Publications by authors named "F Presotto"

44 Publications

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1: an Italian survey on 158 patients.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

FIRS Laboratories RSR Ltd, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare recessive inherited disease, caused by AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE) gene mutations and characterized by three major manifestations: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), chronic hypoparathyroidism (CH) and Addison's disease (AD).

Methods: Autoimmune conditions and associated autoantibodies (Abs) were analyzed in 158 Italian patients (103 females and 55 males; F/M 1.9/1) at the onset and during a follow-up of 23.7 ± 15.1 years. AIRE mutations were determined.

Results: The prevalence of APS-1 was 2.6 cases/million (range 0.5-17 in different regions). At the onset 93% of patients presented with one or more components of the classical triad and 7% with other components. At the end of follow-up, 86.1% had CH, 77.2% AD, 74.7% CMC, 49.5% premature menopause, 29.7% autoimmune intestinal dysfunction, 27.8% autoimmune thyroid diseases, 25.9% autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia, 25.3% ectodermal dystrophy, 24% alopecia, 21.5% autoimmune hepatitis, 17% vitiligo, 13.3% cholelithiasis, 5.7% connective diseases, 4.4% asplenia, 2.5% celiac disease and 13.9% cancer. Overall, 991 diseases (6.3 diseases/patient) were found. Interferon-ω Abs (IFNωAbs) were positive in 91.1% of patients. Overall mortality was 14.6%. The AIRE mutation R139X was found in 21.3% of tested alleles, R257X in 11.8%, W78R in 11.4%, C322fsX372 in 8.8%, T16M in 6.2%, R203X in 4%, and A21V in 2.9%. Less frequent mutations were present in 12.9%, very rare in 9.6% while no mutations in 11% of the cases.

Conclusions: In Italy, APS-1 is a rare disorder presenting with the three major manifestations and associated with different AIRE gene mutations. IFNωAbs are markers of APS-1 and other organ-specific autoantibodies are markers of clinical, subclinical or potential autoimmune conditions.
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May 2021

Laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma: Radical or conservative surgery?

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Jul-Aug;42(4):102974. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Otolaryngology Unit, Vittorio Veneto - Conegliano Hospital, Treviso, Italy.

Purpose: The present paper describes our experience in surgical treatment of laryngeal ACC, and discuss the effectiveness of conservative surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 17 patients with laryngeal ACC treated surgically at the Otolaryngology Unit of Vittorio Veneto Hospital (Italy) from November 1989 to April 2020.

Results: Fourteen patients underwent partial laryngectomy, and three had a total laryngectomy. Five patients (29%) experienced a laryngeal ACC relapse after a disease-free survival of 66.6 ± 50.1 months. The distant metastasis rate was 17%. At latest follow-up, two patients had died of distant metastatic disease after 156 and 243 months.

Conclusions: Radical surgery for laryngeal ACC does not warrant free margins and even cases with positive deep margins rarely experience any relapsing disease. We recommend that surgical treatment for laryngeal ACC be as conservative as possible.
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February 2021

Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of Addison's disease in adults.

J Endocrinol Invest 2019 Dec 18;42(12):1407-1433. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

FIRS Laboratories, Llanishen, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Addison's disease (AD) is a rare disorder and among adult population in developed countries is most commonly caused by autoimmunity. In contrast, in children genetic causes are responsible for AD in the majority of patients.

Purpose: This review describes epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetics, natural history, clinical manifestations, immunological markers and diagnostic strategies in patients with AD. Standard care treatments including the management of patients during pregnancy and adrenal crises consistent with the recent consensus statement of the European Consortium and the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline are described. In addition, emerging therapies designed to improve the quality of life and new strategies to modify the natural history of autoimmune AD are discussed.

Conclusions: Progress in optimizing replacement therapy for patients with AD has allowed the patients to lead a normal life. However, continuous education of patients and health care professionals of ever-present danger of adrenal crisis is essential to save lives of patients with AD.
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December 2019

The natural history of autoimmune Addison's disease from the detection of autoantibodies to development of the disease: a long-term follow-up study on 143 patients.

Eur J Endocrinol 2019 Mar;180(3):223-234

Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine (DIMED).

Background: Adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACAs) and/or 21-hydroxylase (21OHAb) are markers of autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) and progression to overt AAD. The reported cumulative risk of developing AAD varies from 0 to 90% in different studies.

Aim: To assess the predictive value of different parameters in the progression toward AAD in patients with ACA and/or 21OHAb-positive patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS).

Materials And Methods: Twenty-nine patients with APS-1 and 114 patients with APS-2 or APS-4 were followed up for a median of 10 years (range 6 months to 33 years) and were assessed using ACTH test. The risk of AAD was estimated according to age, gender, stage of adrenal dysfunction, associated diseases and antibody titer. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used for statistical analysis.

Results: The cumulative risk (CR) of developing AAD was higher in APS-1 patients (94.2%) than in patients with APS-2/APS-4 (38.7%). The CR was high in both male and female APS-1 patients, while in patients with APS-2/APS-4 it was high only in males. Stage 1 (increased plasma renin) for patients with APS-1 and Stage 2 (no response of cortisol to ACTH test) for patients with APS-2/APS-4 were established as the points of no return in the progression to AAD. Adjusted hazard ratio analyses by multivariate Cox model for AAD showed that gender, diseases and adrenal function were independent risk factors for developing clinical AAD. The risk of developing clinical AAD appears to subside after 19 years of follow-up.

Conclusions: A model for estimating the probability to survive free of AAD has been developed and should be a useful tool in designing appropriate follow-up intervals and future therapeutic strategies.
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March 2019

Disputes in the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy: The Dual Blockade of Renin-Angiotensin System.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2016 Jun 24;124(6):361-6. Epub 2016 May 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, "Dell'Angelo" Hospital, Mestre (Venice), Italy.

The prevention and the treatment with drugs interacting with the renin-angiotensin system (RAAS) are one of the greatest successes of the pharmacological research in the last years. Many trials demonstrated the efficacy of ARBs and ACEi in preventing or reducing the progression of albuminuria, the loss of kidney function and the mortality in diabetic population.The rationale for applying a dual RAAS blockade is based on data showing that ACEi mono-therapy produces an incomplete RAAS blockade with angiotensin I and renin accumulation and the subsequent angiotensin II 'escape' production by non-ACE pathways. The use of ARBs and ACEi in combination could lead to a stronger RAAS block and consequently to a more effective nephroprotection. Years ago, some studies performed in small groups of patients with diabetic nephropathy confirmed the effectiveness of this pharmacological approach.In contrast recent important trials, like ONTARGET, ALTITUDE and VA NEPHRON-D failed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this therapeutic strategy, suggesting that probably not all the diabetic patients with nephropathy should be considered equal as regard the response to this therapy. These 3 long-term studies showed that the dual blockade of RAAS may bring cardiovascular and renal adverse events, even in presence of a reduction of albuminuria. Dual blockade of RAAS is not currently feasible in patients with diabetic nephropathy, but we consider that the effort to try to apply a complete RAAS blockade should be pursued and that probably through an accurate selection of patients in the future we could reconsider this kind of therapy.
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June 2016