Publications by authors named "Ewgenia Barow"

9 Publications

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Symptoms and probabilistic anatomical mapping of lacunar infarcts.

Neurol Res Pract 2020 3;2:21. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The anatomical distribution of acute lacunar infarcts has mainly been studied for supratentorial lesions. In addition, little is known about the association with distinct stroke symptoms, not summarized as classical lacunar syndromes. We aimed to describe the spatial lesion distribution of acute supra- and infratentorial lacunar infarcts and their association with stroke symptoms in patients eligible for thrombolysis.

Methods: All patients enrolled in the WAKE-UP trial (efficacy and safety of magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]-based thrombolysis in wake-up stroke) were screened for lacunar infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The relationship between the anatomical distribution of supra- and infratentorial lacunar infarcts, their demographic characteristics and acute stroke symptoms, defined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, were correlated and compared.

Results: Maps of lesion distribution from 224 lacunar infarct patients (76 [33.9%] females, mean age [standard deviation] of 63.4 [11.5] years) were generated using computational image mapping methods. Median infarct volume was 0.73 ml (interquartile range [IQR] 0.37-1.15 ml). Median NIHSS sum score on hospital arrival was 4 (IQR 3-6). 165 (73.7%) patients had lacunar infarcts in the supratentorial deep white or grey matter, while 59 (26.3%) patients had infratentorial lacunar infarcts. Patients with supratentorial lacunar infarcts presented with a significantly lower occurrence of deficits in the NIHSS items gaze ( < 0.001) and dysarthria ( = 0.008), but had more often a paresis of the left arm ( = 0.009) and left leg ( = 0.068) compared to patients with infratentorial infarcts.

Conclusions: The anatomical lesion distribution of lacunar infarcts reveals a distinct pattern and supports an association of localization with different stroke symptoms.

Trial Registration: NCT01525290.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42466-020-00068-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650076PMC
August 2020

Dopamine boosts intention and action awareness in Parkinson's disease.

Exp Brain Res 2020 Sep 27;238(9):1989-1995. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Neurology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Dopaminergic deficiency in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been associated with underactivation of the supplementary motor area and a reduction of voluntary actions. In these patients, awareness of intention to act has been shown to be delayed. However, delayed awareness of intention to act has also been shown in patients with hyperdopaminergic states and an excess of unwilled movements, as in Tourette's, and in patients with functional movement disorders. Hence, the role of dopamine in the awareness of intention and action remains unclear. 36 PD patients were tested ON and OFF dopaminergic medication and compared with 35 healthy age-matched controls. In addition, 17 PD patients with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) were tested ON medication and ON and OFF stimulation. Participants judged either the moment a self-generated action was performed, or the moment the urge to perform the action was felt, using the "Libet method". Temporal judgments of intention and action awareness were comparable between unmedicated PD patients and controls. Dopaminergic medication boosted anticipatory awareness of both intentions and actions in PD patients, relative to an unmedicated condition. The difference between ON/OFF DBS was not statistically reliable. Functional improvement of motor ability in PD through dopaminergic supplementation leads to earlier awareness of both intention, and of voluntary action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05847-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438368PMC
September 2020

Learning volition: A longitudinal study of developing intentional awareness in Tourette syndrome.

Cortex 2020 08 23;129:33-40. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by the presence of involuntary movements (tics) which are, at least partly, generated within 'voluntary' motor pathways. Here we reassess 16 TS patients (age 19 ± 2.3 years) who participated in a mental chronometry study of volition 5.5 years previously (Ganos C et al. Cortex. 2015 Mar.; 64:47-54), and 16 age-matched controls. Participants estimated the time of their own voluntary movements (Libet's M judgement), or of conscious intention to make voluntary movements (Libet's W judgement), in separate blocks. We considered M judgement as a control condition. Therefore, the experience of an intention to move occurring prior to actual movement onset, as measured by the W-M gap, was taken as the cardinal feature of volition. Time estimates of the TS group did not differ significantly from controls, for either M or W judgement. Further, M and W time estimates in the TS group had not changed significantly between the two assessments. However, exploratory analyses revealed a strong relation between disease duration and the development of M- and W-judgements: the longer was the disease duration, the less was the developmental increase in the W-M gap (linear regression, p = .003). In conclusion, our results suggest compromised development of experience of volition in developing TS patients. The developmental difficulty in processing internal premotor signals for voluntary actions could reflect the chronic persistence of tics from adolescence to adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.03.027DOI Listing
August 2020

[Acute treatment of ischemic stroke : Current standards].

Nervenarzt 2019 Oct;90(10):979-986

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Deutschland.

Important milestones of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treatment were achieved in recent years. The results of two randomized controlled trials revealed that intravenous thrombolysis is efficacious for treatment of AIS patients with a symptom onset <9 h or an unknown time of symptom onset in the presence of beneficial patterns in advanced stroke imaging. These patterns comprise the evidence of salvageable tissue at risk of infarction in perfusion of computed tomography (so-called penumbral imaging) or a mismatch between the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) und fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences in magnetic resonance imaging (so-called DWI-FLAIR mismatch). Another two randomized controlled trials resulted in evidence of a high effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy using advanced imaging of selected AIS patients with a symptom onset <24 h or an unknown time window. This article provides an overview of the current study results and recommendations for the selection of imaging for evidence-based effective acute treatment of stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00115-019-0776-5DOI Listing
October 2019

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Lacunar Infarcts and Concurrent Embolic Ischemic Lesions.

