Publications by authors named "F Javier Alvarez"

1,297 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Trends in the use of antihistamines with reference to drivers between 2015 and 2019: a population-based registry analysis.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Pharmacological Big Data Laboratory, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Avda. Ramón y Cajal, 7. 47005, Valladolid, Spain.

Background: First-generation antihistamines are considered driving-impairing medicines (DIM), while second- and third-generation antihistamines are relatively safe for driving.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the trend of consumption of antihistamines and other DIMs in Spain between 2015 and 2019.

Methods: This is a population-based registry study. The population distribution by age and gender has been taken into account, as well the treatment duration with these medicines and the concomitant use of other DIMs. Adjusted consumption for licensed drivers is also presented.

Results: Between 2015 and 2019, antihistamines were dispensed to 12.1% of the population and 9.25% of drivers. Oral antihistamines are the most consumed with 85.83%, and generally more used by women than men. Regardless to systemic antihistamines, the second generation were the most consumed (8.9%) followed by the third generation (2.07%) and the first generation (0.61%). Subacute use was predominant in second generation antihistamines (4.96%) and third generation (1.26%), while acute use was predominant in third generation antihistamines. On the other hand, only 0.36% of the population consumed antihistamines daily. The concomitant use of antihistamines with other DIMS was considerable, especially anxiolytics, opioids, other analgesics and antipyretics and antidepressants. The results in drivers were similar than in the general population.

Conclusions: The use of antihistamines has increased in recent years, however, in Spain, the use of less sedatives predominates, which is safe for driving. Finally, it is important to consider that concomitant use with other DIMs was frequent, which may affect the fitness to drive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12680DOI Listing
April 2021

Noise-Resilient Acoustic Low Energy Beacon for Proximity-Based Indoor Positioning Systems.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Sensory Systems Research Group, University of Extremadura, 06006 Badajoz, Spain.

Proximity-Based Indoor Positioning Systems (PIPSs) are a simple to install alternative in large facilities. Besides, these systems have a reduced computational cost on the mobile device of those users who do not continuously demand a high location accuracy. This work presents the design of an Acoustic Low Energy (ALE) beacon based on the emission of inaudible Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM) signals. This coding scheme provides high robustness to in-band noise, thus ensuring a reliable detection of the beacon at a practical range, after pulse compression. A series of experimental tests have been carried out with nine different Android devices to study the system performance. These tests have shown that the ALE beacon can be detected at one meter distance with signal-to-noise ratios as low as -12 dB. The tests have also demonstrated a detection rate above 80% for reception angles up to 50° with respect to the beacon's acoustic axis at the same distance. Finally, a study of the ALE beacon energy consumption has been conducted demonstrating comparable power consumption to commercial Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons. Besides, the ALE beacon search can save up to 9% more battery of the Android devices than the BLE beacon scanning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21051703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958138PMC
March 2021

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio vs C-reactive protein as early predictors of anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery: A retrospective cohort study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Apr 5;64:102201. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

General Surgery Service, Clínica Universitaria Reina Fabiola, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Oncativo, 1248, Córdoba Capital, Argentina.

Introduction: Colorectal surgery (CRS) is associated with high morbidity rates, being anastomotic leakage (AL) one of the most serious complications with an incidence as high as 15%, accounting for up to a third of mortality in these procedures. The identification of pre-clinical markers may allow an early diagnosis and a timely intervention. The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) vs C-reactive protein (CRP) as early predictors of AL in CRS.

Methods: A retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients who underwent a colorectal surgery with anastomosis from June 2015 to April 2019. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to find the cutoff points with the best diagnostic performance of AL.

Results: A total of 116 patients were included. From 43 patients (37%) who developed a total of 63 complications, 9 (7.76%) presented with an AL with a median of 8 days (range: 5-9). No significant differences were found for NLR between patients with vs without AL. In contrast, median CRP was significantly higher in patients who subsequently presented with AL, both on day 4 (164 vs 64, p = 0.04) and 5 (94 vs 44, p < 0.001) after surgery. The best predictive performance through ROC curves was found on postoperative day 5, with a CRP value of >54 mg/dL (AUC: 0.81, Sensitivity: 89%, Specificity: 61%).

Conclusions: CRP appears superior to NLR as an early predictor of AL following CRS. The best diagnostic performance was obtained on postoperative day 5 with a cutoff value of >54 mg/dL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973302PMC
April 2021

Chronic hepatitis B in pediatrics: to treat or not to treat, that is the question.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 04;119(2):e117-e120

Hepatología y Trasplante Hepático Pediátrico, Hospital Alemán, Buenos Aires. Argentina.

Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. It may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. An early detection, not using intravenous drugs, sex education, and immunization are critical for prevention. An infection in the neonatal period and in the first year of life becomes chronic in more than 90 % of children. Vertical transmission from a mother with hepatitis B virus to the newborn infant is currently the most common mode of transmission. Detection, immunoglobulin administration, and immunization help to reduce it. Antiviral therapy may accelerate the transition from the active to the inactive phase of infection by two or three years, without affecting the recovery process. A timely treatment of some selected cases may prevent hepatitis B progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2021.eng.e117DOI Listing
April 2021

Identifying mortality factors from Machine Learning using Shapley values - a case of COVID19.

Expert Syst Appl 2021 Aug 11;176:114832. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Economic Analysis, Universidad Complutense Madrid and ICAE, Spain.

