Publications by authors named "Fabian Hauck"

69 Publications

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to heterozygous mutation in OAS1: Whole lung lavages for long-term bridging to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Introduction: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is defined by increased accumulation of surfactant in the alveolar space. PAP has been reported to be associated with a large number of clinical conditions and diseases. Whole lung lavages can be helpful to stabilize the clinical course of PAP until the underlying condition is identified, which may enable more specific treatment. Recently, heterozygous OAS1 gain-of-function variants were described as cause in a patient with infantile-onset PAP combined with hypogammaglobulinemia.

Case Presentation: At age 4 months, a female infant born to term was diagnosed with hypogammaglobulinemia and treated with monthly immunoglobulin injections. At age 15 months, the girl needed supplemental oxygen at night, and at age 18 months, also during the day. At age 2 years, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis of unknown etiology was diagnosed by computed tomography scan and open lung biopsy. Subsequently, monthly whole lung lavages (WLLs) were started, which stabilized the clinical course for over 2 years until a disease-causing OAS1 variant was diagnosed and the patient was successfully treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Conclusion: Here, we describe the successful management of a female patient with severe PAP caused by a heterozygous OAS1 gain-of-function variant until a definitive diagnosis was made and cured by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25728DOI Listing
October 2021

Simple Measurement of IgA Predicts Immunity and Mortality in Ataxia-Telangiectasia.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Royal Hospitals & Queen's University, Belfast, UK.

Patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) suffer from progressive cerebellar ataxia, immunodeficiency, respiratory failure, and cancer susceptibility. From a clinical point of view, A-T patients with IgA deficiency show more symptoms and may have a poorer prognosis. In this study, we analyzed mortality and immunity data of 659 A-T patients with regard to IgA deficiency collected from the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry and from 66 patients with classical A-T who attended at the Frankfurt Goethe-University between 2012 and 2018. We studied peripheral B- and T-cell subsets and T-cell repertoire of the Frankfurt cohort and survival rates of all A-T patients in the ESID registry. Patients with A-T have significant alterations in their lymphocyte phenotypes. All subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD4/CD45RA, and CD8/CD45RA) were significantly diminished compared to standard values. Patients with IgA deficiency (n = 35) had significantly lower lymphocyte counts compared to A-T patients without IgA deficiency (n = 31) due to a further decrease of naïve CD4 T-cells, central memory CD4 cells, and regulatory T-cells. Although both patient groups showed affected TCR-ß repertoires compared to controls, no differences could be detected between patients with and without IgA deficiency. Overall survival of patients with IgA deficiency was significantly diminished. For the first time, our data show that patients with IgA deficiency have significantly lower lymphocyte counts and subsets, which are accompanied with reduced survival, compared to A-T patients without IgA deficiency. IgA, a simple surrogate marker, is indicating the poorest prognosis for classical A-T patients. Both non-interventional clinical trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov 2012 (Susceptibility to infections in ataxia-telangiectasia; NCT02345135) and 2017 (Susceptibility to Infections, tumor risk and liver disease in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia; NCT03357978).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-021-01090-8DOI Listing
September 2021

NBAS Variants Are Associated with Quantitative and Qualitative NK and B Cell Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Division of Neuropediatrics and Pediatric Metabolic Medicine, Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: Biallelic pathogenic NBAS variants manifest as a multisystem disorder with heterogeneous clinical phenotypes such as recurrent acute liver failure, growth retardation, and susceptibility to infections. This study explores how NBAS-associated disease affects cells of the innate and adaptive immune system.

Methods: Clinical and laboratory parameters were combined with functional multi-parametric immunophenotyping methods in fifteen NBAS-deficient patients to discover possible alterations in their immune system.

Results: Our study revealed reduced absolute numbers of mature CD56 natural killer (NK) cells. Notably, the residual NK cell population in NBAS-deficient patients exerted a lower potential for activation and degranulation in response to K562 target cells, suggesting an NK cell-intrinsic role for NBAS in the release of cytotoxic granules. NBAS-deficient NK cell activation and degranulation was normalized upon pre-activation by IL-2 in vitro, suggesting that functional impairment was reversible. In addition, we observed a reduced number of naïve B cells in the peripheral blood associated with hypogammaglobulinemia.

Conclusion: In summary, we demonstrate that pathogenic biallelic variants in NBAS are associated with dysfunctional NK cells as well as impaired adaptive humoral immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-021-01110-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic, Immunological, and Clinical Features of 32 Patients with Autosomal Recessive STAT1 Deficiency.

