Publications by authors named "Eytan Raz"

97 Publications

Pterygovaginal artery as a target of embolization before endoscopic skull base surgery.

Neuroradiol J 2021 Apr 30:19714009211013490. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Japan.

Background: The pterygovaginal artery (PtVA), a recurrent branch of the internal maxillary artery (IMA), can be a feeder of skull base tumors. Preoperative embolization can help endoscopic resection of hypervascular lesions, which is performed under a narrow surgical space with restricted instrumental maneuverability.

Methods: We performed preoperative embolization in five cases with hypervascular skull base lesions supplied by the PtVA, four of which were resected via endoscopic endonasal approach. In two cases, selective PtVA embolization through the distal IMA was successfully conducted.

Results: In all the cases, intraoperative bleeding during endoscopic resection was easily controlled. The medial and lateral origins of the PtVA from the IMA were demonstrated by cone-beam CT images reconstructed from three-dimensional rotational angiography, and anastomoses around the eustachian tube and soft palate were visualized by superselective angiography.

Conclusions: The PtVA embolization can be an effective strategy before endoscopic skull base tumor resection. When embolizing through the PtVA, clinicians should be aware of its anatomical variations and dangerous anastomoses. Understanding the surrounding angioarchitecture by angiographic techniques helps ensure safe embolization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19714009211013490DOI Listing
April 2021

Pipeline embolization of cerebral aneurysms in pediatric patients: combined systematic review of patient-level data and multicenter retrospective review.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Apr 23:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Cerebral aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare and optimal treatment strategies are not as well characterized as in adults. The Pipeline embolization device (PED) is an endoluminal flow diverter that is commonly used to treat aneurysms in adults, but experience with this device in children is limited. The authors sought to further characterize PED use and outcomes in this specific population by performing both a systematic review of patient-level data from studies reporting the use of the PED to treat pediatric aneurysms and a retrospective review of their experience.

Methods: A systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies reporting the use of the PED in pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years). Disaggregated data regarding demographics, aneurysm characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were collected. Retrospective data from the authors' two institutions were also included.

Results: Thirty studies comprising patient-level data on 43 pediatric patients with 47 aneurysms were identified. An additional 9 patients with 9 aneurysms were included from the authors' institutions for a total of 52 patients with 56 aneurysms. The mean patient age was 11.1 years. Presentations included aneurysm rupture (17.3%) and symptomatic mass effect (23.1%). Aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation in 55.4% of cases, and 73.2% were described as nonsaccular. Imaging follow-up was available for 89.3% with a mean follow-up of 13.3 months. Aneurysm occlusion was reported in 75%, with 1 case each (1.8%) demonstrating significant in-stent stenosis and parent vessel occlusion. Clinical follow-up was reported in 90.4% with a mean follow-up of 14.7 months. Good functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 or Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 5) were reported in 65.4% of the total population. Two major complications were reported, including 1 death.

Conclusions: Despite substantial differences in aneurysm location and type between published pediatric and adult patient populations treated with the PED, the use of the PED in the pediatric population appears to be safe. While the short-term effectiveness is also similar to that of adults, additional studies are needed to further characterize the long-term outcomes and better define the use of this device in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.10.PEDS20324DOI Listing
April 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Infective Endocarditis-Related Acute Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 8;30(6):105775. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Boston University Medical Center, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University Medical Center, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Embolic stroke is a frequent complication of infective endocarditis yet lacks acute treatment as intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided due to high risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion may be a promising treatment but there is limited data on safety outcomes in infective endocarditis.

Materials And Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series, we reviewed data from patients with infective endocarditis-related large vessel occlusion who underwent mechanical thrombectomy in 9 US hospitals.

Results: We identified 15 patients at 9 hospitals. A minority presented with signs suggesting infection (2 patients (14%) had fever, 7 (47%) were tachycardic, 2 (13%) were hypotensive, and 8 (53%) had leukocytosis). The median National Institute of Health Stroke Score decreased from 19 (range 9-25) at presentation to 7 post-thrombectomy (range 0-22, median best score post-thrombectomy), and the median modified Rankin Scale on or after discharge for survivors was 3 (range 0-6). Approximately 57% of patients had a modified Rankin Scale between 0 and 3 on or after discharge. Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7/15 (47%). The mechanical thrombectomy group had 2/9 petechial hemorrhagic transformation (22%), compared to 4/6 parenchymal hematomas (67%) in the tissue plasminogen activator + mechanical thrombectomy group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients with large vessel occlusion due to infective endocarditis may not present with overt signs of infection. Mechanical thrombectomy may be an effective treatment in this patient population for whom intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105775DOI Listing
June 2021

Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation.

Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile.

Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006491PMC
March 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and Intravenous Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95%CI, -11.7 to - 11.3, p<0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95%CI, -13.8 to -12.7, p<0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95%CI, -13.7 to -10.3, p=0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95%CI 9.2-9.8, p<0.0001) was noted over the two later (May, June) versus the two earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
March 2021

Dural venous system: angiographic technique and correlation with ex vivo investigations.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The dural vasculature plays a key role in several important conditions, including dural fistulas and subdural collections. While in vivo investigations of intrinsic dural arterial angioarchitecture are rare, no angiographic studies of dural venous drainage exist to our knowledge.

Objective: To describe methods by which dural venous drainage might be visualized with current angiographic equipment and technique, and to correlate our results with existing ex vivo literature.

Methods: Digital subtraction angiography and 3D angiography (rotational and Dyna CT) of dural neurovasculature were acquired in the context of subdural hematoma embolization and normal dura. Protocols for visualization of dural venous drainage were established, and findings correlated with ex vivo studies.

Results: Meningeal arteries supply both the skull and dura. Normal dural enhancement is accentuated by the presence of hypervascular membranes. Intrinsic meningeal veins/sinuses parallel outer layer arteries with well-known tram-tracking appearance. Dura adjacent to main arterial trunks drains via skull base foramina into the pterygopalatine venous plexus, or via emissary veins into the temporalis venous plexus. Dura near the sinuses drains into venous pouches adjacent to the sinus, before emptying into the sinus proper-possibly the same pouches implicated in the angioarchitecture of dural fistulas. Finally, posterior temporoparietal convexity dura, situated in a watershed-like region between middle and posterior meningeal territories, frequently empties into diploic and emissary veins of the skull. Wide variation in balance is expected between these three routes. Drainage patterns appear to correlate with venous embryologic investigations of Padget and ex vivo studies in adults.

Conclusions: Continued attention to dural venous drainage may prove useful in the diagnosis and management of dural-based vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017237DOI Listing
March 2021

Percutaneous transorbital direct puncture to obliterate a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Radiology, New York University Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CS-DAVF) can have an indolent course, with insidious onset, but still showing a high likelihood of spontaneous resolution.1 Nevertheless, symptoms in a subset of patients evolve more rapidly, with malignant signs on imaging, warranting intervention.2 We report on a patient in his 40s presenting with redness and proptosis of the right eye, intermittent blurred vision and diplopia. Once ophthalmological examination revealed increased intraocular pressure and imaging showed cortical venous congestion, the decision was made to obliterate a CS-DAVF involving the posteromedial right cavernous sinus.Multiple arteries including branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery, occipital artery and bilateral meningohypophyseal trunks supplied the fistula. Once transarterial embolization was deemed unsafe and both inferior petrosal sinuses did not grant access to the right cavernous sinus, a direct puncture to the cavernous sinus was performed to successfully coil the involved compartments.3-5 The aid of DynaCT imaging and needle guidance software is emphasized (video 1).neurintsurg;neurintsurg-2020-017118v2/V1F1V1Video 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017118DOI Listing
March 2021

Neuroanatomy of cranial dural vessels: implications for subdural hematoma embolization.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 25;13(5):471-477. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Radiology, Neurosurgery, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Adoption of middle meningeal artery embolization in the management of chronic subdural hematomas has led to a renewed interest in dural vascular anatomy. The readily identifiable major dural arteries and potential hazards associated with their embolization are well described. Less emphasized are several levels of intrinsic dural angioarchitecture, despite their more direct relationship to dural based diseases, such as subdural hematoma and dural fistula. Fortunately, microvascular aspects of dural anatomy, previously limited to ex vivo investigations, are becoming increasingly accessible to in vivo visualization, setting the stage for synthesis of the old and the new, and providing a rationale for the endovascular approach to subdural collections in particular. In contrast with traditional anatomical didactics, where descriptions advance from larger trunks to smaller pedicles, we present a strategic approach that proceeds from a fundamental understanding of the dural microvasculature and its relationship to larger vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016798DOI Listing
May 2021

Thrombectomy for Primary Distal Posterior Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke: The TOPMOST Study.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Apr;78(4):434-444

Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Importance: Clinical evidence of the potential treatment benefit of mechanical thrombectomy for posterior circulation distal, medium vessel occlusion (DMVO) is sparse.

