Publications by authors named "Ewald Langer"

13 Publications

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Species Diversity With Comprehensive Annotations of Wood-Inhabiting Poroid and Corticioid Fungi in Uzbekistan.

Front Microbiol 2020 9;11:598321. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Uzbekistan, located in Central Asia, harbors high diversity of woody plants. Diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in the country, however, remained poorly known. This study summarizes the wood-inhabiting basidiomycte fungi (poroid and corticoid fungi plus similar taxa such as , and ) (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) that have been found in Uzbekistan from 1950 to 2020. This work is based on 790 fungal occurrence records: 185 from recently collected specimens, 101 from herbarium specimens made by earlier collectors, and 504 from literature-based records. All data were deposited as a species occurrence record dataset in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and also summarized in the form of an annotated checklist in this paper. All 286 available specimens were morphologically examined. For 138 specimens, the 114 ITS and 85 LSU nrDNA sequences were newly sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. In total, we confirm the presence of 153 species of wood-inhabiting poroid and corticioid fungi in Uzbekistan, of which 31 species are reported for the first time in Uzbekistan, including 19 that are also new to Central Asia. These 153 fungal species inhabit 100 host species from 42 genera of 23 families. Polyporales and Hymenochaetales are the most recorded fungal orders and are most widely distributed around the study area. This study provides the first comprehensively updated and annotated the checklist of wood-inhabiting poroid and corticioid fungi in Uzbekistan. Such study should be expanded to other countries to further clarify species diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi around Central Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.598321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756097PMC
December 2020

Diversity of (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) in tropical Benin and description of new species .

MycoKeys 2020 10;65:25-47. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Ecology, Universität Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, Kassel, Germany.

is a globally distributed genus of white-rot polypores and well sampled in temperate and boreal areas. However, the diversity, taxonomy, and phylogenetic positions of spp. are poorly known in tropical Africa. This study aims at documenting the diversity of species in Benin (tropical Africa) and their phylogenetic positions with a focus on the species complex. Therefore, we collected specimens of from different forest types across Benin. To infer phylogenetic relationships between species, we investigated sequences of five gene regions and added available sequences from GenBank. Using Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogeny inference methods, we found eight supported species clades. For the species complex, we re-establish the name for species previously known as in tropical Africa. Furthermore, we propose as a species new to science and provide the description of this species. Our molecular phylogeny of with a focus on tropical Benin contributes to taxonomic clarity of an important wood-decay fungal genus, which is the basis for biodiversity assessments of in the tropics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.65.47574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078339PMC
March 2020

Phylogenetic and morphological studies in (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) with the addition of four new species.

MycoKeys 2019 28;47:97-137. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Ecology, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, DE-34132, Kassel, Germany University of Kassel Kassel Germany.

(Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) is the largest segregate genus of s.l. Based on molecular and morphological data, 77 species are accepted in to date. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and 28S sequences, including 38 new ITS and 20 28S sequences of species, revealed four species new to science. The new taxa , , and from Taiwan, Nepal, Réunion, Belize, and USA are described and illustrated. In addition, species concepts for from New Zealand and from U.S.A. are revised and the new name is proposed. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS region placed , and in a strongly supported clade and demonstrated that they are conspecific. and are synonymised under based on morphological and sequence data. The following new combinations are proposed: , , , , and . Line drawings of , , and , as well as photographs of basidiomata, are provided. A key to and similar species is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.47.31130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405736PMC
February 2019

Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa.

