transcriptome of the N. neivai, using deep sequencing achieved by the Illumina protocol. In addition, we highlight the abundances of several N. neivai salivary proteins and use phylogenetic analysis to compare with Old- and New-World sand fly salivary proteins. The collection of protein sequences associated with the salivary glands of N. neivai can be useful for monitoring vector control strategies as biomarkers of N. neivai, as well as driving vector-vaccine design for leishmaniasis. Additionally, this catalog will serve as reference to screen for possible antigenic peptide candidates triggering anti-Desmoglein-1 autoantibodies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74343-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572365PMC
October 2020

Leishmania infection induces a limited differential gene expression in the sand fly midgut.

BMC Genomics 2020 Sep 4;21(1):608. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Vector Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Sand flies are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. To develop in the sand fly midgut, Leishmania multiplies and undergoes various stage differentiations giving rise to the infective form, the metacyclic promastigotes. To determine the changes in sand fly midgut gene expression caused by the presence of Leishmania, we performed RNA-Seq of uninfected and Leishmania infantum-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis midguts from seven different libraries corresponding to time points which cover the various Leishmania developmental stages.

Results: The combined transcriptomes resulted in the de novo assembly of 13,841 sand fly midgut transcripts. Importantly, only 113 sand fly transcripts, about 1%, were differentially expressed in the presence of Leishmania parasites. Further, we observed distinct differentially expressed sand fly midgut transcripts corresponding to the presence of each of the various Leishmania stages suggesting that each parasite stage influences midgut gene expression in a specific manner. Two main patterns of sand fly gene expression modulation were noted. At early time points (days 1-4), more transcripts were down-regulated by Leishmania infection at large fold changes (> 32 fold). Among the down-regulated genes, the transcription factor Forkhead/HNF-3 and hormone degradation enzymes were differentially regulated on day 2 and appear to be the upstream regulators of nutrient transport, digestive enzymes, and peritrophic matrix proteins. Conversely, at later time points (days 6 onwards), most of the differentially expressed transcripts were up-regulated by Leishmania infection with small fold changes (< 32 fold). The molecular functions of these genes have been associated with the metabolism of lipids and detoxification of xenobiotics.

Conclusion: Overall, our data suggest that the presence of Leishmania produces a limited change in the midgut transcript expression profile in sand flies. Further, Leishmania modulates sand fly gene expression early on in the developmental cycle in order to overcome the barriers imposed by the midgut, yet it behaves like a commensal at later time points where a massive number of parasites in the anterior midgut results only in modest changes in midgut gene expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07025-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487717PMC
September 2020

A second generation leishmanization vaccine with a markerless attenuated Leishmania major strain using CRISPR gene editing.

Nat Commun 2020 07 10;11(1):3461. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, CBER, FDA, Silver Spring, MD, 20993, USA.

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa transmitted by infected sand flies. Vaccination through leishmanization with live Leishmania major has been used successfully but is no longer practiced because it resulted in occasional skin lesions. A second generation leishmanization is described here using a CRISPR genome edited L. major strain (LmCen). Notably, LmCen is a genetically engineered centrin gene knock-out mutant strain that is antibiotic resistant marker free and does not have detectable off-target mutations. Mice immunized with LmCen have no visible lesions following challenge with L. major-infected sand flies, while non-immunized animals develop large and progressive lesions with a 2-log fold higher parasite burden. LmCen immunization results in protection and an immune response comparable to leishmanization. LmCen is safe since it is unable to cause disease in immunocompromised mice, induces robust host protection against vector sand fly challenge and because it is marker free, can be advanced to human vaccine trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17154-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351751PMC
July 2020

Safety and immunogenicity of a mosquito saliva peptide-based vaccine: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1 trial.

Lancet 2020 06 11;395(10242):1998-2007. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

LID Clinical Studies Unit, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: In animal models, immunity to mosquito salivary proteins protects animals against mosquito-borne disease. These findings provide a rationale to vaccinate against mosquito saliva instead of the pathogen itself. To our knowledge, no vector salivary protein-based vaccine has been tested for safety and immunogenicity in humans. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Anopheles gambiae saliva vaccine (AGS-v), a peptide-based vaccine derived from four A gambiae salivary proteins, in humans.