Objective: To investigate the frequency as well as the clinical and safety outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy for isolated posterior circulation DMVO stroke and to compare them with the outcomes of standard medical treatment with or without intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in daily clinical practice.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicenter case-control study analyzed patients who were treated for primary distal occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) of the P2 or P3 segment. These patients received mechanical thrombectomy or standard medical treatment (with or without IVT) at 1 of 23 comprehensive stroke centers in Europe, the United States, and Asia between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were matched using 1:1 propensity score matching.

Interventions: Mechanical thrombectomy or standard medical treatment with or without IVT.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Clinical end point was the improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at discharge from baseline. Safety end point was the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and hemorrhagic complications were classified based on the Second European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study (ECASSII). Functional outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90-day follow-up.

Results: Of 243 patients from all participating centers who met the inclusion criteria, 184 patients were matched. Among these patients, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 74 (62-81) years and 95 (51.6%) were female individuals. Posterior circulation DMVOs were located in the P2 segment of the PCA in 149 patients (81.0%) and in the P3 segment in 35 patients (19.0%). At discharge, the mean NIHSS score decrease was -2.4 points (95% CI, -3.2 to -1.6) in the standard medical treatment cohort and -3.9 points (95% CI, -5.4 to -2.5) in the mechanical thrombectomy cohort, with a mean difference of -1.5 points (95% CI, 3.2 to -0.8; P = .06). Significant treatment effects of mechanical thrombectomy were observed in the subgroup of patients who had higher NIHSS scores on admission of 10 points or higher (mean difference, -5.6; 95% CI, -10.9 to -0.2; P = .04) and in the subgroup of patients without IVT (mean difference, -3.0; 95% CI, -5.0 to -0.9; P = .005). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4 of 92 patients (4.3%) in each treatment cohort.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggested that, although rarely performed at comprehensive stroke centers, mechanical thrombectomy for posterior circulation DMVO is a safe, and technically feasible treatment option for occlusions of the P2 or P3 segment of the PCA compared with standard medical treatment with or without IVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900924PMC
April 2021

Angio-anatomical study of the pterygovaginal artery based on cone-beam computed tomography.

Neuroradiology 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the anatomical characteristics and clinical implications of the pterygovaginal artery (PtVA), a recurrent branch from the distal internal maxillary artery (IMA), which courses through the pterygovaginal canal that connects the pterygopalatine fossa and nasopharynx.

Methods: Eighty-two patients with 90 sides of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstructed from rotational angiography of the external or common carotid artery with a field of view covering the pterygopalatine fossa were retrospectively reviewed. The origin from the IMA, branching type, distribution, and anastomoses was evaluated. The underlying lesions were 36 hypervascular lesions with possible supply from PtVA (17 cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), 6 anterior condylar AVFs, and 13 nasopharyngeal, parasellar, or paraclival tumors) and 46 other diseases.

Results: PtVA was identified in 75 sides (83%). It originated from the pterygopalatine segment of the IMA in 45 sides (60%) and from the pterygoid segment in 30 sides (40%). It arose independently (77%), sharing the common trunk with the Vidian artery (15%) or with other branches. It ran posteromedially through the pterygovaginal canal to supply the mucosa over the nasopharyngeal roof, the choanae, and the pharyngeal ostium of the eustachian tube. It anastomosed with the ascending pharyngeal artery (n=37), the accessory meningeal artery (n=7), and the mandibular artery from the petrous internal carotid artery (n=2). It served as a feeder of osseous AVFs and skull base tumors.

Conclusion: PtVA was often identified by CBCT even in normal anatomy. Its detailed angio-anatomy could be evaluated in the presence of parasellar or paraclival hypervascular lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-021-02657-3DOI Listing
February 2021

MRS SOFIA: a multicenter retrospective study for use of Sofia for revascularization of acute ischemic stroke.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Over the past several years there has been increased interest in the use of the Sofia aspiration system (MicroVention, Tustin, California) as a primary aspiration catheter.

Objective: To perform a multicenter retrospective study examining the efficacy of the Sofia aspiration catheter as a standalone aspiration treatment for large vessel occlusion.

Methods: Consecutive cases in which the Sofia catheter was used for aspiration thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion were included. Exclusion criteria were the following: (1) Sofia not used for first pass, and (2) a stent retriever used as an adjunct on the first pass. The primary outcome of the study was first pass recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2c/3). Secondary outcomes included first pass TICI 2b/3, crossover to other thrombectomy devices, number of passes, time from puncture to recanalization, and complications.

