Publications by authors named "F Stephen Hodi"

346 Publications

Long-Term Outcomes With Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab or Nivolumab Alone Versus Ipilimumab in Patients With Advanced Melanoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Nov 24:JCO2102229. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Purpose: In the phase III CheckMate 067 trial, durable clinical benefit was demonstrated previously with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and nivolumab alone versus ipilimumab. Here, we report 6.5-year efficacy and safety outcomes.

Patients And Methods: Patients with previously untreated unresectable stage III or stage IV melanoma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks (four doses) followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks (n = 314), nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks (n = 316), or ipilimumab 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks (four doses; n = 315). Coprimary end points were progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab versus ipilimumab. Secondary end points included objective response rate, descriptive efficacy assessments of nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus nivolumab alone, and safety. Melanoma-specific survival (MSS; descriptive analysis), which excludes deaths unrelated to melanoma, was also evaluated.

Results: Median OS (minimum follow-up, 6.5 years) was 72.1, 36.9, and 19.9 months in the combination, nivolumab, and ipilimumab groups, respectively. Median MSS was not reached, 58.7, and 21.9 months, respectively; 6.5-year OS rates were 57%, 43%, and 25% in patients with -mutant tumors and 46%, 42%, and 22% in those with -wild-type tumors, respectively. In patients who discontinued treatment, the median treatment-free interval was 27.6, 2.3, and 1.9 months, respectively. Since the 5-year analysis, no new safety signals were observed.

Conclusion: These 6.5-year CheckMate 067 results, which include the longest median OS in a phase III melanoma trial reported to date and the first report of MSS, showed durable, improved clinical outcomes with nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab versus ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma and, in descriptive analyses, with the combination over nivolumab monotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.02229DOI Listing
November 2021

GM-CSF secreting leukemia cell vaccination for MDS/AML after allogeneic HSCT: a randomized double blinded phase 2 trial.

Blood Adv 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Vaccination using irradiated, adenovirus transduced autologous myeloblasts to secrete GM-CSF (GVAX) early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can induce potent immune responses. We conducted a randomized phase II trial of GVAX after HSCT for MDS-EB or relapsed/refractory AML. Myeloblasts were harvested before HSCT to generate the vaccine. Randomization to GVAX vs. placebo (1:1) was stratified by disease, transplant center, and conditioning. GVHD prophylaxis included tacrolimus and methotrexate. GVAX or placebo started between day +30-45 if there was engraftment and no GVHD. Vaccines were administered SC/ID weekly x 3, then q2 wks x 3. Tacrolimus taper began after vaccine completion. 123 patients enrolled, 92 proceeded to HSCT, and 57 (GVAX 30, Placebo 27) received at least 1 vaccination. No CTC grade ≥ 3 vaccine related adverse events were reported, but injection site reactions were more common after GVAX (10 vs. 1, p=0.006). With a median follow up of 39 months (range, 9-89), 18-month PFS, OS and relapse incidence were 53% vs 55% (p=0.79), 63% vs. 59% (p= 0.86), and 30% vs. 37% (p=0.51) for GVAX and placebo, respectively. NRM at 18 months was 17% vs. 7.7% (p=0.18), Grade II-IV aGVHD at 12 months 34% vs. 12% (p=0.13), and cGVHD at 3 years 49% vs. 57% for GVAX and placebo, respectively, p=0.26. Reconstitution of T, B, and NK cells were not decreased or enhanced by GVAX. There were no differences in serum MICA/B or other immune biomarkers between GVAX and placebo. GVAX does not improve survival after HSCT for MDS/AML. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01773395).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006255DOI Listing
November 2021

Evorpacept alone and in combination with pembrolizumab or trastuzumab in patients with advanced solid tumours (ASPEN-01): a first-in-human, open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation and dose-expansion study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Both innate and adaptive immune responses are important components of anticancer immunity. The CD47-SIRPα interaction could represent an important pathway used by tumour cells to evade immune surveillance. We aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and anticancer activity of evorpacept (also known as ALX148), a high-affinity CD47-blocking protein with an inactive IgG Fc region in patients with solid tumours.

