Publications by authors named "Ewa A Jankowska"

191 Publications

Primary Human Cardiomyocytes and Cardiofibroblasts Treated with Sera from Myocarditis Patients Exhibit an Increased Iron Demand and Complex Changes in the Gene Expression.

Cells 2021 Apr 6;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory for Applied Research on Cardiovascular System, Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes are the main cells involved in the pathophysiology of myocarditis (MCD). These cells are especially sensitive to changes in iron homeostasis, which is extremely important for the optimal maintenance of crucial cellular processes. However, the exact role of iron status in the pathophysiology of MCD remains unknown. We cultured primary human cardiomyocytes (hCM) and cardiofibroblasts (hCF) with sera from acute MCD patients and healthy controls to mimic the effects of systemic inflammation on these cells. Next, we performed an initial small-scale ( = 3 per group) RNA sequencing experiment to investigate the global cellular response to the exposure on sera. In both cell lines, transcriptomic data analysis revealed many alterations in gene expression, which are related to disturbed canonical pathways and the progression of cardiac diseases. Moreover, hCM exhibited changes in the iron homeostasis pathway. To further investigate these alterations in sera-treated cells, we performed a larger-scale ( = 10 for controls, = 18 for MCD) follow-up study and evaluated the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism. In both cell lines, we demonstrated an increased expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) and ferritin in MCD serum-treated cells as compared to controls, suggesting increased iron demand. Furthermore, we related TFR1 expression with the clinical profile of patients and showed that greater iron demand in sera-treated cells was associated with higher inflammation score (interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP)) and advanced neurohormonal activation (NT-proBNP) in patients. Collectively, our data suggest that the malfunctioning of cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts in the course of MCD might be related to alterations in the iron homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10040818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067399PMC
April 2021

The management of secondary mitral regurgitation in patients with heart failure: a joint position statement from the Heart Failure Association (HFA), European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), and European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) of the ESC.

Eur Heart J 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Secondary (or functional) mitral regurgitation (SMR) occurs frequently in chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, resulting from LV remodelling that prevents coaptation of the valve leaflets. Secondary mitral regurgitation contributes to progression of the symptoms and signs of HF and confers worse prognosis. The management of HF patients with SMR is complex and requires timely referral to a multidisciplinary Heart Team. Optimization of pharmacological and device therapy according to guideline recommendations is crucial. Further management requires careful clinical and imaging assessment, addressing the anatomical and functional features of the mitral valve and left ventricle, overall HF status, and relevant comorbidities. Evidence concerning surgical correction of SMR is sparse and it is doubtful whether this approach improves prognosis. Transcatheter repair has emerged as a promising alternative, but the conflicting results of current randomized trials require careful interpretation. This collaborative position statement, developed by four key associations of the European Society of Cardiology-the Heart Failure Association (HFA), European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), and European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA)-presents an updated practical approach to the evaluation and management of patients with HF and SMR based upon a Heart Team approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014526PMC
March 2021

Expert opinion of the Heart Failure Working Group of the Polish Cardiac Society on the use of dapagliflozin in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

Kardiol Pol 2021 Mar 4;79(3):363-370. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Heart failure (HF) is a global health problem inherent in an aging population with coexisting cardiovascular diseases. Based on data from the Polish National Health Fund (Polish, Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia), approximately 1.2 million people in Poland currently suffer from HF, and 140 000 of them die annually. Recently, Poland was ranked fifth among the European Union countries regarding the number of patients with diagnosed HF and first in terms of the number of HF hospitalizations (547 per 100 000 population) among 34 countries associated in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In recent years, a significant progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), which has resulted in a reduction in cardiovascular and total mortality. Despite these advantages, 5-year survival in the course of HF is still worse than that observed in some types of cancer, both in the populations of men and women. Hence, the search for drugs improving the prognosis in this group of patients is still ongoing. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors represent a new group of drugs that will undoubtedly be a milestone in the treatment of patients with HFrEF. This expert opinion covers the history of dapagliflozin, which, from a drug dedicated to the treatment of type 2 diabetes, has become one of the most effective drugs improving prognosis and quality of life as well as reducing the number of hospitalizations in patients with HF. This document presents the opinion from the experts of the Heart Failure Working Group of the Polish Cardiac Society on the most relevant studies on dapagliflozin and indications for its use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33963/KP.15859DOI Listing
March 2021

Universal Definition and Classification of Heart Failure: A Report of the Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, Japanese Heart Failure Society and Writing Committee of the Universal Definition of Heart Failure.