J Immunol 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Autosomal recessive (AR) STAT1 deficiency is a severe inborn error of immunity disrupting cellular responses to type I, II, and III IFNs, and IL-27, and conferring a predisposition to both viral and mycobacterial infections. We report the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of an international cohort of 32 patients from 20 kindreds: 24 patients with complete deficiency, and 8 patients with partial deficiency. Twenty-four patients suffered from mycobacterial disease (bacillus Calmette-Guérin = 13, environmental mycobacteria = 10, or both in 1 patient). Fifty-four severe viral episodes occurred in sixteen patients, mainly caused by viruses. Attenuated live measles, mumps, and rubella and/or varicella zoster virus vaccines triggered severe reactions in the five patients with complete deficiency who were vaccinated. Seven patients developed features of hemophagocytic syndrome. Twenty-one patients died, and death was almost twice as likely in patients with complete STAT1 deficiency than in those with partial STAT1 deficiency. All but one of the eight survivors with AR complete deficiency underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Overall survival after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 64%. A diagnosis of AR STAT1 deficiency should be considered in children with mycobacterial and/or viral infectious diseases. It is important to distinguish between complete and partial forms of AR STAT1 deficiency, as their clinical outcome and management differ significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2001451DOI Listing
June 2021

Heterozygous gain-of-function variants cause an autoinflammatory immunodeficiency.

Sci Immunol 2021 Jun;6(60)

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Analysis of autoinflammatory and immunodeficiency disorders elucidates human immunity and fosters the development of targeted therapies. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 is a type I interferon-induced, intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensor that generates 2'-5'-oligoadenylate to activate ribonuclease L (RNase L) as a means of antiviral defense. We identified four de novo heterozygous gain-of-function variants in six patients with a polymorphic autoinflammatory immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent fever, dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and hypogammaglobulinemia. To establish causality, we applied genetic, molecular dynamics simulation, biochemical, and cellular functional analyses in heterologous, autologous, and inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived macrophages and/or monocytes and B cells. We found that upon interferon-induced expression, OAS1 variant proteins displayed dsRNA-independent activity, which resulted in RNase L-mediated RNA cleavage, transcriptomic alteration, translational arrest, and dysfunction and apoptosis of monocytes, macrophages, and B cells. RNase L inhibition with curcumin modulated and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation cured the disorder. Together, these data suggest that human OAS1 is a regulator of interferon-induced hyperinflammatory monocyte, macrophage, and B cell pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abf9564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392508PMC
June 2021

Abatacept for treatment-refractory pediatric CTLA4-haploinsufficiency.

Clin Immunol 2021 08 8;229:108779. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Munich, Germany; Munich Centre for Rare Diseases (M-ZSE), University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

CTLA4-haploinsufficiency is a complex disease of immune dysregulation presenting with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. CTLA4-Fc fusion proteins such as abatacept have been described to alleviate immune dysregulation in several adult cases of CTLA4-haploinsufficiency. However, until now only few cases of pediatric CTLA4-haploinsufficiency treated with abatacept have been described. Here we present two pediatric cases of severe CTLA4-haploinsufficiency refractory to conventional immunosuppressive therapies that responded rapidly to treatment with abatacept. No side effects were observed during a follow-up period of 7-15 months. While one patient has successfully undergone HSCT the second patient continues to receive abatacept. Our cases demonstrate safe medium-term use of abatacept in the pediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2021.108779DOI Listing
August 2021

Therapeutic options for CTLA-4 insufficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.

Background: Heterozygous germline mutations in cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) impair the immunomodulatory function of regulatory T cells. Affected individuals are prone to life-threatening autoimmune and lymphoproliferative complications. A number of therapeutic options are currently being used with variable effectiveness.

Objective: Our aim was to characterize the responsiveness of patients with CTLA-4 insufficiency to specific therapies and provide recommendations for the diagnostic workup and therapy at an organ-specific level.

Methods: Clinical features, laboratory findings, and response to treatment were reviewed retrospectively in an international cohort of 173 carriers of CTLA4 mutation. Patients were followed between 2014 and 2020 for a total of 2624 months from diagnosis. Clinical manifestations were grouped on the basis of organ-specific involvement. Medication use and response were recorded and evaluated.

Results: Among the 173 CTLA4 mutation carriers, 123 (71%) had been treated for immune complications. Abatacept, rituximab, sirolimus, and corticosteroids ameliorated disease severity, especially in cases of cytopenias and lymphocytic organ infiltration of the gut, lungs, and central nervous system. Immunoglobulin replacement was effective in prevention of infection. Only 4 of 16 patients (25%) with cytopenia who underwent splenectomy had a sustained clinical response. Cure was achieved with stem cell transplantation in 13 of 18 patients (72%). As a result of the aforementioned methods, organ-specific treatment pathways were developed.