In this paper we apply a series of Machine Learning models to a recently published unique dataset on the mortality of COVID19 patients. We use a dataset consisting of blood samples of 375 patients admitted to a hospital in the region of Wuhan, China. There are 201 patients who survived hospitalisation and 174 patients who died whilst in hospital. The focus of the paper is not only on seeing which Machine Learning model is able to obtain the absolute highest accuracy but more on the interpretation of what the Machine Learning models provides. We find that , , and are important and robust predictors when predicting a patients mortality. Furthermore, the algorithms we use allows us to observe the marginal impact of each variable on a case-by-case patient level, which might help practicioneers to easily detect anomalous patterns. This paper analyses the and interpretation of the Machine Learning models on patients with COVID19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2021.114832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948528PMC
August 2021

Disentangling Self-Atomic Motions in Polyisobutylene by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián, Spain.

We present fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on polyisobutylene (PIB) in a wide temperature range above the glass transition. The cell is validated by direct comparison of magnitudes computed from the simulation and measured by neutron scattering on protonated samples reported in previous works. Once the reliability of the simulation is assured, we exploit the information in the atomic trajectories to characterize the dynamics of the different kinds of atoms in PIB. All of them, including main-chain carbons, show a crossover from Gaussian to non-Gaussian behavior in the intermediate scattering function that can be described in terms of the anomalous jump diffusion model. The full characterization of the methyl-group hydrogen motions requires accounting for rotational motions. We show that the usually assumed statistically independence of rotational and segmental motions fails in this case. We apply the rotational rate distribution model to correlation functions calculated for the relative positions of methyl-group hydrogens with respect to the carbon atom at which they are linked. The contributions to the vibrational density of states are also discussed. We conclude that methyl-group rotations are coupled with the main-chain dynamics. Finally, we revise in the light of the simulations the hypothesis and conclusions made in previously reported neutron scattering investigations on protonated samples trying to address the origin of the dielectric β-process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927061PMC
February 2021

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of complicated acute diverticulitis: A retrospective cohort study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Mar 29;63:102128. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

General Surgery Service, Clínica Universitaria Reina Fabiola, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Oncativo, 1248, Córdoba Capital, Argentina.

Introduction: Currently, the debate on the usefulness of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) as a predictor of complications in acute diverticulitis (AD) remains open, especially, the relation to the severity of the disease, the clinical impact, and the necessity of minimally invasive or emergency surgical procedures. On the other hand, its diagnostic efficacy has not been studied even in our field. The objective of the present study was to determine the utility and diagnostic precision of NLR in complicated acute diverticulitis (cAD).

Methods: Descriptive, retrospective cohort and analytical study. Patients older than 18 years with a diagnosis of AD were included, from 2013 to 2018. Demographic variables, days of hospitalization, leukocyte count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, ESR, CRP, and NLR were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of cAD were determined using ROC curves.

Results: 325 patients were included. Of these 196 (60%) were men. The median age was 52 years. A total of 30 (9%) were categorized as cAD. The patients with cAD presented mean values in the leukocyte count (14.02 ± 4.49 × 10/l; p < 0.01), CRP (119.60 ± 87.67; p < 0.01) and NLR (7.61 ± 4.03; p < 0.01). An NLR cutoff value ≥ 4.2 was identified as the most appropriate to distinguish cAD, with a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 64%, NPV of 96%, and PPV of 18%.

Conclusion: NLR is a predictive marker of cAD, with a cut-off point of 4.2 being the best diagnostic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.01.076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895691PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of existing guidelines for their adequacy for the molecular characterisation and environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants obtained through synthetic biology.

EFSA J 2021 Feb 5;19(2):e06301. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Synthetic Biology (SynBio) is an interdisciplinary field at the interface of engineering and biology aiming to develop new biological systems and impart new functions to living cells. EFSA has been asked by the European Commission to evaluate SynBio developments in agri-food with the aim of identifying the adequacy of existing guidelines for risk assessment and determine if updated guidance is needed. The scope of this opinion covers the molecular characterisation and environmental risk assessment of such genetically modified plants obtained through SynBio, meant to be for cultivation or food and feed purposes. The previous work on SynBio by the non-food scientific Committees (2014, 2015) was used and complemented with the output of a horizon scanning exercise, which was commissioned by the EFSA to identify the most realistic and forthcoming SynBio cases of relevance to this remit. The horizon scan did not identify other sectors/advances in addition to the six SynBio categories previously identified by the non-food scientific committees of the European Commission. The exercise did show that plant SynBio products reaching the market in the near future (next decade) are likely to apply SynBio approaches to their development using existing genetic modification and genome editing technologies. In addition, three hypothetical SynBio case studies were selected by the working group of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), to further support the scoping exercise of this Scientific Opinion. Using the selected cases, the GMO Panel concludes that the requirements of the EU regulatory framework and existing EFSA guidelines are adequate for the risk assessment of SynBio products to be developed in the next 10 years, although specific requirements may not apply to all products. The GMO Panel acknowledges that as SynBio developments evolve, a need may exist to adjust the guidelines to ensure they are adequate and sufficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863006PMC
February 2021

Multiscale physical background to an exceptional harmful algal bloom of Dinophysis acuta in a fjord system.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 4;773:145621. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Subida a Radio Faro 50, 36390 Vigo, Spain.