Results: 323 patients were included. First pass TICI 2c/3 was achieved in 49.8% of cases (161/323). First pass TICI 2b/3 was achieved in 69.7% (225/323) of cases. 74.8% had TICI 2b/3 with the Sofia alone. Crossover to other thrombectomy devices occurred in 29.1% of cases (94/323). The median number of passes was 1 (IQR=1-3). Median time from puncture to recanalization was 26 min (IQR=17-45). Procedure related complications occurred in 3.1% (10/323) of cases.

Conclusion: Our study highlights the potential advantage of the Sofia aspiration catheter for primary aspiration thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. High rates of first pass recanalization with low crossover rates to other thrombectomy devices were achieved. Median procedure time was low, as were procedural complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017042DOI Listing
February 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysms Using Flow-Diversion Embolization: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Mar;20(4):E284-E285

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Initially developed for large and giant wide-necked aneurysms of the internal carotid artery, flow diverter devices are now used in almost every location safely and with effectiveness.1-5 This video demonstrates a unique case of a giant aneurysm of the right petrous internal carotid artery in a 20-yr-old patient. This is an extremely rare location, and most of patients are asymptomatic.3-6 Signs of compression of the seventh and eight cranial nerves can be present and even Horner syndrome and lower cranial nerves neuropathies. Nevertheless, rupture can lead to epistaxis and otorrhagia, and ultimately to hemorrhagic shock. The patient in the current report was otherwise healthy but presented with lightheadedness and dizziness for 10 d. The patient consented to the procedure. There was no history of major trauma or head and neck infection. A transradial endovascular flow diversion embolization of a giant aneurysm of the petrous internal carotid artery is herein demonstrated in a stepwise manner. A triaxial system was used to deploy 3 overlapping devices. Concepts of J-wire technique, multiple coverage,1 and the so-called weld technique are emphasized. The role of adjunctive coiling and main reasons for failure are also discussed.7,8 Brief cases of flow diversion embolization of aneurysms of different morphologies at different locations are used to highlight the importance of assessing vessel wall apposition and follow-up imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa462DOI Listing
March 2021

Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Cranial Bypass for Nonmoyamoya Steno-Occlusive Disease in Patients Who Failed Optimal Medical Treatment: A Case Series.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Apr;20(5):444-455

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Background: In the post-Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) era, multiple reviews suggested subset groups of patients as potential candidates for superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Among them are patients with recurrent strokes despite optimal medical therapy. There is a paucity of data on the outcome of bypass in these specific patients.

Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of direct STA-MCA bypass in patients with nonmoyamoya, symptomatic steno-occlusive disease with impaired distal perfusion, who failed optimal medical management or endovascular treatment.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease who underwent bypass after symptomatic recurrent or rapidly progressive strokes, despite optimal conservative or endovascular treatment.

Results: A total of 8 patients (mean age 60 ± 6 yr) underwent direct or combined direct/indirect STA-MCA bypass between 2016 and 2019. All anastomoses were patent. One bypass carried slow flow. There were no procedure-related permanent deficits. One patient developed seizures which were controlled by medications. A total of 7 out of 8 patients were stable or improved clinically at last follow-up (mean 27.3 ± 13.8 mo) without recurrent strokes. One patient did not recover from their presenting stroke, experienced severe bilateral strokes 4 mo postoperatively, and subsequently expired. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) improved in 6 patients (75%), remained stable in 1 patient (12.5%), and deteriorated in 1 (12.5%). Good long-term functional outcome was achieved in 5 patients (63%, mRS ≤ 2).

Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic, hypoperfused steno-occlusive disease who fail optimal medical or endovascular treatment may benefit from cerebral revascularization. Direct or combined STA-MCA bypass was safe and provided favorable outcomes in this small series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa458DOI Listing
April 2021

Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care.

Int J Stroke 2021 Mar 29:1747493021991652. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

Aims: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

Methods: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers.

Results: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493021991652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010375PMC
March 2021

Intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy for acute anterior spinal artery stroke.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Feb 24;84:102-105. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Importance: Spinal cord infarction is rare but can be extremely disabling. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of these infarcts is important for patient outcomes. While intravenous thrombolytic therapy is a well-established form of treatment in circumstances of cerebral stroke, it has only recently been successfully used in a few incidents of spinal cord ischemia. We present a case of anterior spinal artery (ASA) territory ischemia treated with ASA intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy.

Clinical Presentation: A 52-year-old male presented with acute onset of severe lumbar pain, rapidly progressing paraplegia and loss of pain and temperature sensation, with preservation of proprioception and vibratory sensation at the L1 level and below on the right and at the L3 level and below on the left. MRI showed restricted diffusion involving the cord at and below L1 level, with normal cord T2 signal. Digital subtraction spinal angiography showed ASA cutoff in the descending limb at the level of L1. Intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) combined with verapamil and eptifibatide was administered within the ASA and the patient had significant neurological improvement immediately postoperatively and at 8-month clinical follow-up.