Methods: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1 trial, participants were enrolled at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, USA. Participants were eligible if they were healthy adults, aged 18-50 years with no history of severe allergic reactions to mosquito bites. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1), using block randomisation and a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to treatment with either 200 nmol of AGS-v vaccine alone, 200 nmol of AGS-v with adjuvant (Montanide ISA 51), or sterile water as placebo. Participants and clinicians were masked to treatment assignment. Participants were given a subcutaneous injection of their allocated treatment at day 0 and day 21, followed by exposure to feeding by an uninfected Aedes aegypti mosquito at day 42 to assess subsequent risk to mosquito bites in a controlled setting. The primary endpoints were safety and immunogenicity at day 42 after the first immunisation. Participants who were given at least one dose of assigned treatment were assessed for the primary endpoints and analysis was by intention to treat. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03055000, and is closed for accrual.

Findings: Between Feb 15 and Sept 10, 2017, we enrolled and randomly assigned 49 healthy adult participants to the adjuvanted vaccine (n=17), vaccine alone (n=16), or placebo group (n=16). Five participants did not complete the two-injection regimen with mosquito feeding at day 42, but were included in the safety analyses. No systemic safety concerns were identified; however, one participant in the adjuvanted vaccine group developed a grade 3 erythematous rash at the injection site. Pain, swelling, erythema, and itching were the most commonly reported local symptoms and were significantly increased in the adjuvanted vaccine group compared with both other treatment groups (nine [53%] of 17 participants in the adjuvanted vaccine group, two [13%] of 16 in the vaccine only group, and one [6%] of 16 in the placebo group; p=0·004). By day 42, participants who were given the adjuvanted vaccine had a significant increase in vaccine-specific total IgG antibodies compared with at baseline than did participants who were give vaccine only (absolute difference of log-fold change of 0·64 [95% CI 0·39 to 0·89]; p=0·0002) and who were given placebo (0·62 [0·34 to 0·91]; p=0·0001). We saw a significant increase in IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells at day 42 in the adjuvanted vaccine group compared with in the placebo group (absolute difference of log ratio of vaccine peptide-stimulated vs negative control 0·17 [95% CI 0·061 to 0·27]; p=0·009) but we saw no difference between the IFN-γ production in the vaccine only group compared with the placebo group (0·022 [-0·072 to 0·116]; p=0·63).

Interpretation: AGS-v was well tolerated, and, when adjuvanted, immunogenic. These findings suggest that vector-targeted vaccine administration in humans is safe and could be a viable option for the increasing burden of vector-borne disease.

Funding: Office of the Director and the Division of Intramural Research at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and National Institutes of Health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31048-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Immunity to vector saliva is compromised by short sand fly seasons in endemic regions with temperate climates.

Sci Rep 2020 05 14;10(1):7990. Epub 2020 May 14.

Vector Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, 20852, USA.

Individuals exposed to sand fly bites develop humoral and cellular immune responses to sand fly salivary proteins. Moreover, cellular immunity to saliva or distinct salivary proteins protects against leishmaniasis in various animal models. In Tbilisi, Georgia, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), sand flies are abundant for a short period of ≤3 months. Here, we demonstrate that humans and dogs residing in Tbilisi have little immunological memory to saliva of P. kandelakii, the principal vector of VL. Only 30% of humans and 50% of dogs displayed a weak antibody response to saliva after the end of the sand fly season. Likewise, their peripheral blood mononuclear cells mounted a negligible cellular immune response after stimulation with saliva. RNA seq analysis of wild-caught P. kandelakii salivary glands established the presence of a typical salivary repertoire that included proteins commonly found in other sand fly species such as the yellow, SP15 and apyrase protein families. This indicates that the absence of immunity to P. kandelakii saliva in humans and dogs from Tbilisi is probably caused by insufficient exposure to sand fly bites. This absence of immunity to vector saliva will influence the dynamics of VL transmission in Tbilisi and other endemic areas with brief sand fly seasons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64820-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224377PMC
May 2020

Exploring Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Vector Competence for Leishmania major Parasites.