Dinophysis acuta produces diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins and pectenotoxins (PTX). It blooms in thermally-stratified shelf waters in late summer in temperate to cold temperate latitudes. Despite its major contribution to shellfish harvesting bans, little effort has been devoted to study its population dynamics in Chilean Patagonia. In 2017-2018, mesoscale distribution of harmful algal species (75 monitoring stations) revealed the initiation (late spring) and seasonal growth of a dense D. acuta population in the Aysén region, with maximal values at Puyuhuapi Fjord (PF). Vertical phytoplankton distribution and fine-resolution measurements of physical parameters along a 25-km transect in February 16 identified a 15-km (horizontal extension) subsurface thin layer of D. acuta from 4 to 8 m depth. This layer, disrupted at the confluence of PF with the Magdalena Sound, peaked at the top of the pycnocline (6 m, 15.9 °C, 23.4 psu) where static stability was maximal. By February 22, it deepened (8 m, 15.5 °C; 23.62 psu) following the excursions of the pycnocline and reached the highest density ever recorded (664 × 10 cells L) for this species. Dinophysis acuta was the dominant Dinophysis species in all microplankton net-tows/bottle samples; they all contained DSP toxins (OA, DTX-1) and PTX-2. Modeled flushing rates showed that Puyuhuapi, the only fjord in the area with 2 connections with the open sea, had the highest water residence time. Long term climate variability in the Southern hemisphere showed the effects of a Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in positive mode (+1.1 hPa) overwhelming a moderate La Niña. These effects included positive spring precipitation anomalies with enhanced salinity gradients and summer drought with positive anomalies in air (+1 °C) and sea surface (+2 °C) temperature. Locally, persistent thermal stratification in PF seemed to provide an optimal physical habitat for initiation and bloom development of D. acuta. Thus, in summer 2018, a favourable combination of meteorological and hydrographic processes of multiple scales created conditions that promoted the development of a widespread bloom of D. acuta with its epicentre at the head of Puyuhuapi fjord.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145621DOI Listing
June 2021

NT-proBNP levels in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction as well as in the prediction on an imminent delivery.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Clinical Biochemistry, Laboratory Medicine, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), Oviedo, Spain.

Objectives: Studies of cardiovascular function in pregnancy have shown inconsistent and, in some cases, contradictory results, particularly regarding cardiac output. While some studies report preeclampsia associated with high cardiac output, other studies suggest that preeclampsia should be further subdivided into women with high or low cardiac output. This study was conducted to examine the NT-proBNP levels in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and hypertensive pregnancies without preeclampsia. We also examined N-terminal pro-B natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels three to four months after delivery, in preeclamptic women as well as the prediction of delivery within 10 days. In a reduced number of preeclamptic women and controls we performed echocardiograms to study their diastolic function.

Methods: We investigated the NT-proBNP levels in 213 subjects with preeclampsia only, 73 with intrauterine growth restriction, 44 with preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, 211 who were hypertensive and 662 unaffected pregnancies (controls). We also performed echocardiograms on 36 preeclampsia and 19 controls before delivery and three to five months after delivery.

Results: NT-proBNP levels are higher in early onset preeclampsia than in late onset preeclampsia. Intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies showed a NT-proBNP levels similar to hypertensive and unaffected pregnancies. Compared with healthy pregnancies, women with preterm preeclampsia (<37 gestational weeks) had altered left atrial segments.

Conclusions: We observed that NT-proBNP levels are higher in early onset preeclampsia than in late onset. Moreover, diastolic dysfunction is higher in early onset than in late-onset term preeclampsia. An NT-proBNP value >136 pg/mL has a high positive predictive value for an imminent delivery within 10 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-1450DOI Listing
February 2021

Assessment of genetically modified maize MON 88017 × MON 810 for renewal authorisation under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (application EFSA-GMO-RX-017).

EFSA J 2021 Jan 29;19(1):e06375. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Following the submission of application EFSA-GMO-RX-017 under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Bayer Agriculture BVBA the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority was asked to deliver a scientific risk assessment on the data submitted in the context of the renewal of authorisation application for the insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 × MON 810, for food and feed uses, excluding cultivation within the European Union. The data received in the context of this renewal application contained post-market environmental monitoring reports, a systematic search and evaluation of literature, and updated bioinformatic analysis. The GMO Panel assessed these data for possible new hazards, modified exposure or new scientific uncertainties identified during the authorisation period and not previously assessed in the context of the original application. Under the assumption that the DNA sequences of the events in maize MON 88017 × MON 810 considered for renewal are identical to the sequence of the originally assessed events, the GMO Panel concludes that there is no evidence in renewal application EFSA-GMO-RX-017 for new hazards, modified exposure or scientific uncertainties that would change the conclusions of the original risk assessment on maize MON 88017 × MON 810.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844672PMC
January 2021

Economic evaluation of high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine in adults aged ≥65 years: A systematic literature review.

Vaccine 2021 Mar 29;39 Suppl 1:A42-A50. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Sanofi Pasteur, 14 Espace Henry Vallée, 69007 Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Due to waning immunity, adults aged ≥65 years are at increased risk of seasonal influenza infection and its complications. Adding to this risk, older adults have reduced responses to influenza vaccines. A high-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone High-Dose, Sanofi Pasteur) (IIV3-HD) was developed to improve protection against influenza in adults aged ≥65 years and has been licensed in the US since 2009 and in Canada since 2015. Post-licensure studies have shown that IIV3-HD is more effective than standard-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-SD) at protecting against influenza infection in this population. Here, we performed a systematic review of economic analyses of IIV3-HD in adults aged ≥65 years.

Methods: On June 9, 2019, using the Ovid search platform, we searched Econlit, Embase, and Ovid MEDLINE® for original studies published in peer-reviewed journals examining the economics or cost-effectiveness of IIV3-HD in adults aged ≥65 years. Two reviewers independently selected studies and assessed their quality.