Conclusion: Systemic immunosuppressants and abatacept may provide partial control but require ongoing administration. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation offers a possible cure for patients with CTLA-4 insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.04.039DOI Listing
June 2021

Lineage-Specific Chimerism and Outcome After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for DOCK8 Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Oct 2;41(7):1536-1548. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Bi-allelic variants in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency, characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary and skin infections, food allergies, eczema, eosinophilia, and elevated IgE. Long-term outcome is poor given susceptibility to infections, malignancy, and vascular complications. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is currently the only curative treatment option and has shown promising outcome. The impact of mixed chimerism on long-term outcome is unclear. We reasoned that reversal of disease phenotype would depend on cell lineage-specific chimerism. DOCK8 variants were confirmed by Sanger and/or exome sequencing and immunoblot and/or intracellular flow cytometry. Donor chimerism was analyzed by XY-fluorescence in situ hybridization or quantitative short tandem repeat PCR. Outcome was assessed by laboratory tests, lymphocyte subsets, intracellular DOCK8 protein flow cytometry, T-cell proliferation analysis, and multiparameter immunoblot allergy screening. We report on nine patients, four of whom with mixed chimerism, with a median follow-up of 78 months after transplantation. Overall, we report successful transplantation with improvement of susceptibility to infections and allergies, and resolution of eczema in all patients. Immunological outcome in patients with mixed chimerism suggests a selective advantage for wild-type donor T-cells but lower donor B-cell chimerism possibly results in a tendency to hypogammaglobulinemia. No increased infectious and allergic complications were associated with mixed chimerism. Aware of the relatively small cohort size, we could not demonstrate a consistent detrimental effect of mixed chimerism on clinical outcomes. We nevertheless advocate aiming for complete donor chimerism in treating DOCK8 deficiency, but recommend reduced toxicity conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-021-01069-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452590PMC
October 2021

Curation and expansion of Human Phenotype Ontology for defined groups of inborn errors of immunity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Immunology, Great Ormond Street (GOS) Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Accurate, detailed, and standardized phenotypic descriptions are essential to support diagnostic interpretation of genetic variants and to discover new diseases. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), extensively used in rare disease research, provides a rich collection of vocabulary with standardized phenotypic descriptions in a hierarchical structure. However, to date, the use of HPO has not yet been widely implemented in the field of inborn errors of immunity (IEIs), mainly due to a lack of comprehensive IEI-related terms.

Objectives: We sought to systematically review available terms in HPO for the depiction of IEIs, to expand HPO, yielding more comprehensive sets of terms, and to reannotate IEIs with HPO terms to provide accurate, standardized phenotypic descriptions.

Methods: We initiated a collaboration involving expert clinicians, geneticists, researchers working on IEIs, and bioinformaticians. Multiple branches of the HPO tree were restructured and extended on the basis of expert review. Our ontology-guided machine learning coupled with a 2-tier expert review was applied to reannotate defined subgroups of IEIs.

Results: We revised and expanded 4 main branches of the HPO tree. Here, we reannotated 73 diseases from 4 International Union of Immunological Societies-defined IEI disease subgroups with HPO terms. We achieved a 4.7-fold increase in the number of phenotypic terms per disease. Given the new HPO annotations, we demonstrated improved ability to computationally match selected IEI cases to their known diagnosis, and improved phenotype-driven disease classification.

Conclusions: Our targeted expansion and reannotation presents enhanced precision of disease annotation, will enable superior HPO-based IEI characterization, and hence benefit both IEI diagnostic and research activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.04.033DOI Listing
May 2021

Salvage HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide for graft failure in non-malignant disorders.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 9;56(9):2248-2258. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Graft failure requires urgent salvage HSCT, but there is no universally accepted approach for this situation. We investigated T-cell replete haploidentical HSCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide following serotherapy-based, radiation-free, reduced intensity conditioning in children with non-malignant disorders who had rejected their primary graft. Twelve patients with primary or secondary graft failure received T-cell replete bone marrow grafts from haploidentical donors and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. The recommended conditioning regimen comprised rituximab 375 mg/m, alemtuzumab 0.4 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m, treosulfan 20-24 g/m and cyclophosphamide 29 mg/kg. After a median follow-up of 26 months (7-95), eleven of twelve patients (92%) are alive and well with complete donor chimerism in ten. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were observed in all patients after a median of 18 days (15-61) and 39 days (15-191), respectively. Acute GVHD grade I was observed in 1/12 patients (8%) and mild chronic GVHD in 1/12 patients (8%). Viral reactivations and disease were frequent complications at 75% and 42%, respectively, but no death from infectious causes occurred. In summary, this retrospective analysis demonstrates that a post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based HLA-haploidentical salvage HSCT after irradiation-free conditioning results in excellent engraftment and overall survival in children with non-malignant diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01323-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106764PMC
September 2021

Upfront Enzyme Replacement via Erythrocyte Transfusions for PNP Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2021 07 27;41(5):1112-1115. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-021-01003-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249256PMC
July 2021

Novel Variants of DOCK8 Deficiency in a Case Series of Iranian Patients.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background: Dedicator of Cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency, the most frequent cause of autosomal recessive hyper immunoglobulin (Ig)E syndrome, is a rare combined immunodeficiency.

Objective: In this study, we report seven patients with consanguineous parents with five novel variants within the DOCK8 gene.

Methods: For genetic analysis, we performed Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), or targeted sequencing by means of Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for some of the patients. For others, Sanger sequencing, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used.

