Publications by authors named "F Xavier Castellanos"

337 Publications

Investigating Motor Preparation in Autism Spectrum Disorder With and Without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1230, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

This study investigated motor preparation and action-consequence prediction using the lateralized readiness potential (LRP). Motor impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. Alterations in predictive processes may impact motor planning. Whether motor planning deficits are characteristic of ASD broadly or magnified in the context of co-morbid ADHD is unclear. ASD children with (ASD + ADHD; n = 12) and without (ASD - ADHD; n = 9) comorbid ADHD and typical controls (n = 29) performed voluntary motor actions that either did or did not result in auditory consequences. ASD - ADHD children demonstrated LRP enhancement when their action produced an effect while ASD + ADHD children had attenuated responses regardless of action-effect pairings. Findings suggest influence of ADHD comorbidity on motor preparation and prediction in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05130-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis of structural brain asymmetries in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 39 datasets.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Objective: Some studies have suggested alterations of structural brain asymmetry in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but findings have been contradictory and based on small samples. Here, we performed the largest ever analysis of brain left-right asymmetry in ADHD, using 39 datasets of the ENIGMA consortium.

Methods: We analyzed asymmetry of subcortical and cerebral cortical structures in up to 1,933 people with ADHD and 1,829 unaffected controls. Asymmetry Indexes (AIs) were calculated per participant for each bilaterally paired measure, and linear mixed effects modeling was applied separately in children, adolescents, adults, and the total sample, to test exhaustively for potential associations of ADHD with structural brain asymmetries.

Results: There was no evidence for altered caudate nucleus asymmetry in ADHD, in contrast to prior literature. In children, there was less rightward asymmetry of the total hemispheric surface area compared to controls (t = 2.1, p = .04). Lower rightward asymmetry of medial orbitofrontal cortex surface area in ADHD (t = 2.7, p = .01) was similar to a recent finding for autism spectrum disorder. There were also some differences in cortical thickness asymmetry across age groups. In adults with ADHD, globus pallidus asymmetry was altered compared to those without ADHD. However, all effects were small (Cohen's d from -0.18 to 0.18) and would not survive study-wide correction for multiple testing.

Conclusion: Prior studies of altered structural brain asymmetry in ADHD were likely underpowered to detect the small effects reported here. Altered structural asymmetry is unlikely to provide a useful biomarker for ADHD, but may provide neurobiological insights into the trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13396DOI Listing
March 2021

Loading of doxorubicin on poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) nanoparticles and release study.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2021 Jun 28;32(9):1107-1124. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Saltillo, CH, México.

Nanoparticles (NP) of 12.7 nm in diameter of the poly(methyl methacrylate (MMA)-co-methacrylic acid (MAA)) copolymer were prepared. C-NMR results showed a MMA:MAA molar ratio of 0.64:0.36 in the copolymer, which is similar to the poly(MMA-co-MAA) commercially known as the FDA approved Eudragit S100 (0.67:0.33). The NP prepared in this study were loaded at pH 5 with varying amounts (from 0.54 to 6.91%) of doxorubicin (DOX), an antineoplastic drug. H-NMR results indicated the electrostatic interactions between the ionized carboxylic groups of the MAA units in the copolymer and the proton of the glycosidic amine in DOX. Measurements by QLS and TEM indicated that the loading destabilizes the NP, and that for increase stability, they aggregate in a reversible way, forming aggregates with a diameter up to 99.5 nm at a DOX load of 6.91%. The analysis of drug release data at pH 7.4 showed that loaded NP with at least 4.38% DOX release the drug very slowly and follows the Higuchi model; the former suggests that they could remain for long periods in the bloodstream to reach and destroy cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2021.1900652DOI Listing
June 2021

Eight-week antidepressant treatment reduces functional connectivity in first-episode drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 27;42(8):2593-2605. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormal functional connectivity of brain networks in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but findings have been inconsistent. A recent big-data study found abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity within the default mode network in patients with recurrent MDD but not in first-episode drug-naïve patients with MDD. This study also provided evidence for reduced default mode network functional connectivity in medicated MDD patients, raising the question of whether previously observed abnormalities may be attributable to antidepressant effects. The present study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03294525) aimed to disentangle the effects of antidepressant treatment from the pathophysiology of MDD and test the medication normalization hypothesis. Forty-one first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients were administrated antidepressant medication (escitalopram or duloxetine) for 8 weeks, with resting-state functional connectivity compared between posttreatment and baseline. To assess the replicability of the big-data finding, we also conducted a cross-sectional comparison of resting-state functional connectivity between the MDD patients and 92 matched healthy controls. Both Network-Based Statistic analyses and large-scale network analyses revealed intrinsic functional connectivity decreases in extensive brain networks after treatment, indicating considerable antidepressant effects. Neither Network-Based Statistic analyses nor large-scale network analyses detected significant functional connectivity differences between treatment-naïve patients and healthy controls. In short, antidepressant effects are widespread across most brain networks and need to be accounted for when considering functional connectivity abnormalities in MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8090770PMC
June 2021

Cortical thickness across the lifespan: Data from 17,075 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroimaging, Departamento e Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25364DOI Listing
February 2021