Authors:
Juan Carlos Zamora Måns Svensson Roland Kirschner Ibai Olariaga Svengunnar Ryman Luis Alberto Parra József Geml Anna Rosling Slavomír Adamčík Teuvo Ahti M Catherine Aime A Martyn Ainsworth László Albert Edgardo Albertó Alberto Altés García Dmitry Ageev Reinhard Agerer Begoña Aguirre-Hudson Joe Ammirati Harry Andersson Claudio Angelini Vladimír Antonín Takayuki Aoki André Aptroot Didier Argaud Blanca Imelda Arguello Sosa Arne Aronsen Ulf Arup Bita Asgari Boris Assyov Violeta Atienza Ditte Bandini João Luís Baptista-Ferreira Hans-Otto Baral Tim Baroni Robert Weingart Barreto Henry Beker Ann Bell Jean-Michel Bellanger Francesco Bellù Martin Bemmann Mika Bendiksby Egil Bendiksen Katriina Bendiksen Lajos Benedek Anna Bérešová-Guttová Franz Berger Reinhard Berndt Annarosa Bernicchia Alona Yu Biketova Enrico Bizio Curtis Bjork Teun Boekhout David Boertmann Tanja Böhning Florent Boittin Carlos G Boluda Menno W Boomsluiter Jan Borovička Tor Erik Brandrud Uwe Braun Irwin Brodo Tatiana Bulyonkova Harold H Burdsall Bart Buyck Ana Rosa Burgaz Vicent Calatayud Philippe Callac Emanuele Campo Massimo Candusso Brigitte Capoen Joaquim Carbó Matteo Carbone Rafael F Castañeda-Ruiz Michael A Castellano Jie Chen Philippe Clerc Giovanni Consiglio Gilles Corriol Régis Courtecuisse Ana Crespo Cathy Cripps Pedro W Crous Gladstone Alves da Silva Meiriele da Silva Marjo Dam Nico Dam Frank Dämmrich Kanad Das Linda Davies Eske De Crop Andre De Kesel Ruben De Lange Bárbara De Madrignac Bonzi Thomas Edison E Dela Cruz Lynn Delgat Vincent Demoulin Dennis E Desjardin Paul Diederich Bálint Dima Maria Martha Dios Pradeep Kumar Divakar Clovis Douanla-Meli Brian Douglas Elisandro Ricardo Drechsler-Santos Paul S Dyer Ursula Eberhardt Damien Ertz Fernando Esteve-Raventós Javier Angel Etayo Salazar Vera Evenson Guillaume Eyssartier Edit Farkas Alain Favre Anna G Fedosova Mario Filippa Péter Finy Adam Flakus Simón Fos Jacques Fournier André Fraiture Paolo Franchi Ana Esperanza Franco Molano Gernot Friebes Andreas Frisch Alan Fryday Giuliana Furci Ricardo Galán Márquez Matteo Garbelotto Joaquina María García-Martín Mónica A García Otálora Dania García Sánchez Alain Gardiennet Sigisfredo Garnica Isaac Garrido Benavent Genevieve Gates Alice da Cruz Lima Gerlach Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad Tatiana B Gibertoni Tine Grebenc Irmgard Greilhuber Bella Grishkan Johannes Z Groenewald Martin Grube Gérald Gruhn Cécile Gueidan Gro Gulden Luis Fp Gusmão Josef Hafellner Michel Hairaud Marek Halama Nils Hallenberg Roy E Halling Karen Hansen Christoffer Bugge Harder Jacob Heilmann-Clausen Stip Helleman Alain Henriot Margarita Hernandez-Restrepo Raphaël Herve Caroline Hobart Mascha Hoffmeister Klaus Høiland Jan Holec Håkon Holien Karen Hughes Vit Hubka Seppo Huhtinen Boris Ivančević Marian Jagers Walter Jaklitsch AnnaElise Jansen Ruvishika S Jayawardena Thomas Stjernegaard Jeppesen Mikael Jeppson Peter Johnston Per Magnus Jørgensen Ingvar Kärnefelt Liudmila B Kalinina Gintaras Kantvilas Mitko Karadelev Taiga Kasuya Ivona Kautmanová Richard W Kerrigan Martin Kirchmair Anna Kiyashko Dániel G Knapp Henning Knudsen Kerry Knudsen Tommy Knutsson Miroslav Kolařík Urmas Kõljalg Alica Košuthová Attila Koszka Heikki Kotiranta Vera Kotkova Ondřej Koukol Jiří Kout Gábor M Kovács Martin Kříž Åsa Kruys Viktor Kučera Linas Kudzma Francisco Kuhar Martin Kukwa T K Arun Kumar Vladimír Kunca Ivana Kušan Thomas W Kuyper Carlos Lado Thomas Læssøe