Conclusion: Direct ASA intra-arterial thrombolysis is feasible, and this drug combination might be an effective therapy for spinal stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.11.035DOI Listing
February 2021

The Effect of Hyperglycemia on Infarct Growth after Reperfusion: An Analysis of the DEFUSE 3 trial.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jan 6;30(1):105380. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Neurology, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Brain infarct growth, despite successful reperfusion, decreases the likelihood of good functional outcome after ischemic stroke. In patients undergoing reperfusion, admission glucose is associated with poor outcome but the effect of glucose level on infarct growth is not well studied.

Materials And Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the DEFUSE 3 trial. The primary predictor was baseline glucose level and the primary outcome is the change of the ischemic core volume from the baseline to 24-hour follow-up imaging (∆core), transformed as a cube root to reduce right skew. We included DEFUSE 3 patients who were randomized to endovascular therapy, had perfusion imaging data at baseline, an MRI at 24 hours, and who achieved TICI 2b or 3. Linear regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted, were fit to the primary outcome and all models included the baseline core volume as a covariate to normalize ∆core.

Results: We identified 62 patients who met our inclusion criteria. The mean age was 68.1±13.1 (years), 48.4% (30/62) were men, and the median (IQR) cube root of ∆core was 2.8 (2.0-3.8) mL. There was an association between baseline glucose level and normalized ∆core in unadjusted analysis (beta coefficient 0.010, p = 0.01) and after adjusting for potential confounders (beta coefficient 0.008, p = 0.03).

Conclusion: In acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion undergoing successful endovascular reperfusion, baseline hyperglycemia is associated with infarction growth. Further study is needed to establish potential neuroprotective benefits of aggressive glycemic control prior to and after reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736545PMC
January 2021

fMRI in Bell's Palsy: Cortical Activation is Associated with Clinical Status in the Acute and Recovery Phases.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Jan 4;31(1):90-97. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Human Neurosciences, Neuroradiology Unit, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored cortical activation in patients with acute Bell's palsy (BP) and analyzed its correlates with clinical status in the acute phase, and with 6-month outcome.

Methods: Twenty-four right-handed patients with acute BP within 15 days of onset and 24 healthy controls underwent fMRI during performance of unilateral active (hemi-smiling) and passive lip movement tasks with both the paretic and the normal lip. The degree of paresis was evaluated during the acute stage and at the 6-month follow up using the House-Brackmann (HB) grading scale. Complete recovery was defined as HB grade II or less at the end of the 6-month period. The difference in the HB grade (ΔHB) between the acute stage and the 6-month follow up was used to evaluate clinical improvement.

Results: There were 24 patients with unilateral acute BP. HB grades ranged from III to VI. At 6 months, 11 patients (46%) had completely recovered and 12 (50%) were partially improved. Compared with healthy subjects, BP patients had a significantly greater activation of the frontal areas and the insula ipsilateral to the paretic side. In BP patients, there was an inverse correlation between the activation of the ipsilateral hemisphere when moving the paretic side and the degree of paresis at baseline. An association was also observed between activation and clinical outcome (both complete recovery and ΔHB).

Conclusions: In patients with BP, fMRI may represent a useful tool to predict long-term outcome, guide therapeutic approach, and monitor treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12798DOI Listing
January 2021

Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with COVID-19.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 May 24;51(4):953-960. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Neurology, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can be a devastating complication of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to assess risk factors associated with ICH in this population. We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to NYU Langone Health system between March 1 and April 27 2020 with a positive nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test result and presence of primary nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage or hemorrhagic conversion of ischemic stroke on neuroimaging. Patients with intracranial procedures, malignancy, or vascular malformation were excluded. We used regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) of the association between ICH and covariates. We also used regression models to determine association between ICH and mortality. Among 3824 patients admitted with COVID-19, 755 patients had neuroimaging and 416 patients were identified after exclusion criteria were applied. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.3 (16.2), 35.8% were women, and 34.9% were on therapeutic anticoagulation. ICH occurred in 33 (7.9%) patients. Older age, non-Caucasian race, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and therapeutic anticoagulation were associated with ICH on univariate analysis (p < 0.01 for each variable). In adjusted regression models, anticoagulation use was associated with a five-fold increased risk of ICH (OR 5.26, 95% CI 2.33-12.24, p < 0.001). ICH was associated with increased mortality (adjusted OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.2-5.9). Anticoagulation use is associated with increased risk of ICH in patients with COVID-19. Further investigation is required to elucidate underlying mechanisms and prevention strategies in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-020-02288-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511245PMC
May 2021

Spinal neurovascular complications with anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery: a systematic review and review of thoracolumbar vascular anatomy.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 09;49(3):E9

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Spinal cord infarction due to interruption of the spinal vascular supply during anterior thoracolumbar surgery is a rare but devastating complication. Here, the authors sought to summarize the data on this complication in terms of its incidence, risk factors, and operative considerations. They also sought to summarize the relevant spinal vascular anatomy.