J Infect Dis 2020 09;222(7):1199-1203

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies are the major natural vector of Leishmania infantum parasites, responsible for transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Several experimental studies have demonstrated the ability of Lu. longipalpis to sustain development of different Leishmania species. However, no study had explored in depth the potential vector competence of Lu. longipalpis for Leishmania species other than L. infantum. Here, we show that Lu. longipalpis is a competent vector of L. major parasites, being able to acquire parasites from active cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions, sustain mature infections, and transmit them to naive hosts, causing disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459136PMC
September 2020

Distinct gene expression patterns in vector-residing Leishmania infantum identify parasite stage-enriched markers.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 03 3;14(3):e0008014. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Vector Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected disease. Inside the natural sand fly vector, the promastigote forms of Leishmania undergo a series of extracellular developmental stages to reach the infectious stage, the metacyclic promastigote. There is limited information regarding the expression profile of L. infantum developmental stages inside the sand fly vector, and molecular markers that can distinguish the different parasite stages are lacking.

Methodology/principal Findings: We performed RNAseq on unaltered midguts of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis after infection with L. infantum parasites. RNAseq was carried out at various time points throughout parasite development. Principal component analysis separated the transcripts corresponding to the different Leishmania promastigote stages, the procyclic, nectomonad, leptomonad and metacyclics. Importantly, there were a significant number of differentially expressed genes when comparing the sequential development of the various Leishmania stages in the sand fly. There were 836 differentially expressed (DE) genes between procyclic and long nectomonad promastigotes; 113 DE genes between nectomonad and leptomonad promastigotes; and 302 DE genes between leptomonad and metacyclic promastigotes. Most of the DE genes do not overlap across stages, highlighting the uniqueness of each Leishmania stage. Furthermore, the different stages of Leishmania parasites exhibited specific transcriptional enrichment across chromosomes. Using the transcriptional signatures exhibited by distinct Leishmania stages during their development in the sand fly midgut, we determined the genes predominantly enriched in each stage, identifying multiple potential stage-specific markers for L. infantum.

Conclusions: Overall, these findings demonstrate the transcriptional plasticity of the Leishmania parasite inside the sand fly vector and provide a repertoire of potential stage-specific markers for further development as molecular tools for epidemiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053709PMC
March 2020

Leishmania infantum.

Trends Parasitol 2020 01 20;36(1):80-81. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Vector Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.10.006DOI Listing
January 2020

Heart rate variability in people with visual disability: Study Protocol.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov;98(46):e17656

Programa de Pos-graduação em Politicas Publicas e Desenvolvimento Local, Escola Superior de Ciencias da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Vitoria, EMESCAM, Vitoria.

Introduction: People with visual impairment (VI) have loss of vision that causes impact on their daily living activities. Synonymous of VI are blindness, low vision, subnormal vision, visual incapacity, although there are peculiarities among them. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides the body with dynamic adaptation, moment by moment, according to changes in the internal and/or external body environment. As VI is an adverse condition, it is expected to be associated with changes in systemic autonomic activity, such as heart rate (HR) variability.

Objective: To analyze the blindness stress by monitoring the activity of the ANS in the heart in subjects submitted acutely to low vision and also in subjects with chronic visual deficiency.

Method: This is a randomized trial experimental study. In this clinical trial, initially, patients will undergo an ophthalmologic medical evaluation, along with monitoring of HR and systolic blood pressure /diastolic blood pressure. Volunteers with normal vision (Group i); and people with VI (Group ii) will be evaluated, all of them inhabitants of Rio Branco City, capital of Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. The intervention will consist of simulating blindness by sealing both eyes of each participant with good eyesight, using a sleep mask and allowing maximum occlusion for 45 minutes, split into 3 periods of 15 minutes each. Still blindfolded, participants will be requested to perform different tasks as walking, serve themselves water and/or cookies, and engaging in playful-pedagogical activity. Identical procedure will be done with the group with VI. The HR will be recorded by the Polar RS800 HR monitor. All findings with a value of P < .05 will be considered statistically significant. As a risk measure the odds ratio will be calculated, adjusted, and not adjusted with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio = 1 of lowest risk for the outcome of interest will be considered as the base category for each independent variable.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study will be carried out in accordance with the guidelines that regulate human research in Resolution No. 466/12 of the National Health Council. We obtained the approval of the Research Ethics Committee of the ABC Medical School/Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, with CAAE: 73945017.0.0000.0082, and Opinion No. 2,275,101. All individuals who agreed to participate in the study will sign the free and informed consent form (FICF). The FICF is also available in audio and Braille versions. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and conferences. This study is registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials under the number RBR-9sm9dp.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6867795PMC
November 2019