Results: We report five novel variants within the DOCK8 gene: three deletions (deletion of exons 4-12, 24-30, and 22-27), one frameshift (LRG_196:g.189315dup;p.(Leu1052Profs*7)), and a splice region variant (LRG_196t1:c.741+5G>T). Patients presented with skin lesions, food allergy, candidiasis, otitis, recurrent respiratory infections, short stature, aortic aneurism, gynecomastia, and coarse facial features. Patients had leukocytosis, eosinophilia, lymphopenia, and monocytosis, elevated IgE, IgG, IgA , reduced IgM and IgA levels. Patients had a low percentage of CD3+ and CD4+ cells, and a high percentage of CD19+, CD27+CD19+, and recent thymic emigrants T cells. The percentage of natural killer cells was increased in one of the patients while it was decreased in another patient. One patient died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Conclusion: We reported novel variants within the DOCK8 gene and highlighted risk of aneurysms in these patients, which have been rarely reported in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530321666210226143912DOI Listing
February 2021

Flow cytometric measurement of STAT5 phosphorylation in cytomegalovirus-stimulated T cells.

Cytometry A 2021 Aug 20;99(8):774-783. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Institute of Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells expand with CMV reactivation and are probably prerequisite for control and protection. Given the critical role STAT5A phosphorylation (pSTAT5A) in T cell proliferation, this study presents a simple and sensitive flow cytometric-based pSTAT5A assay to quickly identify CMV-specific T cell proliferation. We determined pSTAT5A in T cells treated with CMV-specific peptide mix (pp65 + IE1 peptides) from 20 healthy adult subjects and three immunodeficient patients with CARMIL-2 mutation. After stimulation, the percentage of pSTAT5A T cells in CMV-seropositive (CMV ) subjects significantly increased from 3.0% ± 1.9% (unstimulated) to 11.4% ± 5.9% (stimulated) for 24 h. After 7 days of stimulation, the percentage of expanded T cells amounted to 26% ± 17.2%. Conversely, the percentage of pSTAT5A T cells and T cell proliferation from CMV-seronegative (CMV ) subjects hardly changed (from 3.0% ± 1.3% to 3.7% ± 1.8% and from 4.3% ± 2.1% to 5.7% ± 1.7%, respectively). We analyzed the correlation between the percentage of pSTAT5A T cells versus (1) CMV-IgG concentrations versus (2) the percentage of expanded T cells and versus (3) the percentage of initial CMV-specific T cells. In immunodeficient patients with CARMIL-2 mutation, CMV-specific pSTAT5A and T cell proliferation were completely deficient. In conclusion, flow cytometric-based pSTAT5A assay represents an appropriate tool to quickly identify CMV-specific T cell proliferation and helps to understand dysfunctions in controlling other pathogens. Flow cytometric-based pSTAT5A assay may be a useful test in clinical practice and merits further validation in large studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.24286DOI Listing
August 2021

The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2021.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(D1):D1207-D1217

Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, L-4367 Belvaux, Luxembourg.

The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO, https://hpo.jax.org) was launched in 2008 to provide a comprehensive logical standard to describe and computationally analyze phenotypic abnormalities found in human disease. The HPO is now a worldwide standard for phenotype exchange. The HPO has grown steadily since its inception due to considerable contributions from clinical experts and researchers from a diverse range of disciplines. Here, we present recent major extensions of the HPO for neurology, nephrology, immunology, pulmonology, newborn screening, and other areas. For example, the seizure subontology now reflects the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) guidelines and these enhancements have already shown clinical validity. We present new efforts to harmonize computational definitions of phenotypic abnormalities across the HPO and multiple phenotype ontologies used for animal models of disease. These efforts will benefit software such as Exomiser by improving the accuracy and scope of cross-species phenotype matching. The computational modeling strategy used by the HPO to define disease entities and phenotypic features and distinguish between them is explained in detail.We also report on recent efforts to translate the HPO into indigenous languages. Finally, we summarize recent advances in the use of HPO in electronic health record systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa1043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778952PMC
January 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Triggering Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a 3-Year-Old Child With Down Syndrome.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Apr;10(4):543-546

Dr von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Down syndrome (DS) predisposes to severe immunologic reaction secondary to infectious triggers. Here, we report a pediatric DS patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who developed a hyperinflammatory syndrome, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission and treatment with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and remdesivir. Investigations into genetic susceptibilities for COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated complications warrant systematic clinical and scientific studies. We report a pediatric Down syndrome patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who developed secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis requiring treatment with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and remdesivir. Investigations into genetic susceptibilities for COVID-19-associated complications warrant systematic clinical and scientific studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717321PMC
April 2021

Common Variable Immunodeficiency, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, and Pancytopenia Associated With a Defect in IKAROS.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 04;43(3):e351-e357

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology & Pediatric HSCT Unit.

Objective: Mutations in IKZF1, which encodes Ikaros family zinc finger 1 (IKAROS) transcription factor, are associated with recurrent infections, cytopenia, autoimmune diseases, and hematologic malignancies. Diverse clinical phenotypes resulting from IKZF1 mutations include pulmonary fungal infections, cytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and malignancies. In this study, we aimed to assess the DNA-binding ability and pericentromeric (PC) localization of a variant of IKZF discovered in a patient.