Patrice Lainé Ewald Langer Ellen Larsson Karl-Henrik Larsson Gary Laursen Christian Lechat Serena Lee James C Lendemer Laura Levin Uwe Lindemann Håkan Lindström Xingzhong Liu Regulo Carlos Llarena Hernandez Esteve Llop Csaba Locsmándi Deborah Jean Lodge Michael Loizides László Lőkös Jennifer Luangsa-Ard Matthias Lüderitz Thorsten Lumbsch Matthias Lutz Dan Mahoney Ekaterina Malysheva Vera Malysheva Patinjareveettil Manimohan Yasmina Marin-Felix Guilhermina Marques Rubén Martínez-Gil Guy Marson Gerardo Mata P Brandon Matheny Geir Harald Mathiassen Neven Matočec Helmut Mayrhofer Mehdi Mehrabi Ireneia Melo Armin Mešić Andrew S Methven Otto Miettinen Ana M Millanes Romero Andrew N Miller James K Mitchell Roland Moberg Pierre-Arthur Moreau Gabriel Moreno Olga Morozova Asunción Morte Lucia Muggia Guillermo Muñoz González Leena Myllys István Nagy László G Nagy Maria Alice Neves Tuomo Niemelä Pier Luigi Nimis Nicolas Niveiro Machiel E Noordeloos Anders Nordin Sara Raouia Noumeur Yuri Novozhilov Jorinde Nuytinck Esteri Ohenoja Patricia Oliveira Fiuza Alan Orange Alexander Ordynets Beatriz Ortiz-Santana Leticia Pacheco Ferenc Pál-Fám Melissa Palacio Zdeněk Palice Viktor Papp Kadri Pärtel Julia Pawlowska Aurelia Paz Ursula Peintner Shaun Pennycook Olinto Liparini Pereira Pablo Pérez Daniëls Miquel À Pérez-De-Gregorio Capella Carlos Manuel Pérez Del Amo Sergio Pérez Gorjón Sergio Pérez-Ortega Israel Pérez-Vargas Brian A Perry Jens H Petersen Ronald H Petersen Donald H Pfister Chayanard Phukhamsakda Marcin Piątek Meike Piepenbring Raquel Pino-Bodas Juan Pablo Pinzón Esquivel Paul Pirot Eugene S Popov Orlando Popoff María Prieto Álvaro Christian Printzen Nadezhda Psurtseva Witoon Purahong Luis Quijada Gerhard Rambold Natalia A Ramírez Huzefa Raja Olivier Raspé Tania Raymundo Martina Réblová Yury A Rebriev Juan de Dios Reyes García Miguel Ángel Ribes Ripoll Franck Richard Mike J Richardson Víctor J Rico Gerardo Lucio Robledo Flavia Rodrigues Barbosa Cristina Rodriguez-Caycedo Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus Anna Ronikier Luis Rubio Casas Katerina Rusevska Günter Saar Irja Saar Isabel Salcedo Sergio M Salcedo Martínez Carlos A Salvador Montoya Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez J Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra Sergi Santamaria Josiane Santana Monteiro Hans Josef Schroers Barbara Schulz Geert Schmidt-Stohn Trond Schumacher Beatrice Senn-Irlet Hana Ševčíková Oleg Shchepin Takashi Shirouzu Anton Shiryaev Klaus Siepe Esteban B Sir Mohammad Sohrabi Karl Soop Viacheslav Spirin Toby Spribille Marc Stadler Joost Stalpers Soili Stenroos Ave Suija Stellan Sunhede Sten Svantesson Sigvard Svensson Tatyana Yu Svetasheva Krzysztof Świerkosz Heidi Tamm Hatira Taskin Adrien Taudière Jan-Olof Tedebrand Raúl Tena Lahoz Marina Temina Arne Thell Marco Thines Göran Thor Holger Thüs Leif Tibell Sanja Tibell Einar Timdal Zdenko Tkalčec Tor Tønsberg Gérard Trichies Dagmar Triebel Andrei Tsurykau Rodham E Tulloss Veera Tuovinen Miguel Ulloa Sosa Carlos Urcelay François Valade Ricardo Valenzuela Garza Pieter van den Boom Nicolas Van Vooren Aida M Vasco-Palacios Jukka Vauras Juan Manuel Velasco Santos Else Vellinga Annemieke Verbeken Per Vetlesen Alfredo Vizzini Hermann Voglmayr Sergey Volobuev Wolfgang von Brackel Elena Voronina Grit Walther Roy Watling Evi Weber Mats Wedin Øyvind Weholt Martin Westberg Eugene Yurchenko Petr Zehnálek Huang Zhang Mikhail P Zhurbenko Stefan Ekman