Amine-binding properties of salivary yellow-related proteins in phlebotomine sand flies.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019 12 8;115:103245. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

The amine-binding properties of sand fly salivary yellow-related proteins (YRPs) were described only in Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Here, we experimentally confirmed the kratagonist function of YRPs in the genus Phlebotomus. We utilized microscale thermophoresis technique to determine the amine-binding properties of YRPs in saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. orientalis, the Old-World vectors of visceral leishmaniases causative agents. Expressed and purified YRPs from three different sand fly species were tested for their interactions with various biogenic amines, including serotonin, histamine and catecholamines. Using the L. longipalpis YRP LJM11 as a control, we have demonstrated the comparability of the microscale thermophoresis method with conventional isothermal titration calorimetry described previously. By homology in silico modeling, we predicted the surface charge and both amino acids and hydrogen bonds of the amine-binding motifs to influence the binding affinities between closely related YRPs. All YRPs tested bound at least two biogenic amines, while the affinities differ both among and within species. Low affinity was observed for histamine. The salivary recombinant proteins rSP03B (P. perniciosus) and rPorASP4 (P. orientalis) showed high-affinity binding of serotonin, suggesting their capability to facilitate inhibition of the blood vessel contraction and platelet aggregation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.103245DOI Listing
December 2019

Effects of the Order of Physical Exercises on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Adolescents Participating in an Interdisciplinary Program Focusing on the Treatment of Obesity.

Front Physiol 2019 6;10:1013. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Research Group in Physical Education, Physiotherapy, Sports, Nutrition and Performance of the University Center of Maringá (GEFFEND/UniCesumar), Maringa, Brazil.

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the order of physical exercises on body composition, physical fitness, and cardiometabolic risk in adolescents participating in an interdisciplinary program focusing on the treatment of obesity. The final 12-week analyses involved 33 female adolescents who were split into two groups of concurrent training (CT): resistance plus aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training, with equalization performed in all physical exercises. The only difference between the two groups was the order in which the exercises were performed. The results showed reductions in fat mass, body fat, and waist circumference, as well as increases in musculoskeletal mass and resting metabolic rate ( < 0.05) following the multiprofessional intervention period. However, no significant differences were observed in regard to body mass, body mass index, neck circumference, or arm circumference ( > 0.05). Maximal isometric strength and maximal oxygen consumption showed significant increases after the intervention period ( < 0.05). There were reductions in insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins ( < 0.05), and an interaction within the resistance plus aerobic training group showed lower values for triglycerides when compared to itself ( = 0.002). No difference was found in fasting glycemia for either group ( > 0.05). It is worth noting that the equalization training variables presented no differences between the two groups ( > 0.05). Based on these results, both CT methods were found to be effective in promoting health parameters in overweight and obese female adolescents, and triglyceride values decreased more in the resistance plus aerobic group. Future studies with larger samples and feeding control should be conducted to confirm or refute our findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691346PMC
August 2019

Polioencephalomyelitis and Ganglionitis in Captive Houston Toads ().

Vet Pathol 2019 09 20;56(5):789-793. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

8 TVMDL Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College Station Laboratory, College Station, TX, USA.

is a ubiquitous pathogen causing disease in humans, mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Since 2012, infection has caused neurologic disease and mortality in a breeding colony of endangered Houston toads () at the Houston Zoo. The purpose of this report is to present the histopathologic and ultrastructural characteristics of infection in Houston toads. Fourteen cases were evaluated by histopathology and 1 case was evaluated by electron microscopy. The major histopathologic finding was necrotizing and histiocytic polioencephalomyelitis and ganglionitis. Bacteria formed intracytoplasmic inclusions within neurons but frequently extended into the surrounding tissue from necrotic cells. Ultrastructural evaluation showed the bacteria formed reticulate and elementary bodies characteristic of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985819844818DOI Listing
September 2019

Anaplastic Large T-Cell Lymphoma in the Intestine of Dogs.

