Publications by authors named "Ewa Maria Kratz"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Role of ApoE Expression and Variability of Its Glycosylation in Human Reproductive Health in the Light of Current Information.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 4;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Division of Laboratory Diagnostics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Street 211A, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a 34-kDa glycoprotein, as part of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL), has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The variability of ApoE expression in the course of some female fertility disorders (endometriosis, POCS), and other gynecological pathologies such as breast cancer, choriocarcinoma, endometrial adenocarcinoma/hyperplasia and ovarian cancer confirm the multidirectional biological function of ApoE, but the mechanisms of its action are not fully understood. It is also worth taking a closer look at the associations between ApoE expression, the type of its genotype and male fertility disorders. Another important issue is the variability of ApoE glycosylation. It is documented that the profile and degree of ApoE glycosylation varies depending on where it occurs, the type of body fluid and the place of its synthesis in the human body. Alterations in ApoE glycosylation have been observed in the course of diseases such as preeclampsia or breast cancer, but little is known about the characteristics of ApoE glycans analyzed in human seminal and blood serum/plasma in the context of male reproductive health. A deeper analysis of ApoE glycosylation in the context of female and male fertility will both enable us to broaden our knowledge of the biochemical and cellular mechanisms in which glycans participate, having a direct or indirect relationship with the fertilization process, and also give us a chance of contributing to the enrichment of the diagnostic panel in infertile women and men, which is particularly important in procedures involved in assisted reproductive techniques. Moreover, understanding the mechanisms of glycoprotein glycosylation related to the course of various diseases and conditions, including infertility, and the interactions between glycans and their specific ligands may provide us with an opportunity to interfere with their course and thus develop new therapeutic strategies. This brief overview details some of the recent advances, mainly from the last decade, in understanding the associations between ApoE expression and some female and male fertility problems, as well as selected female gynecological diseases and male reproductive tract disorders. We were also interested in how ApoE glycosylation changes influence biological processes in the human body, with special attention to human fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268793PMC
July 2021

Diagnostic Significance of Selected Serum Inflammatory Markers in Women with Advanced Endometriosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 25;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Division of Laboratory Diagnostics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Street 211A, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Endometriosis is a gynecological disease, the pathogenesis of which seems to be directly associated with inflammatory processes. Serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, hs-CRP, IgG, YKL 40 and PRL, in comparison to the well-known CA 125 levels, were studied with the aim of identifying an additional noninvasive inflammatory marker or set of markers characteristic for endometriosis. The study group included 43 women with endometriosis (E), 35 women with benign gynecological disorders but without endometriosis (NE, non-endometriosis) as a comparative group, and a control group consisting of 18 healthy subjects (C). The serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, hs-CRP, YKL-40, PRL and CA 125 were significantly higher in the E group (median values: 0.41 pg/mL, 2.42 pg/mL, 2.33 mg/L, 79.30 ng/mL, 21.88 ng/mL and 68.00 U/mL, respectively) than in the control group (median values: 0.21 pg/mL, 0.98 pg/mL, 0.52 mg/L, 49.77 ng/mL, 12.08 ng/mL and 12.20 U/mL respectively), with the significance of = 0.011, < 0.001, = 0.028, = 0.005, < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively. The IgG concentrations were significantly lower in the endometriosis group (median value: 1061.21 mg/dL) as compared to healthy women (median value: 1210.50 mg/dL; = 0.025). Significant differences in concentrations of IL-6 ( = 0.040), hs-CRP ( = 0.007) and CA 125 ( < 0.001) were observed in stage III vs. stage IV of endometriosis. Significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 ( = 0.010), hs-CRP ( = 0.037) and PRL ( < 0.001) were observed in the NE group vs. the control group. Only CA 125 concentrations were significantly higher in endometriosis patients as compared to the non-endometriosis group ( < 0.001). The proposed panel of inflammatory markers, especially IL-6, PRL and CA 125, may become a useful tool to identify women with advanced endometriosis who could qualify for treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956504PMC
February 2021