IMA Fungus 2018 Jun 24;9(1):167-175. Epub 2018 May 24.

Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 16, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.

Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11 International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048565PMC
June 2018

Short-spored (Trechisporales, Basidiomycota): high morphological diversity and only partly clear species boundaries.

MycoKeys 2018 27(35):41-99. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Ecology, FB 10 Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Strasse 40, 34132 Kassel, Germany.

Diversity of corticioid fungi (resupinate Basidiomycota), especially outside the northern temperate climatic zone, remains poorly explored. Furthermore, most of the known species are delimited by morphological concepts only and, not rarely, these concepts are too broad and need to be tested by molecular tools. For many decades, the delimitation of species in the genus (Hydnodontaceae, Trechisporales) was a challenge for mycologists. The presence of numerous transitional forms as to basidiospore size and shape hindered species delimitation and almost no data on molecular diversity have been available. In this study, an extensive set of 144 specimens from Paleo- and Neotropics was examined. Forty-nine sequences of ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA region and 51 sequences of 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA region from fruit bodies of were obtained and analysed within the barcoding gap framework and with phylogenetic Bayesian and Maximum likelihood approaches. Eleven new species of are described based on morphology and molecular analyses: , , , , , , , , , and . Morphological and DNA-evidenced borders were revised for the five previously known species: , , and . Species-level variation in basidiospore size and shape was estimated based on systematic measurements of 2840 spores from 67 sequenced specimens. An updated identification key to all known species of is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.35.25678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031700PMC
June 2018

A reference genome of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

Gigascience 2018 06;7(6)

Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Background: The European beech is arguably the most important climax broad-leaved tree species in Central Europe, widely planted for its valuable wood. Here, we report the 542 Mb draft genome sequence of an up to 300-year-old individual (Bhaga) from an undisturbed stand in the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park in central Germany.

Findings: Using a hybrid assembly approach, Illumina reads with short- and long-insert libraries, coupled with long Pacific Biosciences reads, we obtained an assembled genome size of 542 Mb, in line with flow cytometric genome size estimation. The largest scaffold was of 1.15 Mb, the N50 length was 145 kb, and the L50 count was 983. The assembly contained 0.12% of Ns. A Benchmarking with Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) analysis retrieved 94% complete BUSCO genes, well in the range of other high-quality draft genomes of trees. A total of 62,012 protein-coding genes were predicted, assisted by transcriptome sequencing. In addition, we are reporting an efficient method for extracting high-molecular-weight DNA from dormant buds, by which contamination by environmental bacteria and fungi was kept at a minimum.

Conclusions: The assembled genome will be a valuable resource and reference for future population genomics studies on the evolution and past climate change adaptation of beech and will be helpful for identifying genes, e.g., involved in drought tolerance, in order to select and breed individuals to adapt forestry to climate change in Europe. A continuously updated genome browser and download page can be accessed from beechgenome.net, which will include future genome versions of the reference individual Bhaga, as new sequencing approaches develop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giy063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014182PMC
June 2018

Aphyllophoroid fungi in insular woodlands of eastern Ukraine.

Biodivers Data J 2017 22(5):e22426. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Ecology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany.

Background: Fungi play crucial roles in ecosystems and are among the species-richest organism groups on Earth. However, knowledge on their occurrence lags behind the data for animals and plants. Recent analyses of fungal occurrence data from Western, Central and Northern Europe provided important insights into response of fungi to global warming. The consequences of the global changes for biodiversity on a larger geographical scale are not yet understood. Landscapes of Eastern Europe and particularly of eastern Ukraine, with their specific geological history, vegetation and climate, can add substantially new information about fungal diversity in Europe.

New Information: We describe the dataset and provide a checklist of aphyllophoroid fungi (non-gilled macroscopic ) from eastern Ukraine sampled in 16 areas between 2007 and 2011. The dataset was managed on the PlutoF biodiversity workbench (http://dx.doi.org/10.15156/BIO/587471) and can also be accessed via Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, parts of datasets https://doi.org/10.15468/kuspj6 and https://doi.org/10.15468/h7qtfd). This dataset includes 3418 occurences, namely 2727 specimens and 691 observations of fructifications belonging to 349 species of fungi. With these data, the digitised CWU herbarium (V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine) doubled in size A most detailed description of the substrate's properties and habitat for each record is provided. The specimen records are supplemented by 26 nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences and six 28S sequences. Additionally, 287 photographs depicting diagnostic macro- and microscopic features of fungal fruitbodies as well as studied habitats are linked to the dataset. Most of the specimens have at least one mention in literature and relevant references are displayed as associated with specimen data. In total, 16 publication references are linked to the dataset. The dataset sheds new light on the fungal diversity of Eastern Europe. It is expected to complement other public sources of fungal occurrence information on continental and global levels in addressing macroecological and biogeographical questions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.5.e22426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5769729PMC
December 2017

Hypochnella verrucospora (Basidiomycota, Atheliales), a neotropical new species with ornamented basidiospores.