Results: Seven studies were selected, all performed in the US or Canada. Five studies were funded by IIV3-HD manufacturer, and the remaining two by the US National Institute of General Medical Sciences. In all studies, IIV3-HD reduces healthcare resource utilization and is cost-effective or cost-saving compared to IIV3-SD. The main driver is reduced hospitalizations for cardiorespiratory events.

Conclusion: IIV3-HD is cost-saving or cost-effective versus IIV3-SD in adults aged ≥65 years. Reduced cardiorespiratory complications are an important driver of these economic benefits. A video summary of the article can be accessed via the Supplementary data link at the end of this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.036DOI Listing
March 2021

Estimating public health and economic benefits along 10 years of Fluzone® High Dose in the United States.

Vaccine 2021 Mar 26;39 Suppl 1:A56-A69. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the public health and economic benefits (from a Medicare perspective) of Fluzone High-Dose® in the US elderly population, since its introduction in 2010.

Methods: A budget impact model was developed using a decision tree framework and applied over 9 influenza seasons (2010/11 to 2018/19). The decision tree model was designed to capture influenza cases, hospitalizations possibly related to influenza or laboratory confirmed influenza, and influenza-related deaths. The analysis included influenza vaccines recommended by ACIP since 2010: SD TIV (trivalent), SD QIV (quadrivalent), HD TIV, aTIV (adjuvanted), ccQIV (cell-cultured). Two strategies were compared to evaluate the impact of HD TIV: a 'with HD TIV' strategy representative of the US vaccine landscape, and a 'without HD TIV' where the absence of HD TIV was modelled. Clinical and economic inputs were based on public US data from the CDC and national databases, while data on vaccine effectiveness were extracted from published literature and clinical trials. The impact of HD TIV was further explored in five scenario analyses and deterministic sensitivity analyses (DSA).

Results: Over 10 years, it is estimated that HD TIV resulted in an averted 1,333,479 influenza cases, 769,476 medical visits, 40,004 ED presentations, 520,342 cardiorespiratory hospitalizations and 73,689 deaths and generated an absolute $4.6 billion in savings, translating into a return on investment of 214.4%. Hospitalizations costs represented 98.4% and 98.3% of the management costs in the 'with HD TIV' strategy and 'without HD TIV' strategy respectively. Hospitalizations and HD TIV relative vaccine efficacy vs SD TIV as a major cost driver were further confirmed in scenario analysis and DSA. HD TIV remained cost saving under all the scenarios.

Conclusion: The model showed that HD TIV higher efficacy translated into increased averted health and economic outcomes. HD TIV represented a cost saving intervention from a payer perspective since its introduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.01.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Assessment of genetically modified maize MON 87427 × MON 87460 × MON 89034 × 1507 × MON 87411 × 59122 and subcombinations, for food and feed uses, under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (application EFSA-GMO-NL-2017-139).

EFSA J 2021 Jan 19;19(1):e06351. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Maize MON 87427 × MON 87460 × MON 89034 × 1507 × MON 87411 × 59122 (six-event stack maize) was produced by conventional crossing to combine six single events: MON 87427, MON 87460, MON 89034, 1507, MON 87411 and 59122. The GMO Panel previously assessed the six single maize events and 17 of the subcombinations and did not identify safety concerns. No new data on the single maize events or the 17 subcombinations were identified that could lead to modification of the original conclusions on their safety. The molecular characterisation, comparative analysis (agronomic, phenotypic and compositional characteristics) and the outcome of the toxicological, allergenicity and nutritional assessment indicate that the combination of the single maize events and of the newly expressed proteins and dsRNA in the six-event stack maize does not give rise to food and feed safety and nutritional concerns. The GMO Panel concludes that the six-event stack maize, as described in this application, is as safe as its non-GM comparator and the selected non-GM reference varieties. In the case of accidental release of viable grains of the six-event stack maize into the environment, this would not raise environmental safety concerns. The GMO Panel assessed the likelihood of interactions among the single events in the 39 maize subcombinations not previously assessed and concludes that these are expected to be as safe as the single events, the previously assessed subcombinations and the six-event stack maize. The post-market environmental monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the intended uses of the six-event stack maize. Post-market monitoring of food/feed is not considered necessary. The GMO Panel concludes that the six-event stack maize and its subcombinations are as safe as the non-GM comparator and the selected non-GM reference varieties with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814765PMC
January 2021

Assessment of genetically modified maize 1507 × MIR162 × MON810 × NK603 and subcombinations, for food and feed uses, under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (application EFSA-GMO-NL-2015-127).

EFSA J 2021 Jan 13;19(1):e06348. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Maize 1507 × MIR162 × MON810 × NK603 (four-event stack maize) was produced by conventional crossing to combine four single events: 1507, MIR162, MON810 and NK603. The GMO Panel previously assessed the four single events and six of the subcombinations and did not identify safety concerns. No new data on the single events or the six subcombinations that could lead to modification of the original conclusions on their safety were identified. The molecular characterisation, comparative analysis (agronomic, phenotypic and compositional characteristics) and the outcome of the toxicological, allergenicity and nutritional assessment indicate that the combination of the single maize events and of the newly expressed proteins in the four-event stack maize does not give rise to food and feed safety and nutritional concerns. The GMO Panel concludes that the four-event stack maize, as described in this application, is as safe as its non-GM comparator and the non-GM reference varieties tested. In the case of accidental release of viable seeds of the four-event stack maize into the environment, this would not raise environmental safety concerns. The GMO Panel assessed the likelihood of interactions among the single events in the four maize subcombinations not previously assessed and concludes that these are expected to be as safe as the single events, the previously assessed subcombinations and the four-event stack maize. The post-market environmental monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the intended uses of the four-event stack maize. Post-market monitoring of food/feed is not considered necessary. The GMO Panel concludes that the four-event stack maize and its subcombinations are as safe as the non-GM comparator and the tested non-GM reference varieties with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805002PMC
January 2021

Assessment of genetically modified maize Bt11 for renewal authorisation under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (application EFSA-GMO-RX-016).