Materials And Methods: DNA-binding ability of a pathogenic IKZF variant was tested using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and PC localization of the variant was assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy in NIH3T3 cells.

Results: Clinical features of a 3-month-old male infant who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of an IKZF1 mutation-associated common variable immunodeficiency, AIHA, and pancytopenia are described. DNA studies revealed a heterozygous missense variant (IKZF1 NM_006060 c.427C>T; p.R143W). Cotransfection studies revealed that mutant R143W has a partial dominant-negative effect over PC targeting and DNA binding.

Conclusions: IKZF1 mutation must be kept in mind if neonatal AIHA, common variable immunodeficiency, and pancytopenia are observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987842PMC
April 2021

Outcome of chronic granulomatous disease - Conventional treatment vs stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 04 22;32(3):576-585. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Charité Universitätsmedizin -Berlin University Hospital Center, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), but it remains debated whether all conventionally treated CGD patients benefit from HSCT.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 104 conventionally treated CGD patients, of whom 50 patients underwent HSCT.

Results: On conventional treatment, seven patients (13%) died after a median time of 16.2 years (interquartile range [IQR] 7.0-18.0). Survival without severe complications was 10 ± 3% (mean ± SD) at the age of 20 years; 85% of patients developed at least one infection, 76% one non-infectious inflammation. After HSCT, 44 patients (88%) were alive at a median follow-up of 2.3 years (IQR 0.8-4.9): Six patients (12%) died from infections. Survival after HSCT was significantly better for patients transplanted ≤8 years (96 ± 4%) or for patients without active complications at HSCT (100%). Eight patients suffered from graft failure (16%); six (12%) developed acute graft-vs-host disease requiring systemic treatment. Conventionally treated patients developed events that required medical attention at a median frequency of 1.7 (IQR 0.8-3.2) events per year vs 0 (IQR 0.0-0.5) in patients beyond the first year post-HSCT. While most conventionally treated CGD patients failed to thrive, catch-up growth after HSCT in surviving patients reached the individual percentiles at the age of diagnosis of CGD.

Conclusion: Chronic granulomatous disease patients undergoing HSCT until 8 years of age show excellent survival, but young children need more intense conditioning to avoid graft rejection. Risks and benefits of HSCT for adolescents and adults must still be weighed carefully.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13402DOI Listing
April 2021

Matched Family Donor Lymphocyte Infusions as First Cellular Therapy for Patients with Severe Primary T Cell Deficiencies.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 01 3;27(1):93.e1-93.e8. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Patients with primary immunodeficiencies caused by severe defects in T cell immunity are at risk of acquiring life-threatening infections. Cellular therapies are necessary to establish normal T cell function and to allow for long-term survival. This is most commonly achieved by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the outcome of this procedure is impaired if active infections are present at the time of HSCT. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) are a well-established therapeutic strategy following HSCT to treat viral infections, improve donor cell engraftment, or achieve graft-versus-leukemia activity in malignant disease. Here we present a cohort of 6 patients with primary T cell deficiencies who received transfusions of unselected mature donor lymphocytes prior and not directly related to allogeneic HSCT. DLIs obtained from the peripheral blood of HLA-identical (10/10) family donors were transfused without prior conditioning to treat or prevent life-threatening infections. All patients are alive with a follow-up of 0.5 to 16.5 years after the initial T cell administration. Additional cellular therapies were administered in 5 of 6 patients at 0.8 to 15 months after the first DLI. Mild cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, stage ≤2) was observed in 3 of 6 patients and resolved spontaneously. We provide evidence that unselected HLA-identical DLIs can effectively prevent or contribute to overcome infections with a limited risk for GVHD in T cell deficient patients. The T cell system established by this readily available source can provide T cell function for years and can serve as a bridge to additional cellular therapies or, in specific conditions, as definite treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.037DOI Listing
January 2021

Coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with inborn errors of immunity: An international study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Feb 24;147(2):520-531. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Istituto Molecolare "A Nocivelli," Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Brescia & Asst Spedali civili, Brescia, Italy.

Background: There is uncertainty about the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with rare inborn errors of immunity (IEI), a population at risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019. This is relevant not only for these patients but also for the general population, because studies of IEIs can unveil key requirements for host defense.

Objective: We sought to describe the presentation, manifestations, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IEI to inform physicians and enhance understanding of host defense against SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: An invitation to participate in a retrospective study was distributed globally to scientific, medical, and patient societies involved in the care and advocacy for patients with IEI.

Results: We gathered information on 94 patients with IEI with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their median age was 25 to 34 years. Fifty-three patients (56%) suffered from primary antibody deficiency, 9 (9.6%) had immune dysregulation syndrome, 6 (6.4%) a phagocyte defect, 7 (7.4%) an autoinflammatory disorder, 14 (15%) a combined immunodeficiency, 3 (3%) an innate immune defect, and 2 (2%) bone marrow failure. Ten were asymptomatic, 25 were treated as outpatients, 28 required admission without intensive care or ventilation, 13 required noninvasive ventilation or oxygen administration, 18 were admitted to intensive care units, 12 required invasive ventilation, and 3 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Nine patients (7 adults and 2 children) died.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that (1) more than 30% of patients with IEI had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and (2) risk factors predisposing to severe disease/mortality in the general population also seemed to affect patients with IEI, including more younger patients. Further studies will identify pathways that are associated with increased risk of severe disease and are nonredundant or redundant for protection against SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832563PMC
February 2021

Treatment and management of primary antibody deficiency: German interdisciplinary evidence-based consensus guideline.