Sirtuins as Important Factors in Pathological States and the Role of Their Molecular Activity Modulators.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 10;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Sirtuins (SIRTs), enzymes from the family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, play an important role in the functioning of the body at the cellular level and participate in many biochemical processes. The multi-directionality of SIRTs encourages scientists to undertake research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of their action and the influence that SIRTs have on the organism. At the same time, new substances are constantly being sought that can modulate the action of SIRTs. Extensive research on the expression of SIRTs in various pathological conditions suggests that regulation of their activity may have positive results in supporting the treatment of certain metabolic, neurodegenerative or cancer diseases or this connected with oxidative stress. Due to such a wide spectrum of activity, SIRTs may also be a prognostic markers of selected pathological conditions and prove helpful in assessing their progression, especially by modulating their activity. The article presents and discusses the activating or inhibiting impact of individual SIRTs modulators. The review also gathered selected currently available information on the expression of SIRTs in individual disease cases as well as the biological role that SIRTs play in the human organism, also in connection with oxidative stress condition, taking into account the progress of knowledge about SIRTs over the years, with particular reference to the latest research results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827102PMC
January 2021

Sirtuins-The New Important Players in Women's Gynecological Health.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jan 10;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Street 211, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

The participation of sirtuins in the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation lies at the basis of their possible modes of action and is related to their expression in various cell structures; their location in the mitochondria and blood plasma has been indicated as of primary importance. Despite many existing studies, research on sirtuins continues to present an opportunity to discover new functions and dependencies, especially when it comes to women's gynecological health. Sirtuins have a significant role in both the formation and the course of many gynecological diseases. Their role is particularly important and well documented in the course of the development of cancer within the female reproductive organs; however, disturbances observed in the ovary and oocyte as well as in follicular fluid are also widely investigated. Additionally, sirtuins take part in some gynecological disturbances as regulative factors in pathways associated with insulin resistance, glucose and lipids metabolism disorders. In this review, we would like to summarize the existing knowledge about sirtuins in the manner outlined above.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827899PMC
January 2021

Could the glycosylation analysis of seminal plasma clusterin become a novel male infertility biomarker?

Mol Reprod Dev 2020 05 28;87(5):515-524. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Division of Laboratory Diagnostics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw, Poland.

Male infertility is becoming a rapidly growing problem around the world, mainly in the highly developed countries. Seminal proteome composition seems to be one of the crucial factors of the proper course of fertilization - clusterin (CLU) is among the most important ones. CLU, as one of the crucial seminal plasma glycoproteins, plays a very important role in sperm capacitation and immune tolerance in the female reproductive tract. CLU is also known as a sensitive marker of oxidative stress. It has six n-glycosylation sites and also exhibits chaperone activity. An analysis of changes in the profile and degree of CLU glycosylation may shed some new light on the molecular mechanisms of the fertilization process and may be used as an additional diagnostic marker of male fertility. This study constitutes a review of the recently available literature concerning human seminal CLU, including changes in its glycosylation, analyzed in the context of human reproduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.23340DOI Listing
May 2020

The Influence of Serum Sample Storage Conditions on Selected Laboratory Parameters Related to Oxidative Stress: A Preliminary Study.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Jan 19;10(1). Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Street 211a, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

The present work aims at accessing the stability of biological material stored for diagnostic and scientific purposes. The influence of the temperature, storage time, and cyclic thawing on concentration stability of selected oxidative stress parameters in human serum was investigated. The study group consisted of 20 serum samples collected from healthy volunteers aged 18-52. The parameters whose reference ranges were not determined and to which validated determination methods did not correspond were examined by manual methods (FRAP and AOPP). Automatic methods were used to determine routine laboratory tests (albumin, total protein, bilirubin, uric acid) using the Konelab 20i analyzer. The samples were stored at various temperatures (room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) for max 6 months and were subjected to cyclic thawing at 1 month intervals. In order to check whether any differences between the concentrations of the studied parameters existed when the samples were stored in various conditions, the paired Student t-test or Wilcoxon test and comparison to desirable bias were applied. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the temperature and time of serum sample storage significantly affected the stability of the analyzed parameters and determined different shelf lives of serum samples for oxidative stress examination. Therefore, continuing the investigation concerning the impact of storage conditions on various serum parameters seems justified due to the discrepancy between the individual results obtained by different researchers and the inconsistencies between the results of scientific research and the applicable recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10010051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168228PMC
January 2020

Preliminary Study on Selected Markers of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Angiogenesis in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

Pathol Oncol Res 2020 Apr 4;26(2):821-831. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Diagnostics, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Street 211, 50-556, Wrocław, Poland.