Mycologia 2010 Sep-Oct;102(5):1158-62

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Educação, Campus Camobi, CEP 97000000, RS, Brazil.

Hypochnella verrucospora sp. nov. is described and illustrated from material collected in Brazil and Argentina. The new species is characterized by dark purplish, violaceous to dark lilaceous, resupinate and membranous basidiomes and ellipsoid to subcylindrical, pale brown, slightly thick-walled, amyloid and delicately ornamented basidiospores. The monotypic genus Hypochnella was represented so far by H. violacea, which is distinctly characterized by smooth basidiospores, and is restricted to temperate regions in the northern hemisphere, whereas H. verrucospora seems to be Neotropical. Morphological comparison of the two species and a discussion of the genus description of Hypochnella are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/09-251DOI Listing
November 2010

Phylogenetic relationship of Marasmius mbalmayoensis sp. nov. to the tropical African Marasmius bekolacongoli complex based on nuc-LSU rDNA sequences.

Mycologia 2008 May-Jun;100(3):445-54

Universität Kassel, FB 18 Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Biologie, FG Okologie, Heinrich-Plett-Strasse 40, D-34132 Kassel, Germany.

Marasmius mbalmayoensis (Basidiomycotina, Marasmiaceae) growing on decayed leaves of Canarium schweinfurthii in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, Cameroon, is described. The species is remarkable due to the large basidiomata with shallow orange yellow umbilicus, long central stipe accompanied by similar long rhizomorphs on thickened basal mycelium and large lacrymiform to sigmoid basidiospores. The coarsely plicate pilei with lilac, violet to dark violaceous tints, and large distant adnate lamellae are reminiscent macroscopically of the tropical African species M. bekolacongoli. The phylogenetic relationship among M. mbalmayoensis and M. bekolacongoli was assessed, extended to other species of sects. Globulares and Sicci based on DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on nuc-LSU rDNA sequence data of selected Marasmiaceae taxa confirmed the placement of M. mbalmayoensis within the Marasmius spp. and its phylogenetic separation from M. bekolacongoli. Amyloflagellula inflata, which a BLAST analysis closely related to M. mbalmayoensis, clustered in the same clade with M. mbalmayoensis and M. bekolacongoli. The findings also indicated the complexity of M. bekolacongoli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/07-009r2DOI Listing
September 2008

The cantharelloid clade: dealing with incongruent gene trees and phylogenetic reconstruction methods.

Mycologia 2006 Nov-Dec;98(6):937-48

Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, University of Toronto, Canada.

We reassessed the circumscription of the cantharelloid clade and identified monophyletic groups by using nLSU, nSSU, mtSSU and RPB2 sequence data. Results agreed with earlier studies that placed the genera Cantharellus, Craterellus, Hydnum, Clavulina, Membranomyces, Multiclavula, Sistotrema, Botryobasidium and the family Ceratobasidiaceae in that clade. Phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of all genera except Sistotrema, which was highly polyphyletic. Strongly supported monophyletic groups were: (i) Cantharellus-Craterellus, Hydnum, and the Sistotrema confluens group; (ii) Clavulina-Membranomyces and the S. brinkmannii-oblongisporum group, with Multiclavula being possibly sister of that clade; (iii) the Sistotrema eximum-octosporum group; (iv) Sistotrema adnatum and S. coronilla. Positions of Sistotrema raduloides and S. athelioides were unresolved, as were basal relationships. Botryobasidium was well supported as the sister taxon of all the above taxa, while Ceratobasidiaceae was the most basal lineage. The relationship between Tulasnella and members of the cantharelloid clade will require further scrutiny, although there is cumulative evidence that they are probably sister groups. The rates of molecular evolution of both the large and small nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (nuc-rDNA) are much higher in Cantharellus, Craterellus and Tulasnella than in the other cantharelloid taxa, and analyses of nuc-rDNA sequences strongly placed Tulasnella close to Cantharellus-Craterellus. In contrast analyses with RPB2 and mtSSU sequences placed Tulasnella at the base of the cantharelloid clade. Our attempt to reconstruct a "supertree" from tree topologies resulting from separate analyses that avoided phylogenetic reconstruction problems associated with missing data and/or unalignable sequences proved unsuccessful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.98.6.937DOI Listing
October 2007

Hymenochaetales: a molecular phylogeny for the hymenochaetoid clade.