J Card Fail 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

In this document, we propose a universal definition of heart failure (HF) as the following: HF is a clinical syndrome with symptoms and or signs caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality and corroborated by elevated natriuretic peptide levels and or objective evidence of pulmonary or systemic congestion. We propose revised stages of HF as follows. At-risk for HF (Stage A), for patients at risk for HF but without current or prior symptoms or signs of HF and without structural or biomarkers evidence of heart disease. Pre-HF (stage B), for patients without current or prior symptoms or signs of HF, but evidence of structural heart disease or abnormal cardiac function, or elevated natriuretic peptide levels. HF (Stage C), for patients with current or prior symptoms and/or signs of HF caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality. Advanced HF (Stage D), for patients with severe symptoms and/or signs of HF at rest, recurrent hospitalizations despite guideline-directed management and therapy (GDMT), refractory or intolerant to GDMT, requiring advanced therapies such as consideration for transplant, mechanical circulatory support, or palliative care. Finally, we propose a new and revised classification of HF according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The classification includes HF with reduced EF (HFrEF): HF with an LVEF of ≤40%; HF with mildly reduced EF (HFmrEF): HF with an LVEF of 41% to 49%; HF with preserved EF (HFpEF): HF with an LVEF of ≥50%; and HF with improved EF (HFimpEF): HF with a baseline LVEF of ≤40%, a ≥10-point increase from baseline LVEF, and a second measurement of LVEF of >40%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.01.022DOI Listing
March 2021

The Heart Failure Association Atlas: Heart Failure Epidemiology and Management Statistics 2019.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Centre of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

Aims: The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) developed the HFA Atlas to provide a contemporary description of heart failure (HF) epidemiology, resources, reimbursement of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) and activities of the National Heart Failure Societies (NHFS) in ESC member countries.

Methods And Results: The HFA Atlas survey was conducted in 2018-2019 in 42 ESC countries. The quality and completeness of source data varied across countries. The median incidence of HF was 3.20 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.66-4.17] cases per 1000 person-years, ranging from ≤2 in Italy and Denmark to >6 in Germany. The median HF prevalence was 17.20 (IQR 14.30-21) cases per 1000 people, ranging from ≤12 in Greece and Spain to >30 in Lithuania and Germany. The median number of HF hospitalizations was 2671 (IQR 1771-4317) per million people annually, ranging from <1000 in Latvia and North Macedonia to >6000 in Romania, Germany and Norway. The median length of hospital stay for an admission with HF was 8.50 (IQR 7.38-10) days. Diagnostic and management resources for HF varied, with high-income ESC member countries having substantially more resources compared with middle-income countries. The median number of hospitals with dedicated HF centres was 1.16 (IQR 0.51-2.97) per million people, ranging from <0.10 in Russian Federation and Ukraine to >7 in Norway and Italy. Nearly all countries reported full or partial reimbursement of standard GDMT, except ivabradine and sacubitril/valsartan. Almost all countries reported having NHFS or working groups and nearly half had HF patient organizations.

Conclusions: The first report from the HFA Atlas has shown considerable heterogeneity in HF disease burden, the resources available for its management and data quality across ESC member countries. The findings emphasize the need for a systematic approach to the capture of HF statistics so that inequalities and improvements in care may be quantified and addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2143DOI Listing
February 2021

Acceptance of the disease and sexual functions of patients with heart failure.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Centre for Heart Diseases, University Hospital, Poland.

Background: Sexual activity is an important element of quality of life for many individuals suffering from heart failure.

Aims: The study investigated the influence of disease acceptance on sexual function in a population of male patients with chronic heart failure.

Methods: The study included 80 patients with chronic heart failure (mean age 63.3±9.2 years) who filled in the Mell-Krat Scale questionnaire to evaluate sexual needs and reactions. We also used the International Index of Erection Function (IIEF-5) inventory and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS).