In recent years, bladder cancer (BC) has been reported as one of the most commonly occurring cancers among older people, and its detection is still difficult. Therefore, there is a need to search for additional useful markers of disease. Some studies indicate the important roles of inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) in bladder tumour pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of selected markers of OS, inflammation and angiogenesis in blood plasma/serum samples derived from patients with BC, and a healthy control group. Moreover the degrees of change and strength of correlation between values of the analysed markers and tumour stage or grade were estimated. Concentrations of: malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and total antioxidant status (TAS) divided into slow (TAS-s) and fast (TAS-f) antioxidants (spectrophotometric measurement), angiogenin (ANG) (immunoenzymatic method) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (immunoturbidimetric method) were determined in both the studied groups. The majority of values of the examined parameters were significantly higher among patients, while subfractions of TAS were significantly lower in comparison to the control group. Moreover, different values and different strengths of correlation between the examined parameters and cancer stage or grade were noticed. The most significant changes for CRP were observed in T2 and for MDA in G3, while the lowest TAS-f activity was revealed in G1 patients. Increased values of OS parameters, angiogenesis and inflammation markers, in combination with reduced TAS subfractions activity in BC are important in its pathogenesis and will be helpful in estimation of patients' condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12253-019-00620-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242270PMC
April 2020

The content of immunomodulatory glycoepitopes in seminal plasma glycoproteins of fertile and infertile men.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2019 Mar;31(3):579-589

Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Bujwida Street 44A, 50-345 Wroclaw, Poland.

According to a concept of fetoembryonic defence, protein-carbohydrate interaction may be involved in the regulation of maternal immunity that prevents rejection of allograft spermatozoa, embryo and fetus. In the present study we focussed on the evaluation of the expression of glycoepitopes that may be of crucial importance in this process: LewisY (LeY) and LewisX (LeX) as well as terminal sialylation. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulphate was used to separate seminal plasma samples of fertile (n=10) and infertile (n=103) men; these were then probed with lectins specific to fucose (Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin and Ulex europaeus agglutinin) and sialic acid (Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis agglutinin). Differential expression of α2,3-bound sialic acid was found in six out of seven analysed bands, whereas differences in the other analysed glycoepitopes were found in fewer numbers of bands. Mass spectrometry analysis focussed on the identification of proteins carrying glycans with immunomodulatory epitopes, including fibronectin, lactoferrin, clusterin, zinc-α2-glycoprotein, prostate acid phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen; these should be submitted to further detailed analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD18124DOI Listing
March 2019

Long-term changes of salivary exoglycosidases and their applicability as chronic alcohol-drinking and dependence markers.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2019 01 29;20(1):64-75. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

b Chemistry & Immunochemistry Dept , Medical University of Wrocław , Wrocław , Poland.

Objectives: Investigation of long-term dynamic changes of salivary activity/output of exoglycosidases, deglycosylation processes and their applicability as alcohol markers.

Methods: Exoglycosidase (α-fucosidase (FUC), β-galactosidase (GAL), β-glucuronidase (GLU), β-hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A and HEX B isoenzymes) and α-mannosidase (MAN)) activities were measured in the saliva of healthy social drinking controls (C), alcohol-dependent non-smokers (ANS) and alcohol-dependent smokers (AS) at the 1st, 15th, 30th and 50th day of abstinence after chronic alcohol drinking.

Results: The activity of exoglycosidases was 2-3-fold (MAN), 2-6 fold (FUC), 8-25-fold (HEX A) and 19-40-fold (GLU) higher in the ANS and AS groups than in controls, and had good/excellent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The higher outputs of exoglycosidases were in the AS and ANS groups than in controls at the 1st day (GLU, HEX A) and at the 50th day (GLU, FUC, MAN) of abstinence. We found numerous correlations between alcohol-drinking days with GLU and HEX A, alcohol amounts with HEX A and duration of alcohol dependence with FUC and MAN activity/output.