EFSA J 2021 Jan 13;19(1):e06347. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Following the submission of application EFSA-GMO-RX-016 under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Syngenta the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority was asked to deliver a scientific risk assessment on the data submitted in the context of the renewal of authorisation application for the insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize Bt11, for food and feed uses, excluding cultivation within the European Union. The data received in the context of this renewal application contained post-market environmental monitoring reports, a systematic search and evaluation of literature, updated bioinformatic analyses, and additional documents or studies performed by or on behalf of the applicant. The GMO Panel assessed these data for possible new hazards, modified exposure or new scientific uncertainties identified during the authorisation period and not previously assessed in the context of the original application. Under the assumption that the DNA sequences of the event in maize Bt11 considered for renewal is identical to the sequence of the originally assessed events, the GMO Panel concludes that there is no evidence in renewal application EFSA-GMO-RX-016 for new hazards, modified exposure or scientific uncertainties that would change the conclusions of the original risk assessment on maize Bt11.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804996PMC
January 2021

Cytologic Features of Ventricular Tumors of the Central Nervous System: A Review with Emphasis on Diff-Quik Stained Smears.

Acta Cytol 2021 21;65(2):111-122. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Pathology, University Hospital Doce de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Neoplasms from the ventricular system share a common location but have highly variable histogenesis. Many are slowly growing tumors that behave in a benign fashion. They can be classified as primary and secondary tumors. The most common primary tumors are ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, central neurocytomas, choroid plexus tumors, meningiomas, germinomas, pineal parenchymal tumors, papillary tumors of the pineal region, chordoid gliomas, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle, and craniopharyngiomas. Pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors often show secondary involvement of the ventricular system.

Summary: Advances in neurosurgery have facilitated access to the ventricular system increasing the number of cases in which such tumors can be biopsied. In this context, cytology has been proven to be an extremely useful diagnostic tool during intraoperative pathologic consultations. Many ventricular tumors are infrequent, and the cytologic information available is limited. In this review, we describe the cytologic features of the uncommon ventricular tumors and report on unusual findings of the more common ones. For the cytologic evaluation of brain tumors, many neuropathologists prefer formalin fixation and hematoxylin and eosin staining. In this review, we highlight the cytologic findings as seen with Diff-Quik, a very popular staining method among cytopathologists. In fact, when pathologists are unfamiliar with cytology, it is common to request the assistance of cytopathologists during the evaluation of intraoperative procedures. Key Message: Ventricular tumors of the central nervous system comprise a group of heterogeneous tumors with very different cytologic features. The cytomorphology of these tumors, including rare entities, is often very characteristic, allowing a precise recognition during intraoperative pathologic consultations. Diff-Quik is a valuable staining method that can be used alone or as a complement to hematoxylin and eosin staining. Diff-Quik allows for clear visualization of the overall architecture, cytoplasmic details, and extracellular material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512723DOI Listing
March 2021

On the physicochemical origin of nanoscale friction: the polarizability and electronegativity relationship tailoring nanotribology.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Feb;23(4):2873-2884

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia e Ciência dos Materiais (PPGMAT), University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), 95070-560, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil. and Plasmar Tecnologia Ltda, 95030-775, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil.

Friction is a ubiquitous manifestation of nature, and when it is studied at the nanoscale, complex and interesting effects arise from fundamental physical and chemical surface properties. Surprisingly, and probably due to the complexity of nanofriction studies, this aspect has not been completely discussed in prior studies. To fully consider the physicochemical influence in nanoscale friction, amorphous carbon films with different amounts of hydrogen and fluorine were prepared, chemically characterized, and evaluated via lateral force microscopy. Hydrogen and fluorine were selected because although they exhibit different physicochemical properties, both contribute to frictional force reduction. Indeed, to explain the experimental behavior, it is necessary to propose a new damping constant unifying both polarizability (physical) and electronegativity (chemical) properties. The satisfactory agreement between theory and experiments may encourage and enhance deeper discussion and new experiments that take into account the chemical peculiarities of frictional behavior relating to nanoscale elastic regimes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp06436jDOI Listing
February 2021

Minimally invasive splenectomy in grade IV splenic trauma: A case report associated with high-grade renal trauma.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Feb 2;79:28-33. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

General Surgery Service, Clínica Universitaria Reina Fabiola, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Oncativo 1248, Córdoba Capital, Argentina.

Introduction And Importance: In closed abdominal trauma, the spleen is the most frequently injured organ (30-45%). Splenic lesions grades IV-V have higher failure rates with nonoperative management (NOM). The minimally invasive approach is an alternative when NOM fails. This is the first reported case of a patient with splenic and left renal trauma, both grade IV, with combined management, which consisted of a minimally invasive surgical resolution of the splenic trauma and a conservative management of the renal trauma, with a satisfactory recovery of the patient. This contributes to understanding the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in moderate splenic trauma associated with other high-grade injuries.