Mycologia 2006 Nov-Dec;98(6):926-36

Department of Plant and Molecular Sciences, Göteborg University, Sweden.

The hymenochaetoid clade is dominated by wood-decaying species previously classified in the artificial families Corticiaceae, Polyporaceae and Stereaceae. The majority of these species cause a white rot. The polypore Bridgeoporus and several corticicoid species with inconspicuous basidiomata live in association with brown-rotted wood, but their nutritional strategy is not known. Mycorrhizal habit is reported for Coltricia perennis but needs confirmttion. A surprising element in the hymenochaetoid clade is a group of small white to brightly pigmented agarics earlier classified in Omphalina. They form a subclade together with some similarly colored stipitate stereoid and corticioid species. Several are associated with living mosses or one-celled green algae. Hyphoderma pratermissum and some related corticioid species have specialized organs for trapping and killing nematodes as a source of nitrogen. There are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies known for the hymenochaetoid clade. However almost all species examined ultrastructurally have dolipore septa with continuous parenthesomes while perforate parenthesomes is the normal condition for other homobasidiomycete clades. The agaricoid Hymenochaetales have not been examined. Within Hymenochaetales the Hymenochaetaceae forms a distinct clade but unfortunately all morphological characters supporting Hymenochaetaceae also are found in species outside the clade. Other subclades recovered by the molecular phylogenetic analyses are less uniform, and the overall resolution within the nuclear LSU tree presented here is still unsatisfactory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.98.6.926DOI Listing
October 2007

Contributions of rpb2 and tef1 to the phylogeny of mushrooms and allies (Basidiomycota, Fungi).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2007 May 23;43(2):430-51. Epub 2006 Sep 23.

Biology Department, Clark University, 950 Main St., Worcester, MA 01610, USA.

A phylogeny of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota is presented based on a survey of 160 taxa and five nuclear genes. Two genes, rpb2, and tef1, are presented in detail. The rpb2 gene is more variable than tef1 and recovers well-supported clades at shallow and deep taxonomic levels. The tef1 gene recovers some deep and ordinal-level relationships but with greater branch support from nucleotides compared to amino acids. Intron placement is dynamic in tef1, often lineage-specific, and diagnostic for many clades. Introns are fewer in rpb2 and tend to be highly conserved by position. When both protein-coding loci are combined with sequences of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes, 18 inclusive clades of Basidiomycota are strongly supported by Bayesian posterior probabilities and 16 by parsimony bootstrapping. These numbers are greater than produced by single genes and combined ribosomal RNA gene regions. Combination of nrDNA with amino acid sequences, or exons with third codon positions removed, produces strong measures of support, particularly for deep internodes of Basidiomycota, which have been difficult to resolve with confidence using nrDNA data alone. This study produces strong boostrap support and significant posterior probabilities for the first time for the following monophyletic groups: (1) Ustilaginomycetes plus Hymenomycetes, (2) an inclusive cluster of hymenochaetoid, corticioid, polyporoid, Thelephorales, russuloid, athelioid, Boletales, and euagarics clades, (3) Thelephorales plus the polyporoid clade, (4) the polyporoid clade, and (5) the cantharelloid clade. Strong support is also recovered for the basal position of the Dacrymycetales in the Hymenomycetidae and paraphyly of the Exobasidiomycetidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.08.024DOI Listing
May 2007

Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny.

Nature 2006 Oct;443(7113):818-22

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0338, USA.

The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore flagellum, leading to the diversification of terrestrial fungi. Here we develop phylogenetic hypotheses for Fungi using data from six gene regions and nearly 200 species. Our results indicate that there may have been at least four independent losses of the flagellum in the kingdom Fungi. These losses of swimming spores coincided with the evolution of new mechanisms of spore dispersal, such as aerial dispersal in mycelial groups and polar tube eversion in the microsporidia (unicellular forms that lack mitochondria). The enigmatic microsporidia seem to be derived from an endoparasitic chytrid ancestor similar to Rozella allomycis, on the earliest diverging branch of the fungal phylogenetic tree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05110DOI Listing
October 2006