Methods: We did a first-in-human, open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation and dose-expansion study at nine hospitals and one clinic in the USA and Korea. Eligible patients for the dose-escalation and safety lead-in phases were aged 18 years or older with histological or cytological diagnosis of advanced or metastatic solid tumours with no available standard therapy, measurable or unmeasurable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1. In the dose-escalation phase, which used a 3 + 3 design, patients received intravenous evorpacept at either 0·3, 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg once per week in 21-day cycles, or 30 mg/kg once every other week in 28-day cycles. In the safety lead-in phase, patients were given the maximum tolerable dose of evorpacept from the dose-escalation phase plus either intravenous pembrolizumab (200 mg administered once every 3 weeks) or intravenous trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose followed by 6 mg/kg once every 3 weeks). In the dose-expansion phase, additional patients aged 18 years or older with second-line or later-line advanced malignancies were enrolled into three parallel cohorts: those with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and those with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were given the maximum tolerated dose of evorpacept plus intravenous pembrolizumab (200 mg administered once every 3 weeks), and patients with HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer were given the maximum tolerated dose of evorpacept plus intravenous trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose followed by 6 mg/kg once every 3 weeks) until disease progression, voluntary withdrawal from the study, or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was the maximum tolerated dose of evorpacept administered as a single agent and in combination with pembrolizumab or trastuzumab, measured by the occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities during the first cycle, and was assessed in all patients who had received at least one dose of evorpacept. Secondary outcomes included the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of evorpacept, alone or in combination with pembrolizumab or trastuzumab. The primary outcome, safety, and tolerability were assessed in all patients who had received at least one dose of evorpacept, and antitumour activity was assessed in those who recieved at least one dose of study treatment and underwent at least one post-baseline tumor assessment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03013218.

Findings: Between March 6, 2017, and Feb 21, 2019, 110 patients received single-agent evorpacept (n=28), evorpacept plus pembrolizumab (n=52), or evorpacept plus trastuzumab (n=30), and were included in the safety analysis. Median follow-up was 29·1 months (95% CI not calculable [NC]-NC) in the single-agent cohort, 27·0 months (25·1-28·8) in the evorpacept plus pembrolizumab cohort, and 32·7 months (27·0-32·7) in the evorpacept plus trastuzumab cohort. Two (7%) dose-limiting toxicities in the first cycle were reported in patients who received single-agent evorpacept; neutropenia with an associated infection in one patient with gastroesophageal junction cancer who received 3 mg/kg once per week, and thrombocytopenia with associated bleeding in one patient with pancreatic cancer who received 30 mg/kg once every other week. No maximum tolerated dose was reached; the maximum administered doses were 10 mg/kg once per week or 30 mg/kg once every other week. The 10 mg/kg once per week dose was used in the expansion cohorts in combination with pembrolizumab or trastuzumab. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were thrombocytopenia with single-agent evorpacept (two [7%] patients) and evorpacept plus pembrolizumab (two [4%]), and thrombocytopenia (two [7%]) and neutropenia (two [7%]) with evorpacept plus trastuzumab. In patients who received single-agent evorpacept, four treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. Five serious treatment-related adverse events related to evorpacept plus pembrolizumab were reported, and one serious adverse event related to evorpacept plus trastuzumab was reported. In response-evaluable patients in the dose-escalation phase (n=15) receiving single-agent evorpacept once per week, four (27%) had a best overall response of stable disease (two received 0·3 mg/kg, one received 3 mg/kg, and one received 10 mg/kg); in the 11 patients who received single-agent evorpacept at the highest dose of 30 mg/kg once every other week, two (18%) had stable disease. In the dose-expansion cohort, overall responses were recorded in four (20·0%; 95% CI 5·7-43·7) of 20 patients with HNSCC who received evorpacept plus pembrolizumab, in one (5·0%; 0·1-24·9) of 20 patients with NSCLC who received evorpacept plus pembrolizumab, and in four (21·1%; 6·1-45·6) of 19 patients with gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer who received evorpacept plus trastuzumab.

Interpretation: The safety findings support the use of evorpacept in combination with pembrolizumab or trastuzumab for patients with advanced solid tumours. Preliminary antitumour activity results support future investigation of evorpacept combined with pembrolizumab or trastuzumab in patients with HNSCC, gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer, and NSCLC.