Case Presentation: We present a 45-year-old woman with a multiple trauma after a motorbike vs car traffic accident. On physical examination, she was hemodynamically stable, with abdominal guarding and generalized rebound tenderness associated with multiple upper and lower limb fractures. An abdominal CT scan revealed grade IV splenic and left renal trauma, with moderate hemoperitoneum. A minimally invasive laparoscopic approach for hemoperitoneum drainage and splenectomy was performed.

Clinical Discussion: There is currently no consensus to define the indications for minimally invasive treatment on splenic trauma. While laparotomy is the standard treatment, it is not without potential severe complications, while laparoscopy providing a treatment option in selected cases with hemodynamic stability.

Conclusion: The role of the minimally invasive approach is safe and feasible in selected patients with high-grade splenic lesions and hemodynamic stability, including the association with other organic lesions such as kidney trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.12.077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808906PMC
February 2021

Insight into the Structure and Dynamics of Polymers by Neutron Scattering Combined with Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Dec 21;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC, UPV/EHU) and Materials Physics Center MPC, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián, Spain.

Combining neutron scattering and fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations allows unraveling structural and dynamical features of polymer melts at different length scales, mainly in the intermolecular and monomeric range. Here we present the methodology developed by us and the results of its application during the last years in a variety of polymers. This methodology is based on two pillars: (i) both techniques cover approximately the same length and time scales and (ii) the classical van Hove formalism allows easily calculating the magnitudes measured by neutron scattering from the simulated atomic trajectories. By direct comparison with experimental results, the simulated cell is validated. Thereafter, the information of the simulations can be exploited, calculating magnitudes that are experimentally inaccessible or extending the parameters range beyond the experimental capabilities. We show how detailed microscopic insight on structural features and dynamical processes of various kinds has been gained in polymeric systems with different degrees of complexity, and how intriguing questions as the collective behavior at intermediate length scales have been faced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12123067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767341PMC
December 2020

Clinical Profile, Treatment and Predictors during the First COVID-19 Wave: A Population-Based Registry Analysis from Castile and Leon Hospitals.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 14;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Pharmacological Big Data Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain.

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic collapsed the hospitals in Castile and Leon (Spain). An analysis of the clinical characteristics, drug therapies and principal outcome predictors in the COVID-19 hospitalized patients from 1 March to 31 May 2020 is presented through a population-based registry study. Hospital stay variables, ventilation mode data and clinical outcomes were observed. In Castile and Leon hospitals, 7307 COVID-19 patients were admitted, with 57.05% being male and a median of 76 years. The mortality rate was 24.43%, with a high incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (14.03%) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (10.87%). The most used medicines were antibiotics (90.83%), antimalarials (42.63%), steroids (44.37%) and antivirals, such as lopinavir/ritonavir (42.63%). The use of tocilizumab (9.37%) and anti-SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) medicines (7.34%) were remarkable. Fundamentally, death occurred more likely over 65 years of age (OR: 9.05). In addition, the need for ventilation was associated with a higher probability of death (OR: 3.59), SARS (OR: 5.14) and AKI (OR: 2.31). The drug-use pattern had been modified throughout the COVID-19 first wave. Multiple factors, such as age, gender and the need for mechanical ventilation, were related to the worst evolution prognosis of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765016PMC
December 2020

The use of artificial substrate units to improve inventories of cryptic crustacean species on Caribbean coral reefs.

PeerJ 2020 23;8:e10389. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Colección Nacional de Crustáceos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico City, México.

Motile cryptofauna inhabiting coral reefs are complex assemblages that utilize the space available among dead coral stands and the surrounding coral rubble substrate. They comprise a group of organisms largely overlooked in biodiversity estimates because they are hard to collect and identify, and their collection causes disturbance that is unsustainable in light of widespread reef degradation. Artificial substrate units (ASUs) provide a better sampling alternative and have the potential to enhance biodiversity estimates. The present study examines the effectiveness of ASUs made with defaunated coral rubble to estimate the diversity of motile cryptic crustaceans in the back-reef zone of the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico. Species richness, Simpson's diversity index, Shannon-Wiener index and the composition of assemblages were compared between ASUs and samples from the surrounding coral rubble substrate. A combined total of 2,740 specimens of 178 different species, belonging to five orders of Crustacea (Amphipoda, Cumacea, Isopoda, Tanaidacea and Decapoda) were collected. Species richness was higher in the surrounding coral rubble and Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indexes were higher in ASUs. Species composition differed between methods, with only 71 species being shared among sampling methods. Decapoda was more speciose in ASUs and Peracarids in the surrounding coral rubble. Combining the use of ASUs with surrounding rubble provided a better inventory of motile cryptic crustacean biodiversity, as 65% of the species were represented by one or two specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690294PMC
November 2020

Scientific Opinion on application EFSA-GMO-NL-2016-132 for authorisation of genetically modified of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant soybean DAS-81419-2 × DAS-44406-6 for food and feed uses, import and processing submitted in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 by Dow Agrosciences LCC.