Conclusions: Salivary exoglycosidases/deglycosylation processes were still very high up to 50 days after the end of alcohol consumption. We found markers of chronic alcohol consumption (HEX A), alcohol dependence (FUC and MAN) and chronic alcohol consumption and dependence (GLU).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15622975.2017.1337221DOI Listing
January 2019

Changes in glycosylation of human blood plasma chitotriosidase in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Glycoconj J 2016 Feb;33(1):29-39

Human blood plasma chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a glycoprotein with chitinolytic activity with not fully elucidated biological function. Its increased level is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is associated with development of diabetic complications. The CHIT1 glycosylation profile and degree is still poorly studied and never investigated in T2DM. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the association between glycosylation profile and degree and diabetes with accompanying nephropathy. In blood plasma of 28 patients with T2DM and 11 healthy subjects the CHIT1 concentration and specific activity were examined. The profile and degree of CHIT1 glycosylation were determined by lectin-ELISA using lectins specific to O-glycans (Jacalin, MPL, VVL) and sialo-specific SNA and MAA. We revealed that both concentration and specific activity of CHIT1 significantly increased in T2DM, especially in nephropathy with elevated albuminuria. The relative reactivities with lectins, except Jacalin, decreased progressively with T2DM occurrence and albuminuria progression. The most significant differences were observed between control vs. albuminuric group (Micro and Macro). It is also possible that the observed differences in immunoblotting pattern in molecular masses of CHIT1 bands between T2DM patients and healthy subjects may be caused by the differences in degree of CHIT1 glycosylation. The analysis of CHIT1 glycosylation status and the determination of CHIT1 concentration together with its enzymatic activity in blood plasma might constitute additional valuable diagnosis tools for the evaluation the T2DM patients with accompanying nephropathy. Extension of the lectin panel specific to O-glycans occurs useful for the further research using microarray formats, which are expected to accelerate “lectin-based glycan profiling” of glycoproteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-015-9629-zDOI Listing
February 2016

Decreased melatonin levels and increased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in the seminal plasma are related to male infertility.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2016 Mar;28(4):507-15

Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20 Vienna, Austria.

Melatonin, an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland, is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum antioxidant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to correlate markers of oxidative protein damage (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPPs) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with melatonin levels in the seminal plasma of men with azoospermia (n=37), theratozoospermia (n=29) and fertile controls (normozoospermia, n=37). Melatonin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The levels of AOPP as well as TAC efficiency (determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of melatonin and AOPP significantly differed in azoospermic (P<0.0001) and theratozoospermic (P<0.0001) patients versus fertile men, and correlated negatively (r=-0.33, P=0.0016). The TAC levels were significantly higher in azoospermia than in theratozoospermia (P=0.0022) and the control group (P=0.00016). In azoospermia, the AOPP concentration was also significantly higher than that observed in theratozoospermia (P=0.00029). Decreased levels of melatonin together with elevated AOPP altered the oxidative-antioxidative balance in the ejaculate, thereby reducing fertility. Therefore, melatonin and AOPP levels may serve as additional diagnostic markers of semen quality and male reproductive potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD14165DOI Listing
March 2016

Comparison of haptoglobin and alpha₁-acid glycoprotein glycosylation in the sera of small cell and non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2013 Aug 8;67:828-36. Epub 2013 Aug 8.

Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

Introduction: Cancer-related carbohydrate epitopes, which are regarded as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, are carried on the main acute phase proteins. It is not clear, however, if the glycosylation profile is similar in different glycoproteins, or it is protein specific to some extent. The aim of the study was to compare fucosylation, α2,3 sialylation and expression of sialyl-Lewisx epitopes (sLe(x)) in the serum as a whole, AGP and haptoglobin of small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with respect to healthy subjects as well as the cancer stage and its histological type.

Material And Methods: Thirty-three NSCLC, 13 SCLC patients and 20 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Carbohydrate epitopes were detected by means of their reactivity with specific lectins and monoclonal anti-sLe(x) antibodies in direct or dual-ligand ELISA tests.

Results: Significantly increased fucosylation was found in total serum in both cancer groups and in NSCLC haptoglobin. No difference was observed in SCLC haptoglobin or α₁-acid glycoprotein in both cancer groups. Also α2,3 sialylation was elevated in total serum, but not in α₁-acid glycoprotein. This type of sialylation was undetectable in haptoglobin by means of MAA reactivity, in both healthy and cancer subjects. Complete sLe(x) antigens were overexpressed in total NSCLC serum and SCLC AGP, and their level was considerably lowered in cancer haptoglobin.