Vet Pathol 2019 11 6;56(6):878-884. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Antech Diagnostics, College Station, TX, USA.

Anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (ALTCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma that occasionally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type 1 is the most common type of intestinal lymphoma in dogs, and ALTCL has not previously been reported in the intestinal tract of dogs. Thirteen dogs with intestinal masses diagnosed as intestinal lymphoma with anaplastic morphology were reviewed. Clinical data, including treatment protocols, were available for 11 cases. Immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD20, and CD30 was performed for all cases in addition to PCR for Antigen Receptor Rearrangements (PARR) for assessment of clonality. Eight (62%) of the cases presented with intestinal perforation, and all cases had 1 or more masses arising from the small intestine. Histologically, all cases were characterized by transmural infiltrates of large, CD3-positive and frequently CD30-positive cells. Neoplastic T cells had marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, prominent nucleoli, and occasionally indented to reniform nuclei. There was abundant necrosis and inflammation with occasional vascular invasion within neoplastic masses. All cases had a monoclonal T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangement. The median survival time was 5 days, with 1 dog surviving 2 years after the initial diagnosis. ALTCL can occur as an aggressive transmural lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs and commonly causes intestinal perforation. ALTCL can be differentiated from EATL type 1 and might have implications for accurate prognostication and selection of therapeutic options in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985819852132DOI Listing
November 2019

Evaluation of the effects of aerobic training during hemodialysis on autonomic heart rate modulation in patients with chronic renal disease.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Jun;98(23):e15976

Graduate, Research and Innovation Sector, Santo Andre, São Paulo, ABC Medical School, FMABC.

Introduction: Chronic renal disease (CRD) affects a large portion of the population and is directly related to cardiovascular problems and hypertension, among others. Studies show that heart rate variability is directly affected by these problems. Physical-oriented exercises have been shown to be of fundamental importance in improving the adverse effects to dialysis treatment.

Objective: To analyze the effects of aerobic training during hemodialysis on autonomic heart rate modulation in patients with CRD.

Method: Experimental study of an open, single group clinical trial. In this clinical trial, patients with CRD will initially undergo international physical activity questionnaire and kidney disease quality of life short form protocols, as well as monitoring of heart rate systolic, and diastolic blood pressure. After evaluation of the initial parameters, patients will undergo an aerobic exercise program for 12 weeks, in 3 weekly sessions, lasting 30 minutes a session. These evaluations will allow for a greater control of the disease, and monitoring of any improvements in the quality of life and self-esteem of these patients.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study was approved following the guidelines and norms that regulate research involving human subjects, in Resolution No. 466/12 of the National Health Council. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Juazeiro do Norte, with the number 1962 092. All patients who agree to participate in the research will sign the informed consent form. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and conferences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571407PMC
June 2019

RNA-seq analysis of the salivary glands and midgut of the Argasid tick Ornithodoros rostratus.

Sci Rep 2019 05 1;9(1):6764. Epub 2019 May 1.

Section of Vector Biology, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Ornithodoros rostratus is a South American argasid tick which importance relies on its itchy bite and potential as disease vector. They feed on a wide variety of hosts and secrete different molecules in their saliva and intestinal content that counteract host defences and help to accommodate and metabolize the relatively large quantity of blood upon feeding. The present work describes the transcriptome profile of salivary gland (SG) and midgut (MG) of O. rostratus using Illumina sequencing. A total of 8,031 contigs were assembled and assigned to different functional classes. Secreted proteins were the most abundant in the SG and accounted for ~67% of all expressed transcripts with contigs with identity to lipocalins and acid tail proteins being the most representative. On the other hand, immunity genes were upregulated in MG with a predominance of defensins and lysozymes. Only 10 transcripts in SG and 8 in MG represented ~30% of all RNA expressed in each tissue and one single contig (the acid tail protein ORN-9707) represented ~7% of all expressed contigs in SG. Results highlight the functional difference of each organ and identified the most expressed classes and contigs of O. rostratus SG and MG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42899-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494864PMC
May 2019

Proposal of a normative table for body fat percentages of Brazilian young adults through bioimpedanciometry.