Clin Neuroradiol 2020 Sep 3;30(3):511-516. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Lacunar infarcts are thought to result from occlusion of small penetrating arteries due to microatheroma and lipohyalinosis, pathognomonic for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Concurrent embolic ischemic lesions indicate a different stroke mechanism. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with lacunar infarcts and concurrent embolic infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).

Methods: All patients screened for the WAKE-UP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290) were reviewed for acute lacunar infarcts and concurrent embolic lesions on baseline DWI. Clinical characteristics and outcome were compared between lacunar infarct patients with and without concurrent embolic lesions.

Results: Of 244 patients with an acute lacunar infarct, 20 (8.2%) had concurrent acute embolic infarcts. Compared to patients with a lacunar infarct only, patients with concurrent embolic infarcts were older (mean age 69 years vs. 63 years; p = 0.031), more severely affected (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 5 vs. 4; p = 0.046), and-among those randomized-had worse functional outcome at 90 days (median modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 3 vs. 1; p = 0.011).

Conclusion: Approximately 8% of lacunar infarct patients show concurrent embolic lesions suggesting a stroke etiology other than CSVD. These patients are more severely affected and have a worse functional outcome illustrating the need for a thorough diagnostic work-up of possible embolic sources even in patients with an imaging-defined diagnosis of lacunar infarcts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-019-00800-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Functional Outcome of Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients With Lacunar Infarcts in the WAKE-UP Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2019 06;76(6):641-649

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Importance: The rationale for intravenous thrombolysis in patients with lacunar infarcts is debated, since it is hypothesized that the microvascular occlusion underlying lacunar infarcts might not be susceptible to pharmacological reperfusion treatment.

Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis among patients with lacunar infarcts.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This exploratory secondary post hoc analysis of the WAKE-UP trial included patients who were screened and enrolled between September 2012 and June 2017 (with final follow-up in September 2017). The WAKE-UP trial was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial to study the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase in patients with an acute stroke of unknown onset time, guided by magnetic resonance imaging. All 503 patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial were reviewed for lacunar infarcts. Diagnosis of lacunar infarcts was based on magnetic resonance imaging and made by consensus of 2 independent investigators blinded to clinical information.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary efficacy variable was favorable outcome defined by a score of 0 to 1 on the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days after stroke, adjusted for age and severity of symptoms.

Results: Of the 503 patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial, 108 patients (including 74 men [68.5%]) had imaging-defined lacunar infarcts, whereas 395 patients (including 251 men [63.5%]) had nonlacunar infarcts. Patients with lacunar infarcts were younger than patients with nonlacunar infarcts (mean age [SD], 63 [12] years vs 66 [12] years; P = .003). Of patients with lacunar infarcts, 55 (50.9%) were assigned to treatment with alteplase and 53 (49.1%) to receive placebo. Treatment with alteplase was associated with higher odds of favorable outcome, with no heterogeneity of treatment outcome between lacunar and nonlacunar stroke subtypes. In patients with lacunar strokes, a favorable outcome was observed in 31 of 53 patients (59%) in the alteplase group compared with 24 of 52 patients (46%) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67 [95% CI, 0.77-3.64]). There was 1 death and 1 symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage according to Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study criteria in the alteplase group, while no death and no symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in the placebo group. The distribution of the modified Rankin Scale scores 90 days after stroke also showed a nonsignificant shift toward better outcomes in patients with lacunar infarcts treated with alteplase, with an adjusted common odds ratio of 1.94 (95% CI, 0.95-3.93).

Conclusions And Relevance: While the WAKE-UP trial was not powered to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment in subgroups of patients, the results indicate that the association of intravenous alteplase with functional outcome does not differ in patients with imaging-defined lacunar infarcts compared with those experiencing other stroke subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.0351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563546PMC
June 2019

Hematologic Follow-up as Clue to Polycythemia Vera due to JAK2 Mutation Presenting as Late Onset Chorea.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2018 Jan-Feb;5(1):83-85. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Department of Neurology University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf Hamburg Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336159PMC
October 2017

Oculogyric crises: Etiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2017 03 23;36:3-9. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Department of Neurology, Hamburg, Germany; Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Queen Square, UCL, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Oculogyric crisis (OGC) describes the clinical phenomenon of sustained dystonic, conjugate and typically upward deviation of the eyes lasting from seconds to hours. It was initially observed in patients with postencephalitic parkinsonism, but since then a number of conditions have been associated with OGC. These include drug-induced reactions, hereditary and sporadic movement disorders, and focal brain lesions. Here, we systematically review the literature and discuss the spectrum of disorders associated with OGC in order to aid clinicians place this rare but distinctive clinical sign into the appropriate diagnostic context. We also provide a brief synthesis of putative pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as therapeutic recommendations based on the literature and our own experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2016.11.012DOI Listing
March 2017

Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements.

Brain 2014 Nov 10;137(Pt 11):3012-3024. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

Department of Neurology, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the motor network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awu258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4813762PMC
November 2014