Discussion: Typical acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and AGP, exhibit different glycosylation profiles in lung cancer. Alterations observed in haptoglobin reflected the disease process better than those in AGP. Comparison of haptoglobin and AGP glycosylation to that observed in total serum suggests that some efficient carriers of disease-altered glycoproteins still remain unidentified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/17322693.1061788DOI Listing
August 2013

Seminal plasma glycoproteins in male infertility and prostate diseases: is there a chance for glyco-biomarkers?

Biomarkers 2013 Feb 15;18(1):10-22. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

Wrocław Medical University, Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wrocław, Poland.

Context: Disturbed protein-carbohydrate interactions may underlie the molecular mechanism of some diseases of the male reproductive tract, including infertility and prostate diseases.

Objective: To summarize the current knowledge on the glycosylation patterns of glycodelin-S, fibronectin, prostate-specific antigen, and α(1)-acid glycoprotein.

Results: Some rare glycoepitopes have been found in seminal plasma glycoproteins: high-mannose and polylactosamine-type glycans, and N-glycans containing N-acetyl-galactosamine. The glycosylation profiles occur altered in pathological conditions.

Conclusion: Further detailed studies may lead up to indicate the biomarkers useful in the management of male reproductive tract disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1354750X.2012.719035DOI Listing
February 2013

[Molecular mechanisms of fertilization: the role of male factor].

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2011 Nov 25;65:784-95. Epub 2011 Nov 25.

Katedra i Zakład Chemii i Immunochemii, Akademia Medyczna we Wrocławiu.

Fertilization, the fusion of male and female gametes, is an incompletely known, multistep, complex process, in which many factors participate. Fertilization is a precisely regulated, species-specific process, but some cellular mechanisms are similar for many mammal species. The studies of mechanisms of male and female gamete production enable understanding of fertilization issues and, as a result, make the analysis of the causes of infertility possible. Male and female infertility is a progressive phenomenon. The development of laboratory medicine enables the analysis of molecular aspects of the reactions between gametes, which may result in better diagnosis of many infertility cases and indicate the direction of therapeutic management. The fertilization process is accompanied by many biochemical reactions, in which glycoproteins present in human ejaculate play a very important role. Glycan structures enable glycoproteins to participate in the interactions between cells, including those between gametes. The analysis of the glycosylation profile and degree of ejaculate glycoproteins not only contributes to deepening the knowledge about mechanisms accompanying the fertilization process, but also may be useful as an additional diagnostic marker of male infertility. The aim of the present review is to approach selected molecular mechanisms occurring in the male genital tract, related to the fertilization process, as well as to analyze their influence on male fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/17322693.967076DOI Listing
November 2011

Terminal monosaccharide screening of synovial immunoglobulins G and A for the early detection of rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatol Int 2010 Aug 9;30(10):1285-92. Epub 2009 Oct 9.

Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wrocław Medical University, Bujwida 44a, 50-345, Wrocław, Poland.

The expressions of some terminal glycotopes of synovial immunoglobulins G, A, and M were analysed in relation to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression defined according to early and advanced radiological changes in patients' hands. The relative amounts of terminal monosaccharides were determined by lectin-immunoblotting of immunoglobulin preparations using appropriate lectins able to recognize alpha2,6-linked (Sambucus nigra agglutinin) and alpha2,3-linked (Maackia amurensis agglutinin) sialic acid, galactose (Ricinus communis agglutinin I), N-acetylglucosamine (Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin II) as well as alpha1,6-linked (Aleuria aurantia lectin), alpha1,3-linked (Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin), and alpha1,2-linked (Ulex europaeus agglutinin) fucose. The results indicate differences between early and advanced RA stages in the terminal sugar exposition of synovial IgG and IgA, but not IgM. The galactose-deficient glycotope with exposed N-acetylglucosamine of the synovial 33.1-kDa IgG fragment appeared exclusively in the early stage of RA. In contrast, this glycotope of intact synovial IgG and IgA was present in both groups, although with higher proportions in advanced RA. The proportions of the sialyl and fucosyl determinants of intact synovial A and G immunoglobulins were clearly lower in the early RA group than in the advanced. The analysis of terminal oligosaccharide exposition in IgG, IgG fragments, and IgA present in the synovial fluid of RA patients might be applicable as a stage-specific marker in the diagnosis and therapy of RA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-009-1139-5DOI Listing
August 2010
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