J Exerc Rehabil 2018 Dec 27;14(6):974-979. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

State University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil.

Identification of the body fat (BF) percentage allows health professionals to detect healthy or risky patterns in a population. However, no studies have elaborated BF cutoff points using the bioelectrical impedance method in young Brazilian adults. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elaborate normative tables for BF in Brazilian men and women (sedentary and physically active) between 18 and 39 years of age. A total of 3,111 adults (958 men and 2,153 women) were evaluated using bioimpedance measurements with the InBody 520 device. The data were distributed normally and divided into percentiles (P, P, P, P, P, P, and P). The following values were observed: for men: P=8.9%-12.5%; P=12.6%-17.5%; P=17.6%-25.3%; P=25.4%-35.1%; P=35.2%-43.0%; P=43.1%-49.4% and P=49.5%; for women: P=18.7%-23.1%; P=23.2%-28.7%; P=28.8%-35.7%; P=35.8%-42.9%; P=43.0%-49.1%; P=49.2%-52.1% and P≥52.2%. These percentiles can be used to classify the adiposity of sedentary and physically active individuals evaluated by bioimpedanciometry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.1836400.200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323334PMC
December 2018

DNA plasmid coding for Phlebotomus sergenti salivary protein PsSP9, a member of the SP15 family of proteins, protects against Leishmania tropica.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 11;13(1):e0007067. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis is transmitted to humans by infected female sand flies, which transmits Leishmania parasites together with saliva during blood feeding. In Iran, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania (L.) major and L. tropica, and their main vectors are Phlebotomus (Ph.) papatasi and Ph. sergenti, respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that mice immunized with the salivary gland homogenate (SGH) of Ph. papatasi or subjected to bites from uninfected sand flies are protected against L. major infection.

Methods And Results: In this work we tested the immune response in BALB/c mice to 14 different plasmids coding for the most abundant salivary proteins of Ph. sergenti. The plasmid coding for the salivary protein PsSP9 induced a DTH response in the presence of a significant increase of IFN-γ expression in draining lymph nodes (dLN) as compared to control plasmid and no detectable PsSP9 antibody response. Animals immunized with whole Ph. sergenti SGH developed only a saliva-specific antibody response and no DTH response. Mice immunized with whole Ph. sergenti saliva and challenged intradermally with L. tropica plus Ph. sergenti SGH in their ears, exhibited no protective effect. In contrast, PsSP9-immunized mice showed protection against L. tropica infection resulting in a reduction in nodule size, disease burden and parasite burden compared to controls. Two months post infection, protection was associated with a significant increase in the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-5 expression in the dLN compared to controls.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that while immunity to the whole Ph. sergenti saliva does not induce a protective response against cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, PsSP9, a member of the PpSP15 family of Ph. sergenti salivary proteins, provides protection against L. tropica infection. These results suggest that this family of proteins in Ph. sergenti, Ph. duboscqi and Ph. papatasi may have similar immunogenic and protective properties against different Leishmania species. Indeed, this anti-saliva immunity may act as an adjuvant to accelerate the cell-mediated immune response to co-administered Leishmania antigens, or even cause the activation of infected macrophages to remove parasites more efficiently. These findings highlight the idea of applying arthropod saliva components in vaccination approaches for diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345478PMC
January 2019

Coinfection With Confers Protection Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Front Immunol 2018 11;9:2855. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Vector Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, United States.

Infection with certain bacteria, parasites, and viruses alters the host immune system to influencing disease outcome. Here, we determined the outcome of a chronic infection with on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by . C57BL/6 mice infected with were given a sub-curative treatment with diminazene aceturate then coinfected with by vector bites. Our results revealed that infection with controls CL pathology. Compared to controls, coinfected mice showed a significant decrease in lesion size ( < 0.05) up to 6 weeks post-infection and a significant decrease in parasite burden ( < 0.0001) at 3 weeks post-infection. Protection against resulted from a non-specific activation of T cells by trypanosomes. This induced a strong immune response characterized by IFN-γ production at the site of bites and systemically, creating a hostile inflammatory environment for parasites and conferring protection from CL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297747PMC
October 2019