EFSA J 2020 Nov 20;18(11):e06302. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Soybean DAS-8419-2 × DAS-44406-6 was developed to provide protection against certain lepidopteran pests and tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and other related phenoxy herbicides, and glyphosate- and glufosinate ammonium-containing herbicides. The Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) Panel previously assessed the two single soybean events and did not identify safety concerns. No new data on the single soybean events, leading to modification of the original conclusions on their safety have been identified. The molecular characterisation, comparative analysis (agronomic, phenotypic and compositional characteristics) and the outcome of the toxicological, allergenicity and nutritional assessment indicate that the combination of the single soybean events and of the newly expressed proteins in the two-event stack soybean does not give rise to food and feed safety and nutritional concerns. In the case of accidental release of viable DAS-8419-2 × DAS-44406-6 seeds into the environment, soybean DAS-8419-2 × DAS-44406-6 would not raise environmental safety concerns. The post-market environmental monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the intended uses of soybean DAS-8419-2 × DAS-44406-6. In conclusion, the GMO Panel considers that soybean DAS-8419-2 × DAS-44406-6, as described in this application, is as safe as its conventional counterpart and the non-genetically modified soybean reference varieties tested with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2020.6302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677967PMC
November 2020

[Differential health effects of alcoholic beverages: an umbrella review of observational studies.]

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2020 Nov 13;94. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Estudios de Ciencias de la Salud. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Barcelona. España.

Background: There is great controversy about whether the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages has different effects on health. The objective was to carry out an umbrella review of the studies that described the association between the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages and various health indicators.

Methods: Search through PubMed (from January 2000 to February 2019) of systematic reviews and meta-analysis that reported quantitative results of the association between the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages and health effects. 26 studies were identified: 21 related to cancer, three to cardiometabolic diseases, two to neurodegenerative diseases, and one to general mortality.

Results: The results were heterogeneous. The great methodological differences in the estimation of alcohol intake, control of confounding variables, and the evaluation of statistical difference between types of beverages, made it very difficult to conclude whether they cause an unequal effect on health. In general mortality and cardiometabolic diseases, it was suggested that beer and spirits appear to have a greater negative effect than wine, but the differences were not statistically significant. Regarding cancer, in those types where the causal evidence is totally consistent: oropharynx, colorectal and breast (women), the reviews did not show a differentiated effect according to the type of alcoholic beverages. Regarding neurodegenerative diseases, the available information did not allow clear conclusions to be drawn.

Conclusions: The reviewed evidence does not allow to conclude that the consumption of wine, beer or spirits, has a differential effect on cardiometabolic, cancer or neurodegenerative diseases.
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November 2020

[Driving with a positive test result for alcohol in Spain in 2018.]

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2020 Nov 13;94. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Valladolid. Valladolid. España.

Objective: The association between alcohol and traffic collision injuries is well established. Our objective was to analyze the frequency of driving with a positive result in on-road tests for alcohol with considering different concentrations of alcohol in exhaled air, as well as driving while positive only for alcohol or for alcohol and drugs.

Methods: In 2018, a cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of motor vehicle drivers on Spanish public roads, excluding cyclists and drivers of vehicles weighing more than 3,500 kg. 2,881 drivers were included in this study. Data was analysed with the statistics program SPSS 24.0.

Results: 10.9% (95% CI, 9.8-12.1) of the drivers were positive cases for any substance: In 3.9% (3.2-4.6) alcohol alone (i.e., without any other substance), and in 0.8% (0.6-1.3) alcohol plus another substance, were observed. 2.1% (1.6-2.7) of the drivers had a level of alcohol in expired air higher than the legal allowed limit for drivers (>0.25 mg/L, that excluding novice and profesional drivers). 0.4% (0.2-0.7) of the drivers had an alcohol concentration in expired air >0.60 mg/L. Driving with the presence of alcohol and drugs is observed in two out of ten positive cases for alcohol.

Conclusions: Driving while positive for alcohol is common among Spanish drivers, and drivers positive for alcohol and drugs should not be ignored.
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November 2020

Role of Rare Earth Elements and Entropy on the Anatase-To-Rutile Phase Transformation of TiO Thin Films Deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering.

ACS Omega 2020 Nov 23;5(43):28027-28036. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas 13083-970, Brazil.

The role played by oxygen vacancies and rare earth (RE) elements in the anatase-to-rutile (A-R) phase transformation of titanium dioxide (TiO) is still a matter of controversy. Here, we report the A-R transformation of TiO thin solid films as obtained by ion beam sputtering a RE-decorated titanium target in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The samples correspond to undoped, single-doped (Sm, Tm, and Tb), and codoped (Sm:Tb, Sm:Tm, and Sm:Tb:Tm) TiO films. In the as-prepared form, the films are amorphous and contain ∼0.5 at. % of each RE. The structural modifications of the TiO films due to the RE elements and the annealing treatments in an oxygen atmosphere are described according to the experimental results provided by Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical measurements. The A-R transformation depends on both the annealing temperature and the characteristics of the undoped, single-doped, and codoped TiO films. As reported in the literature, the A-R transformation can be inhibited or enhanced by the presence of impurities and is mostly related to energetic contributions. The experimental results were analyzed, considering the essential and stabilizing role of the entropy of mixing in the A-R transformation due to the introduction of more and multiple quantum states originated in vacancies and impurities in the anatase phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643173PMC
November 2020

Rapid Domoic Acid Depuration in the Scallop and Its Transfer from the Digestive Gland to Other Organs.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 11 3;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (Xunta de Galicia), Apto. 13, 36620 Vilanova de Arousa, Pontevedra, Spain.