Methods: They performed a systematic literature review of the PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases to identify reports of spinal cord vascular injury related to anterior thoracolumbar spine procedures as well as operative adjuncts and considerations related to management of the segmental artery ligation during such anterior procedures. Titles and abstracts were screened, and studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed in full.

Results: Of 1200 articles identified on the initial screening, 16 met the inclusion criteria and consisted of 2 prospective cohort studies, 10 retrospective cohort studies, and 4 case reports. Four studies reported on the incidence of spinal cord ischemia with anterior thoracolumbar surgery, which ranged from 0% to 0.75%. Eight studies presented patient-level data for 13 cases of spinal cord ischemia after anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery. Proposed risk factors for vasculogenic spinal injury with anterior thoracolumbar surgery included hyperkyphosis, prior spinal deformity surgery, combined anterior-posterior procedures, left-sided approaches, operating on the concavity side of a scoliotic curve, and intra- or postoperative hypotension. In addition, eight studies analyzed operative considerations to reduce spinal cord ischemic complications in anterior thoracolumbar surgery, including intraoperative neuromonitoring and preoperative spinal angiography.

Conclusions: While spinal cord infarction related to anterior thoracolumbar surgery is rare, it warrants proper consideration in the pre-, intra-, and postoperative periods. The spine surgeon must be aware of the relevant risk factors as well as the pre- and intraoperative adjuncts that can minimize these risks. Most importantly, an understanding of the relevant spinal vascular anatomy is critical to minimizing the risks associated with anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.FOCUS20373DOI Listing
September 2020

Large Subcortical Intracerebral Hemorrhage Because of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome: A Case Study.

Stroke 2020 11 1;51(11):e305-e309. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Neurology (A.A., S.K.R.), New York University School of Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029363DOI Listing
November 2020

Endarterectomy for symptomatic internal carotid artery web.

J Neurosurg 2020 Aug 28:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

3Department of Neurosurgery.

Objective: The carotid web (CW) is an underrecognized source of cryptogenic, embolic stroke in patients younger than 55 years of age, with up to 37% of these patients found to have CW on angiography. Currently, there are little data detailing the best treatment practices to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in these patients. The authors describe their institutional surgical experience with patients treated via carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for a symptomatic internal carotid artery web.

Methods: A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed including all patients presenting to the authors' institution with CW. All patients who were screened underwent either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or CEA after presentation with ischemic stroke from January 2019 to February 2020. From this sample, patients with suggestive radiological features and pathologically confirmed CW who underwent CEA were identified. Patient demographics, medical histories, radiological images, surgical results, and clinical outcomes were collected and described using descriptive statistics.

Results: A total of 45 patients with symptomatic carotid lesions were treated at the authors' institution during the time period. Twenty patients underwent CAS, 1 of them for a CW. Twenty-five patients were treated via CEA, and of these, 6 presented with ischemic strokes ipsilateral to CWs, including 3 patients who presented with recurrent strokes. The mean patient age was 55 ± 12.6 years and 5 of 6 were women. CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography demonstrated the presence of CWs ipsilateral to the stroke in all patients. All patients underwent resection of CWs using CEA. There were no permanent procedural complications and no patients had stroke recurrence following intervention at the latest follow-up (mean 6.1 ± 4 months). One patient developed mild tongue deviation most likely related to retraction, with complete recovery at follow-up.

Conclusions: CEA is a safe and feasible treatment for symptomatic carotid webs and should be considered a viable alternative to CAS in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.5.JNS201107DOI Listing
August 2020

Anticoagulation use and Hemorrhagic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients Treated at a New York Healthcare System.

Neurocrit Care 2020 Aug 24. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background And Purpose: While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been well described, there are limited data on clinically significant bleeding complications including hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this particular subset of patients are especially salient as therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, within a major healthcare system in New York, during the coronavirus pandemic. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke on admission and who developed hemorrhage during hospitalization were both included. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital system between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (contemporary controls), and March 1, 2019, and May 15, 2019 (historical controls). Demographic variables and clinical characteristics between the individual groups were compared using Fischer's exact test for categorical variables and nonparametric test for continuous variables. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method.