Eur J Immunol 2020 10 9;50(10):1432-1446. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Immunology, Labor Berlin Charité - Vivantes GmbH, Berlin, Germany.

This evidence-based clinical guideline provides consensus-recommendations for the treatment and care of patients with primary antibody deficiencies (PADs). The guideline group comprised 20 clinical and scientific expert associations of the German, Swiss, and Austrian healthcare system and representatives of patients. Recommendations were based on results of a systematic literature search, data extraction, and evaluation of methodology and study quality in combination with the clinical expertise of the respective representatives. Consensus-based recommendations were determined via nominal group technique. PADs are the largest clinically relevant group of primary immunodeficiencies. Most patients with PADs present with increased susceptibility to infections, however immune dysregulation, autoimmunity, and cancer affect a significant number of patients and may precede infections. This guideline therefore covers interdisciplinary clinical and therapeutic aspects of infectious (e.g., antibiotic prophylaxis, management of bronchiectasis) and non-infectious manifestations (e.g., management of granulomatous disease, immune cytopenia). PADs are grouped into disease entities with definitive, probable, possible, or unlikely benefit of IgG-replacement therapy. Summary and consensus-recommendations are provided for treatment indication, dosing, routes of administration, and adverse events of IgG-replacement therapy. Special aspects of concomitant impaired T-cell function are highlighted as well as clinical data on selected monogenetic inborn errors of immunity formerly classified into PADs (APDS, CTLA-4-, and LRBA-deficiency).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202048713DOI Listing
October 2020

Hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic granulomatous disease: a study of 712 children and adults.

Blood 2020 09;136(10):1201-1211

División of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency resulting in life-threatening infections and inflammatory complications. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) can cure the disease, but the indication to transplant remains controversial. We performed a retrospective multicenter study of 712 patients with CGD who underwent allo-HCT transplantation from March 1993 through December 2018. We studied 635 children (aged <18 years) and 77 adults. Median follow-up was 45 months. Median age at transplantation was 7 years (range, 0.1-48.6). Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years were 85.7% and 75.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, older age was associated with reduced survival and increased chronic graft-versus-host disease. Nevertheless, OS and EFS at 3 years for patients ≥18 years were 76% and 69%, respectively. Use of 1-antigen-mismatched donors was associated with reduced OS and EFS . No significant difference was found in OS, but a significantly reduced EFS was noted in the small group of patients who received a transplant from a donor with a >1 antigen mismatch. Choice of conditioning regimen did not influence OS or EFS. In summary, we report an excellent outcome after allo-HCT in CGD, with low incidence of graft failure and mortality in all ages. Older patients and recipients of 1-antigen-mismatched grafts had a less favorable outcome. Transplantation should be strongly considered at a younger age and particularly in the presence of a well-matched donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005590DOI Listing
September 2020

A Novel Complete Autosomal-Recessive STAT1 LOF Variant Causes Immunodeficiency with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-Like Hyperinflammation.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 10 27;8(9):3102-3111. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Complete signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) deficiency causes a rare primary immunodeficiency that is characterized by defective IFN-dependent gene expression leading to life-threatening viral and mycobacterial infections early in life.

Objective: To characterize a novel STAT1 loss-of-function variant leading to pathological infection susceptibility and hyperinflammation.

Methods: Clinical, immunologic, and genetic characterization of a patient with severe infections and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-like hyperinflammation was investigated.

Results: We reported a child of consanguineous parents who presented with multiple severe viral infections that ultimately triggered hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and liver failure. Despite intensified therapy with antivirals and cytomegalovirus-specific donor cells, the child died after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of cytomegalovirus reactivation with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous STAT1 variant (p.Val339ProfsTer18), leading to loss of STAT1 protein expression. Upon type I and type II IFN stimulation, immune and nonimmune cells showed defective upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes and increased susceptibility to viral infection in vitro. Increased viral infection rates were paralleled by hyperinflammatory ex vivo cytokine responses with increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IL-18.

Conclusions: Complete STAT1 deficiency is a devastating disorder characterized by severe viral infections and ensuing hyperinflammatory responses. Early diagnosis can be made by exome sequencing and variant validation by functional testing of STAT1-dependent programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 surface expression on monocytes. Furthermore, high awareness for hyperinflammatory complications and potential targeted treatment strategies such as IL-18 binding protein could be considered. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only definitive treatment strategy but remains challenging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.06.034DOI Listing
October 2020

Extended clinical and immunological phenotype and transplant outcome in CD27 and CD70 deficiency.