Domoic acid (DA), the main toxin responsible for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, frequently affects the marine resources of Chile and other countries across the South Pacific, thus becoming a risk for human health. One of the affected resources is the scallop . Even though this species has a high commercial importance in Northern Chile and Peru, the characteristics of its DA depuration are not known. In this work, the DA depuration was studied by means of two experiments: one in controlled (laboratory) and another in natural conditions. All organs of depurated the toxin very quickly in both experiments. In some organs, an increase or a very small decrease of toxin was detected in the early depuration steps. Several models were used to describe this kinetics. The one that included toxin transfer between organs and independent depuration from each organ was the model that best fit the data. It seems, therefore, that the DA in this species is quickly transferred from the digestive gland to all other organs, which release it into the environment. Physiological differences in the two experiments have been shown to have some effect on the depuration from each organ but the actual reasons are still unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692689PMC
November 2020

The association of telomere length with substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Addiction 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Departamento de Psicología Básica y Metodología, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Background And Aims: Several recent studies have investigated the relationship between telomere length and substance use disorders with inconsistent results. We aimed to assess this association and to identify moderators of the relationship.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Selection criteria were observational studies reporting telomere length in people with a substance use disorder compared with a control group. Studies focused solely on nicotine addiction, employing other study designs, and non-human studies were excluded. Study selection and data extraction were independently conducted by two researchers following a standardized protocol and included studies until December 2019. Standardized mean differences were used as the effect size index [d; 95% confidence interval (CI)] and random-effects models were used for the meta-analysis. Cochran's Q-statistic, I index, visual inspection of the forest plot and a 95% prediction interval were applied to verify study heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were conducted to explore heterogeneity. Small study effects were examined using the 'funnel plot', the Egger test, Duval & Tweedie's trim-and-fill method and the precision-effect test-precision-effect estimate with standard error (PET-PEESE) method. The risk of bias and the quality of evidence were assessed.

Results: Ten studies (12 analysis units with 2671 cases and 4532 controls) met the selection criteria. An overall effect size of moderate magnitude was found (d  = -0.63; 95% CI = -1.00 and -0.26; P = 0.0008). A potential small study effect was detected, as well as large heterogeneity between studies (Q-statistic P < 0.001, I  = 97.3%). Selection of controls, reporting laboratory quality control procedures and total sample size significantly affected the effect size. The quality of the evidence was very low, based on risk of bias analysis and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system.

Conclusions: People with substance use disorders appear to have shorter telomere length than controls; however, this finding should be interpreted with caution due to the poor quality of the evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15312DOI Listing
November 2020

Trend in the use of topical ocular anti-infectives in a region of Spain between 2015 and 2019: a population-based registry study.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020 Dec 26;33(6):453-458. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Eduardo Gutiérrez-Abejón, Pharmacological Big Data Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Objective: This study presents the use and trends of use of topical ocular anti-infectives into a European population in the current decade (2015 to 2019) with an analysis of concomitant use with other ocular drugs, considering distribution by age and gender.

Methods: A population-based registry study was carried out to assess the ocular anti-infectives use from 2015 to 2019. All dispensations of these medicines at pharmacies in the largest region of Spain, Castile and León, was accessed. The number of packages dispensed, the percentage of the population under treatment, diagnosis, and the concomitant use with other ocular medicines was observed. For all analyses, the population distribution by age and gender was considered.

Results: An average of 198,000 packages of topical ocular anti-infectives were dispensed annually to 5.38% of the population, and more commonly for women than for men (5.83% vs. 4.91%). Children and the elderly used more these medicines. Tobramycin, alone or in combination, accounted for more than 68% of the total consumption (135,000 packages per year), and was the most widely used anti-infective in almost all identified diagnoses. Conjunctivitis (50.12%), and stye (11.51%) were the most frequent diagnoses. The consumption of ocular anti-infectives increased by 8.23% from 2015 to 2019, and more among men than in women.

Conclusions: Our findings show that the most used topical ocular anti-infective was tobramycin, in accordance with the clinical practice guidelines recommendations. However, ocular infections are sometimes treated empirically, especially conjunctivitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.37201/req/096.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712348PMC
December 2020

Assessment of the 2018 post-market environmental monitoring report on the cultivation of genetically modified maize MON 810 in the EU.

EFSA J 2020 Oct 12;18(10):e06245. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA assessed the 2018 post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) report on the cultivation of Cry1Ab-expressing maize event MON 810. Like previous years, there was partial compliance with refuge requirements by Spanish farmers growing MON 810 varieties. European and Mediterranean corn borer populations collected from north-eastern Spain during the 2018 maize growing season and tested for Cry1Ab susceptibility show no symptoms of resistance to maize MON 810. The assessment of farmer questionnaires and relevant scientific publications does not indicate any unanticipated adverse effects on human and animal health or the environment arising from the cultivation of maize MON 810. The report does not provide information about the use of existing networks involved in environmental monitoring. Overall, EFSA concludes that the evidence reported in the 2018 PMEM report does not invalidate previous EFSA evaluations on the safety of maize MON 810. However, as in previous years, EFSA identifies shortcomings on resistance monitoring that need revision in future reports. In particular, the monitoring plan, as implemented in 2018, is not sufficiently sensitive to detect the recommended 3% resistance allele frequency. Consequently, EFSA strongly recommends the consent holder to: (1) achieve full compliance with refuge obligations in areas where adoption of maize MON 810 is high; (2) increase the sensitivity of the monitoring plan and address previously mentioned limitations for resistance monitoring; and (3) perform an F screen on corn borer populations from north-eastern Spain. A fit-for-purpose farmer alert system may help to detect unexpected adverse effects associated with the cultivation of MON 810 varieties and be an alternative to the current farmer survey system. Moreover, relevant stakeholders should implement a methodological framework to enable making the best use of existing networks involved in environmental monitoring for the general surveillance of genetically modified plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2020.6245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549383PMC
October 2020