Results: During the study period in 2020, out of 4071 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified 19 (0.5%) with hemorrhagic stroke. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only three had isolated non-aneurysmal SAH with no associated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke in patients with COVID-19, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%); empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% of these patients versus 4.2% in contemporary controls (p ≤ .001) and 10.0% in historical controls (p ≤ .001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, patients with COVID-19 had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT, and fibrinogen levels. Patients with COVID-19 also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (84.6% vs. 4.6%, p ≤ 0.001). Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results.

Conclusion: We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in patients with COVID-19 infection occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01077-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444897PMC
August 2020

Acute stroke care in a New York City comprehensive stroke center during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 20;29(9):105068. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Health, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused unprecedented demand and burden on emergency health care services in New York City. We aim to describe our experience providing acute stroke care at a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and the impact of the pandemic on the quality of care for patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from a quality improvement registry of consecutive AIS patients at New York University Langone Health's CSC between 06/01/2019-05/15/2020. During the early stages of the pandemic, the acute stroke process was modified to incorporate COVID-19 screening, testing, and other precautionary measures. We compared stroke quality metrics including treatment times and discharge outcomes of AIS patients during the pandemic (03/012020-05/152020) compared with a historical pre-pandemic group (6/1/2019-2/29/2020).

Results: A total of 754 patients (pandemic-120; pre-pandemic-634) were admitted with a principal diagnosis of AIS; 198 (26.3%) received alteplase and/or mechanical thrombectomy. Despite longer median door to head CT times (16 vs 12 minutes; p = 0.05) and a trend towards longer door to groin puncture times (79.5 vs. 71 min, p = 0.06), the time to alteplase administration (36 vs 35 min; p = 0.83), door to reperfusion times (103 vs 97 min, p = 0.18) and defect-free care (95.2% vs 94.7%; p = 0.84) were similar in the pandemic and pre-pandemic groups. Successful recanalization rates (TICI≥2b) were also similar (82.6% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.48). After adjusting for stroke severity, age and a prior history of transient ischemic attack/stroke, pandemic patients had increased discharge mortality (adjusted OR 2.90 95% CI 1.77 - 7.17, p = 0.021) CONCLUSION: Despite unprecedented demands on emergency healthcare services, early multidisciplinary efforts to adapt the acute stroke treatment process resulted in keeping the stroke quality time metrics close to pre-pandemic levels. Future studies will be needed with a larger cohort comparing discharge and long-term outcomes between pre-pandemic and pandemic AIS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305900PMC
September 2020

Use of Intraoperative Biplanar Fluoroscopy for Minimally Invasive Retrieval of a Broken Dental Needle.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Nov 14;78(11):1922-1925. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, NYU College of Dentistry, Bellevue Hospital, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

This report describes a case of needle breakage during a left-sided inferior alveolar nerve block to perform restorative dentistry on a 56-year-old male patient. The needle was removed in conjunction with interventional neuroradiology using biplanar fluoroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2020.07.004DOI Listing
November 2020

Acute Stroke Management During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Does Confinement Impact Eligibility for Endovascular Therapy?

Stroke 2020 08 1;51(8):2593-2596. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Departments of Neurology and Neuroradiology, Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal (J.P.M., J.N.R.).

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the World Health Organization recommended measures to mitigate the outbreak such as social distancing and confinement. Since these measures have been put in place, anecdotal reports describe a decrease in the number of endovascular therapy (EVT) treatments for acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. The purpose of our study was to determine the effect on EVT for patients with acute ischemic stroke during the COVID-19 confinement. In this retrospective, observational study, data were collected from November 1, 2019, to April 15, 2020, at 17 stroke centers in countries where confinement measures have been in place since March 2020 for the COVID-19 pandemic (Switzerland, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Canada, and United States). This study included 1600 patients treated by EVT for acute ischemic stroke. Date of EVT and symptom onset-to-groin puncture time were collected. Mean number of EVTs performed per hospital per 2-week interval and mean stroke onset-to-groin puncture time were calculated before confinement measures and after confinement measures. Distributions (non-normal) between the 2 groups (before COVID-19 confinement versus after COVID-19 confinement) were compared using 2-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The results show a significant decrease in mean number of EVTs performed per hospital per 2-week interval between before COVID-19 confinement (9.0 [95% CI, 7.8-10.1]) and after COVID-19 confinement (6.1 [95% CI, 4.5-7.7]), (<0.001). In addition, there is a significant increase in mean stroke onset-to-groin puncture time (<0.001), between before COVID-19 confinement (300.3 minutes [95% CI, 285.3-315.4]) and after COVID-19 confinement (354.5 minutes [95% CI, 316.2-392.7]). Our preliminary analysis indicates a 32% reduction in EVT procedures and an estimated 54-minute increase in symptom onset-to-groin puncture time after confinement measures for COVID-19 pandemic were put into place.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340133PMC
August 2020

Stroke Treatment Delay Limits Outcome After Mechanical Thrombectomy: Stratification by Arrival Time and ASPECTS.