Funding: ALX Oncology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00584-2DOI Listing
November 2021

Long-term outcomes of patients with active melanoma brain metastases treated with combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab (CheckMate 204): final results of an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Nov 10. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

Background: Combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab was efficacious in patients with asymptomatic melanoma brain metastases (MBM) in CheckMate 204, but showed low efficacy in patients with symptomatic MBM. Here, we provide final 3-year follow-up data from the trial.

Methods: This open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study (CheckMate 204) included adults (aged ≥18 years) with measurable MBM (0·5-3·0 cm in diameter). Asymptomatic patients (cohort A) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1 and no neurological symptoms or baseline corticosteroid use; symptomatic patients (cohort B) had an ECOG performance status of 0-2 with stable neurological symptoms and could be receiving low-dose dexamethasone. Nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg was given intravenously every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks for up to 2 years, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was intracranial clinical benefit rate (complete responses, partial responses, or stable disease lasting ≥6 months) assessed in all treated patients. Intracranial progression-free survival and overall survival were key secondary endpoints. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02320058.

Findings: Between Feb 19, 2015, and Nov 1, 2017, 119 (72%) of 165 screened patients were enrolled and treated: 101 patients were asymptomatic (cohort A; median follow-up 34·3 months [IQR 14·7-36·4]) and 18 were symptomatic (cohort B; median follow-up 7·5 months [1·2-35·2]). Investigator-assessed intracranial clinical benefit was observed in 58 (57·4% [95% CI 47·2-67·2]) of 101 patients in cohort A and three (16·7% [3·6-41·4]) of 18 patients in cohort B; investigator-assessed objective response was observed in 54 (53·5% [43·3-63·5]) patients in cohort A and three (16·7% [3·6-41·4]) patients in cohort B. 33 (33%) patients in cohort A and three (17%) patients in cohort B had an investigator-assessed intracranial complete response. For patients in cohort A, 36-month intracranial progression-free survival was 54·1% (95% CI 42·7-64·1) and overall survival was 71·9% (61·8-79·8). For patients in cohort B, 36-month intracranial progression-free survival was 18·9% (95% CI 4·6-40·5) and overall survival was 36·6% (14·0-59·8). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (15 [15%] of 101 patients each) in cohort A; no grade 3 TRAEs occurred in more than one patient each in cohort B, and no grade 4 events occurred. The most common serious TRAEs were colitis, diarrhoea, hypophysitis, and increased alanine aminotransferase (five [5%] of each among the 101 patients in cohort A); no serious TRAE occurred in more than one patient each in cohort B. There was one treatment-related death (myocarditis in cohort A).

Interpretation: The durable 3-year response, overall survival, and progression-free survival rates for asymptomatic patients support first-line use of nivolumab plus ipilimumab. Symptomatic disease in patients with MBM remains difficult to treat, but some patients achieve a long-term response with the combination.

Funding: Bristol Myers Squibb.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00545-3DOI Listing
November 2021

SOX10 regulates melanoma immunogenicity through an IRF4-IRF1 axis.

Cancer Res 2021 Nov 2. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Section of Host Defences, Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama.

Loss-of-function mutations of JAK1/2 impair cancer cell responsiveness to IFN-γ and immunogenicity. Therefore, an understanding of compensatory pathways to activate IFN-γ signaling in cancer cells is clinically important for the success of immunotherapy. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factor SOX10 hinders immunogenicity of melanoma cells through the IRF4-IRF1 axis. Genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that SOX10 repressed IRF1 transcription via direct induction of a negative regulator, IRF4. The SOX10-IRF4-IRF1 axis regulated PD-L1 expression independently of JAK-STAT pathway activity, and suppression of SOX10 increased the efficacy of combination therapy with an anti-PD-1 antibody and HDAC inhibitor against a clinically relevant melanoma model. Thus, the SOX10-IRF4-IRF1 axis serves as a potential target that can bypass JAK-STAT signaling to immunologically warm up melanoma with a "cold" tumor immune microenvironment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-2078DOI Listing
November 2021
-->