Blood 2020 12;136(23):2638-2655

Dr von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding CD27 or its ligand CD70 underlie inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) characterized predominantly by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated immune dysregulation, such as chronic viremia, severe infectious mononucleosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. A comprehensive understanding of the natural history, immune characteristics, and transplant outcomes has remained elusive. Here, in a multi-institutional global collaboration, we collected the clinical information of 49 patients from 29 families (CD27, n = 33; CD70, n = 16), including 24 previously unreported individuals and identified a total of 16 distinct mutations in CD27, and 8 in CD70, respectively. The majority of patients (90%) were EBV+ at diagnosis, but only ∼30% presented with infectious mononucleosis. Lymphoproliferation and lymphoma were the main clinical manifestations (70% and 43%, respectively), and 9 of the CD27-deficient patients developed HLH. Twenty-one patients (43%) developed autoinflammatory features including uveitis, arthritis, and periodic fever. Detailed immunological characterization revealed aberrant generation of memory B and T cells, including a paucity of EBV-specific T cells, and impaired effector function of CD8+ T cells, thereby providing mechanistic insight into cellular defects underpinning the clinical features of disrupted CD27/CD70 signaling. Nineteen patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prior to adulthood predominantly because of lymphoma, with 95% survival without disease recurrence. Our data highlight the marked predisposition to lymphoma of both CD27- and CD70-deficient patients. The excellent outcome after HSCT supports the timely implementation of this treatment modality particularly in patients presenting with malignant transformation to lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735164PMC
December 2020

Mutations in SREBF1, Encoding Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 1, Cause Autosomal-Dominant IFAP Syndrome.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 07 3;107(1):34-45. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China.

IFAP syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Previous research found that mutations in MBTPS2, encoding site-2-protease (S2P), underlie X-linked IFAP syndrome. The present report describes the identification via whole-exome sequencing of three heterozygous mutations in SREBF1 in 11 unrelated, ethnically diverse individuals with autosomal-dominant IFAP syndrome. SREBF1 encodes sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which promotes the transcription of lipogenes involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterols. This process requires cleavage of SREBP1 by site-1-protease (S1P) and S2P and subsequent translocation into the nucleus where it binds to sterol regulatory elements (SRE). The three detected SREBF1 mutations caused substitution or deletion of residues 527, 528, and 530, which are crucial for S1P cleavage. In vitro investigation of SREBP1 variants demonstrated impaired S1P cleavage, which prohibited nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active form of SREBP1. As a result, SREBP1 variants exhibited significantly lower transcriptional activity compared to the wild-type, as demonstrated via luciferase reporter assay. RNA sequencing of the scalp skin from IFAP-affected individuals revealed a dramatic reduction in transcript levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and of keratin genes known to be expressed in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. An increased rate of in situ keratinocyte apoptosis, which might contribute to skin hyperkeratosis and hypotrichosis, was also detected in scalp samples from affected individuals. Together with previous research, the present findings suggest that SREBP signaling plays an essential role in epidermal differentiation, skin barrier formation, hair growth, and eye function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.05.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332643PMC
July 2020

Incidence of SCID in Germany from 2014 to 2015 an ESPED* Survey on Behalf of the API*** Erhebungseinheit für Seltene Pädiatrische Erkrankungen in Deutschland (German Paediatric Surveillance Unit) ** Arbeitsgemeinschaft Pädiatrische Immunologie.

J Clin Immunol 2020 07 26;40(5):708-717. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Social Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) are a heterogeneous group of fatal genetic disorders, in which the immune response is severely impaired. SCID can be cured if diagnosed early. We aim to determine the incidence of clinically defined SCID cases, acquire data of reported cases and evaluate their possible prediction by newborn screening, before introduction of a general screening program in Germany.

Methods: The German Surveillance Unit for rare Paediatric Diseases (ESPED) prospectively queried the number of incident SCID cases in all German paediatric hospitals in 2014 and 2015. Inclusion criteria were (1) opportunistic or severe infections or clinical features associated with SCID (failure to thrive, lacking thymus or lymphatic tissue, dysregulation of the immune system, graft versus host reaction caused by maternal T cells), (2) dysfunctional T cell immunity or proof of maternal T cells and (3) exclusion of a secondary immunodeficiency such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In a capture-recapture analysis, cases were matched with cases reported to the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID).

Results: Fifty-eight patients were initially reported to ESPED, 24 reports could be confirmed as SCID, 21 patients were less than 1 year old at time of diagnosis. One SCID case was reported to ESID only. The estimated incidence of SCID in Germany is 1.6/100,000 (1:62,500) per year in children less than 1 year of age. Most patients reported were symptomatic and mortality in regard to reported outcome was high (29% (6/22)). The majority of incident SCID cases were considered to be probably detectable by newborn screening.