J Neuroimaging 2020 09 27;30(5):625-630. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has helped many patients achieve functional independence. The effect of time-to-treatment based in specific epochs and as related to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) has not been established. The goal of the study was to evaluate the association between last known normal (LKN)-to-puncture time and good functional outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MT for large vessel occlusion. We used binary logistic regression models adjusted for age, Modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia score, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and noncontrast CT ASPECTS to assess the association between LKN-to-puncture time and favorable outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score 0-2 on discharge.

Results: Among 421 patients, 328 were included in analysis. Increased LKN-to-puncture time was associated with decreased probability of good functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ratio per 15-minute delay = .98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-.99; P = .001). This was especially true when LKN-puncture time was 0-6 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .94; 95% CI, .89-.99; P = .05) or ASPECTS 8-10 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P = .002) as opposed to when LKN-puncture time was 6-24 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .99; 95% CI, .97-1.00; P = .16) and ASPECTS <8 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .93-1.03; P = .37).

Conclusion: Decreased LKN-groin puncture time improves outcome particularly in those with good ASPECTS presenting within 6 hours. Strategies to decrease reperfusion times should be investigated, particularly in those in the early time window and with good ASPECTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12729DOI Listing
September 2020

Endovascular Reconstruction of Intracranial Aneurysms with the Pipeline Embolization Device in Pediatric Patients: A Single-Center Series.

Interv Neurol 2020 Jan 15;8(2-6):101-108. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Neurointerventional Radiology Section, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Pediatric intracranial aneurysms tend to differ in etiology, size, and location from their adult counterparts, and they are often less amenable to microsurgical clip reconstruction techniques. Endovascular treatment with detachable coils is an accepted treatment technique for pediatric patients, though high recurrence rates have been reported with coil embolization of large and giant aneurysms in this population. While the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is FDA-approved for adult intracranial aneurysms, the use of PEDs in pediatric patients is considered off-label.

Case Descriptions: We present 3 cases of pediatric intracranial aneurysms in a 5-year-old male, a 12-year-old male, and a 12-year-old female who presented with symptoms including seizure, headache, and blurred vision. The 2 male patients were found to have intradural vertebral artery saccular aneurysms, while the female patient had a paraophthalmic right internal carotid complex aneurysm. After endovascular reconstruction of the aneurysms with PEDs, follow-up angiography showed complete occlusion of the previous aneurysms with no residual aneurysm filling in all 3 cases.

Conclusion: While further investigation is needed, the evidence presented here supports the conclusion that the PED can be an effective and viable treatment strategy in the pediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253861PMC
January 2020

COVID-19 related neuroimaging findings: A signal of thromboembolic complications and a strong prognostic marker of poor patient outcome.

J Neurol Sci 2020 07 19;414:116923. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY, United States of America.

Objective: To investigate the incidence and spectrum of neuroimaging findings and their prognostic role in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in New York City.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 3218 COVID-19 confirmed patients admitted to a major healthcare system (three hospitals) in New York City between March 1, 2020 and April 13, 2020. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records, and particularly data of all neurological symptoms were extracted from the imaging reports. Four neuroradiologists evaluated all neuroimaging studies for acute neuroimaging findings related to COVID-19.

Results: 14.1% of admitted COVID-19 patients had neuroimaging and this accounted for only 5.5% of the total imaging studies. Acute stroke was the most common finding on neuro-imaging, seen in 92.5% of patients with positive neuro-imaging studies, and present in 1.1% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with acute large ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had much higher mortality risk adjusted for age, BMI and hypertension compared to those COVID-19 patients without neuroimaging. (Odds Ratio 6.02 by LR; Hazard Ratio 2.28 by CRR).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates acute stroke is the most common neuroimaging finding among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Detection of an acute stroke is a strong prognostic marker of poor outcome. Our study also highlights the fact there is limited use of neuroimaging in these patients due to multiple logistical constraints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236667PMC
July 2020