The PAGODAS protocol: pediatric assessment group of dengue and Aedes saliva protocol to investigate vector-borne determinants of Aedes-transmitted arboviral infections in Cambodia.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Dec 20;11(1):664. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

National Center of Parasitology, Entomology, and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Background: Mosquito-borne arboviruses, like dengue virus, continue to cause significant global morbidity and mortality, particularly in Southeast Asia. When the infectious mosquitoes probe into human skin for a blood meal, they deposit saliva containing a myriad of pharmacologically active compounds, some of which alter the immune response and influence host receptivity to infection, and consequently, the establishment of the virus. Previous reports have highlighted the complexity of mosquito vector-derived factors and immunity in the success of infection. Cumulative evidence from animal models and limited data from humans have identified various vector-derived components, including salivary components, that are co-delivered with the pathogen and play an important role in the dissemination of infection. Much about the roles and effects of these vector-derived factors remain to be discovered.

Methods/design: We describe a longitudinal, pagoda (community)-based pediatric cohort study to evaluate the burden of dengue virus infection and document the immune responses to salivary proteins of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. The study includes community-based seroprevalence assessments in the peri-urban town of Chbar Mon in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia. The study aims to recruit 771 children between the ages of 2 and 9 years for a three year period of longitudinal follow-up, including twice per year (rainy and dry season) serosurveillance for dengue seroconversion and Ae. aegypti salivary gland homogenate antibody intensity determinations by ELISA assays. Diagnostic tests for acute dengue, Zika and chikungunya viral infections will be performed by RT-PCR.

Discussion: This study will serve as a foundation for further understanding of mosquito saliva immunity and its impact on Aedes-transmitted arboviral diseases endemic to Cambodia.

Trial Registration: NCT03534245 registered on 23 May 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3224-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300895PMC
December 2018

Human antibody reaction against recombinant salivary proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis in Eastern Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 4;12(12):e0006981. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Phlebotomus orientalis is a vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of life threatening visceral leishmaniasis spread in Eastern Africa. During blood-feeding, sand fly females salivate into the skin of the host. Sand fly saliva contains a large variety of proteins, some of which elicit specific antibody responses in the bitten hosts. To evaluate the exposure to sand fly bites in human populations from disease endemic areas, we tested the antibody reactions of volunteers' sera against recombinant P. orientalis salivary antigens.

Methodology/principal Findings: Recombinant proteins derived from sequence data on P. orientalis secreted salivary proteins, were produced using either bacterial (five proteins) or mammalian (four proteins) expression systems and tested as antigens applicable for detection of anti-P. orientalis IgG in human sera. Using these recombinant proteins, human sera from Sudan and Ethiopia, countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, were screened by ELISA and immunoblotting to identify the potential markers of exposure to P. orientalis bites. Two recombinant proteins; mAG5 and mYEL1, were identified as the most promising antigens showing high correlation coefficients as well as good specificity in comparison to the whole sand fly salivary gland homogenate. Combination of both proteins led to a further increase of correlation coefficients as well as both positive and negative predictive values of P. orientalis exposure.

Conclusions/significance: This is the first report of screening human sera for anti-P. orientalis antibodies using recombinant salivary proteins. The recombinant salivary proteins mYEL1 and mAG5 proved to be valid antigens for screening human sera from both Sudan and Ethiopia for exposure to P. orientalis bites. The utilization of equal amounts of these two proteins significantly increased the capability to detect anti-P. orientalis antibody responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279015PMC
December 2018

The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae persists in the highly oxidative environment of its soft-bodied tick vector.