Conclusions: SCID is a rare disease with significant mortality. Newborn screening may give the opportunity to improve the prognosis in a significant number of children with SCID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00782-xDOI Listing
July 2020

Targeted busulfan-based reduced-intensity conditioning and HLA-matched HSCT cure hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):1998-2010

Department of Immunology. Hematology, Oncology and SCT, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Reduced-intensity/reduced-toxicity conditioning and allogeneic T-cell replete hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are curative in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Unstable donor chimerism (DC) and relapses are clinical challenges . We examined the effect of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen based on targeted busulfan to enhance myeloid DC in HLH. The European Society for Bone and Marrow Transplantation-approved reduced-intensity conditioning protocol comprised targeted submyeloablative IV busulfan, IV fludarabine, and serotherapy comprising IV alemtuzumab (0.5-0.8 mg/kg) for unrelated-donor and IV rabbit anti-T-cell globulin for related-donor transplants. We assessed toxicity, engraftment, graft-versus-host disease (GHVD), DC in blood cell subtypes, and overall survival/event-free survival. Twenty-five patients from 7 centers were treated (median age, 0.68 year). The median total dose and cumulative area under the curve of busulfan was 13.1 mg/kg (6.4-26.4) and 63.1 mg/L × h (48-77), respectively. Bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell, or cord blood transplants from HLA-matched related (n = 7) or unrelated (n = 18) donors were administered. Donor cells engrafted in all patients (median: neutrophils d+20/platelets d+28). At last follow-up (median, 36 months; range, 8-111 months), the median DC of CD15+ neutrophils, CD3+ T cells, and CD16+56+ natural killer cells was 99.5% (10-100), 97% (30-100), and 97.5% (30-100), respectively. Eight patients (32%) developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, resolving after defibrotide treatment. The 3-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were both 100%. None of the patients developed acute grade III to IV GHVD. Limited chronic GVHD was encountered in 4%. This regimen achieves excellent results with stable DC in patients with HLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218427PMC
May 2020

T Cell Impairment Is Predictive for a Severe Clinical Course in NEMO Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2020 04 21;40(3):421-434. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Immunology, and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: NEMO-deficient patients present with variable degrees of immunodeficiency. Accordingly, treatment ranges from antibiotic prophylaxis and/or IgG-substitution to allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The correct estimation of the immunodeficiency is essential to avoid over- as well as under-treatment. We compare the immunological phenotype of a NEMO-deficient patient with a newly-described splice site mutation that causes truncation of the NEMO zinc-finger (ZF) domain and a severe clinical course with the immunological phenotype of three NEMO-deficient patients with missense mutations and milder clinical courses and all previously published patients.

Methods: Lymphocyte subsets, proliferation, and intracellular NEMO-expression were assessed by FACS. NF-κB signal transduction was determined by measuring IκBα-degradation and the production of cytokines upon stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1β, and TLR-agonists in immortalized fibroblasts and whole blood, respectively.

Results: The patient with truncated ZF-domain of NEMO showed low levels of IgM and IgG, reduced class-switched memory B cells, almost complete skewing towards naïve CD45RA T cells, impaired T cell proliferation as well as cytokine production upon stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1β, and TLR-agonists. He suffered from severe infections (sepsis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis) during infancy. In contrast, three patients with missense mutations in IKBKG presented neither skewing of T cells towards naïvety nor impaired T cell proliferation. They are stable on prophylactic IgG-substitution or even off any prophylactic treatment.

Conclusion: The loss of the ZF-domain and the impaired T cell proliferation accompanied by almost complete persistence of naïve T cells despite severe infections are suggestive for a profound immunodeficiency. Allogenic HSCT should be considered early for these patients before chronic sequelae occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00728-yDOI Listing
April 2020

Defining clinical subgroups and genotype-phenotype correlations in NBAS-associated disease across 110 patients.

Genet Med 2020 03 25;22(3):610-621. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Pediatric Gastroenterology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose: Pathogenic variants in neuroblastoma-amplified sequence (NBAS) cause an autosomal recessive disorder with a wide range of symptoms affecting liver, skeletal system, and brain, among others. There is a continuously growing number of patients but a lack of systematic and quantitative analysis.

Methods: Individuals with biallelic variants in NBAS were recruited within an international, multicenter study, including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed with log-linear models and visualized by mosaic plots; facial profiles were investigated via DeepGestalt. The structure of the NBAS protein was predicted using computational methods.

Results: One hundred ten individuals from 97 families with biallelic pathogenic NBAS variants were identified, including 26 novel patients with 19 previously unreported variants, giving a total number of 86 variants. Protein modeling redefined the β-propeller domain of NBAS. Based on the localization of missense variants and in-frame deletions, three clinical subgroups arise that differ significantly regarding main clinical features and are directly related to the affected region of the NBAS protein: β-propeller (combined phenotype), Sec39 (infantile liver failure syndrome type 2/ILFS2), and C-terminal (short stature, optic atrophy, and Pelger-Huët anomaly/SOPH).

Conclusion: We define clinical subgroups of NBAS-associated disease that can guide patient management and point to domain-specific functions of NBAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0698-4DOI Listing
March 2020

[Measles - still in focus].

MMW Fortschr Med 2019 11;161(19):48-53

Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit (LGL), Veterinärstraße 2, D-85762, Oberschleißheim, Deutschland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15006-019-1062-yDOI Listing
November 2019
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