Cell Microbiol 2019 02 4;21(2):e12987. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae possesses a complex life cycle in its soft-bodied tick vector, Ornithodoros turicata. Spirochetes enter the tick midgut during a blood meal, and, during the following weeks, spirochetes disseminate throughout O. turicata. A population persists in the salivary glands allowing for rapid transmission to the mammalian hosts during tick feeding. Little is known about the physiological environment within the salivary glands acini in which B. turicatae persists. In this study, we examined the salivary gland transcriptome of O. turicata ticks and detected the expression of 57 genes involved in oxidant metabolism or antioxidant defences. We confirmed the expression of five of the most highly expressed genes, including glutathione peroxidase (gpx), thioredoxin peroxidase (tpx), manganese superoxide dismutase (sod-1), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod-2), and catalase (cat) by reverse-transcriptase droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-ddPCR). We also found distinct differences in the expression of these genes when comparing the salivary glands and midguts of unfed O. turicata ticks. Our results indicate that the salivary glands of unfed O. turicata nymphs are highly oxidative environments where reactive oxygen species (ROS) predominate, whereas midgut tissues comprise a primarily nitrosative environment where nitric oxide synthase is highly expressed. Additionally, B. turicatae was found to be hyperresistant to ROS compared with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, suggesting it is uniquely adapted to the highly oxidative environment of O. turicata salivary gland acini.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.12987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454574PMC
February 2019

Zygomatic Arch Parosteal Osteosarcoma in Dogs and a Cat.

Vet Pathol 2019 Mar 24;56(2):274-276. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

1 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Parosteal osteosarcoma is a rare, slow-growing tumor most commonly arising from the surface of long bones. Tissue or histological sections from 5 dogs and 1 cat with zygomatic arch masses were examined. Clinical presentations varied from chronic sneezing to facial swelling. Imaging consistently demonstrated osseous proliferation in the area of the zygomatic arch. Histologically, the masses were characterized by well-differentiated fibro-osseous and chondroid components that radiated outward from the periosteum of the zygomatic bone. Cellular atypia and mitotic figures were uncommon. Parosteal osteosarcomas have previously been reported in the skulls of dogs and cats, but only 1 has been reported on the zygomatic arch. Initially, these tumors are of low histologic low grade, but with time, they can show more aggressive behavior and invade the underlying bone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985818798110DOI Listing
March 2019

Impact of insecticide-treated bednets and indoor residual spraying in controlling populations of Phlebotomus duboscqi, the vector of Leishmania major in Central Mali.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 14;11(1):345. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Leishmaniasis Unit, Department of Entomology of International Center of Excellence in Research (ICER-Mali), Faculty of Medicine and Odontostomatology, University of Science, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako (USTTB), BP 1805, Bamako, Mali.

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic neglected tropical disease prevalent in several areas where seasonal malaria transmission is active. We assessed the effect of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and the mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) for malaria control on sand fly population diversity and abundance, and its impact on the risk of Leishmania transmission in the district of Baroueli, endemic for CL in Mali.

Methods: Kemena and Sougoula, two villages in the district of Baroueli, were selected for entomology surveys from March to September 2016 to evaluate sand fly species composition and density, and Leishmania infection rates in the vector Phlebotomus duboscqi. The surveys followed an annual indoor residual spraying and mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (IRS/LLINs) that began in 2011 for malaria vector control. We also carried out a leishmanin skin test (LST) survey in the two villages to determine the incidence of Leishmania infection in humans living in the endemic area.

Results: A total of 2936 sand fly specimens, 1013 males and 1923 females, were collected and identified from the two villages throughout the study period. Fourteen species, 2 belonging to the genus Phlebotomus and 12 to the genus Sergentomyia, were documented. The genus Sergentomyia constituted 91% of collected sand flies versus 9% for the genus Phlebotomus (P. duboscqi and P. rodhaini). Of those, P. duboscqi was the most abundant, representing 99.6% of the collected Phlebotomus species. In both villages, P. duboscqi was most abundant during the end of dry season (June). The prevalence of Leishmania infection in individual females of P. duboscqi by PCR was 3.5%. After 5 years of the IRS/LLINs, the incidence of Leishmania infection in the human population as measured by LST was 4.2%.

Conclusions: Compared to historical data collected from 2005-2008, a considerable reduction was observed in both sand fly density and prevalence of human Leishmania infection in the villages of Kemena and Sougoula, Baroueli District, following IRS/LLINs. This suggests that IRS/LLINs used for mosquito control also impacts sand fly vectors reducing the incidence of leishmaniasis.

Trial Registration: NCT00344084 . Registered: 23 June 2006.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2909-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6000934PMC
June 2018