Results: The study showed that the acceptance of the illness was positively associated with all of the Mell-Krat components such as sexual need, F = (3.27), frequency of intercourse, F = (2.46), position and technique, F = (1.88). Also, according to the IIEF-5 questionnaire, 84.42% of respondents had erectile dysfunction. Taken together these indicated that psychological adjustments such as acceptance of disease increase quality of all aspects of sexual functions in heart failure patients, including their erectile functions.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that psychological adjustments to feelings of loss associated with the onset of heart failure disease is the important determinant of quality of sexual life among male adults. Our research implicates that effects of AIS on sexual functioning give reasonable information to tailor sexual counselling for males suffering from heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1474515120944518DOI Listing
November 2020

Universal definition and classification of heart failure: a report of the Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, Japanese Heart Failure Society and Writing Committee of the Universal Definition of Heart Failure: Endorsed by the Canadian Heart Failure Society, Heart Failure Association of India, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand, and Chinese Heart Failure Association.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Mar 3;23(3):352-380. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

In this document, we propose a universal definition of heart failure (HF) as a clinical syndrome with symptoms and/or signs caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality and corroborated by elevated natriuretic peptide levels and/or objective evidence of pulmonary or systemic congestion. We also propose revised stages of HF as: At risk for HF (Stage A), Pre-HF (Stage B), Symptomatic HF (Stage C) and Advanced HF (Stage D). Finally, we propose a new and revised classification of HF according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). This includes HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF ≤40%; HF with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF 41-49%; HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF ≥50%; and HF with improved ejection fraction (HFimpEF): symptomatic HF with a baseline LVEF ≤40%, a ≥10 point increase from baseline LVEF, and a second measurement of LVEF > 40%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2115DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of left ventricular longitudinal systolic function parameters in the prediction of adverse outcome in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Apr 11;8(2):1531-1540. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, Wroclaw, 50-556, Poland.

Aims: Several different diagnostic parameters can be used to assess left ventricular (LV) longitudinal systolic function, but no studies comparing their predictive value have been conducted. We sought to compare the prognostic value of LV long-axis function parameters at rest and exercise using the population with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Methods And Results: Clinical and biochemical variables were collected at baseline in 201 patients with HFpEF. Echocardiography was performed at rest and immediately after exercise, with measurement of mitral annular plane systolic excursion, systolic tissue velocity (s'), global longitudinal strain (GLS), and global longitudinal strain rate (GLSR). Participants were followed for 48 (24-60) months for heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death. Seventy-four patients (36.8%) met the study endpoint. Cox regression analysis revealed that after adjustment for Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure risk score, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and peak VO , heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death were significantly associated with GLS at rest [hazard ratio (HR) 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.98; P = 0.016], GLS after exercise (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.77-0.91; P < 0.001), and GLSR after exercise (HR 0.13; 95% CI 0.04-0.48; P = 0.002). The addition of each of the following: exercise GLS and GLSR and resting GLS to the base model including Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure, BNP, and peak VO improved predictive power for the study endpoint [net reclassification improvement (NRI) = 49%, P < 0.001; NRI = 42%, P = 0.004; and NRI = 38%, P = 0.009, respectively]. Exercise GLS was the only longitudinal parameter significantly improving c-statistics of the base model (0.68 vs. 0.73; P = 0.047).

Conclusions: Echocardiographic parameters of LV longitudinal function are not equipotential in predicting adverse outcomes in HFpEF. LV deformation indices, especially assessed with exercise, show the highest predictive utility independent from and incremental to clinical data and BNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006621PMC
April 2021

Prediction of AF in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: Incremental Value of Left Atrial Strain.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jan;14(1):131-144

Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Objectives: This study sought to identify the factors associated with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in a well-characterized heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) population, with special focus on left atrial (LA) strain.

Background: AF is associated with HFpEF, with adverse consequences. Effective risk evaluation might allow the initiation of protective strategies.

Methods: Clinical evaluation and echocardiography, including measurements of peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS), peak atrial contraction strain (PACS), and LA volume index (LAVI), were obtained in 170 patients with symptomatic HFpEF (mean age, 65 ± 8 years), free of baseline AF. AF was identified by standard 12-lead electrocardiogram, review of relevant medical records (including Holter documentation), and surveillance with a portable single-lead electrocardiogram device over 2 weeks. Results were validated in the 103 patients with HFpEF from the Karolinska-Rennes (KaRen) study.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 49 months, incident AF was identified in 39 patients (23%). Patients who developed AF were older; had higher clinical risk scores, brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine, LAVI, and LV mass; lower LA strain and exercise capacity; and more impaired LV diastolic function. PACS, PALS, and LAVI were the most predictive parameters for AF (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve: 0.76 for PACS, 0.71 for PALS, and 0.72 for LAVI). Nested Cox regression models showed that the predictive value of PACS and PALS was independent from and incremental to clinical data, LAVI, and E/e' ratio. Classification and regression trees analysis identified PACS ≤12.7%, PALS ≤29.4%, and LAVI >34.3 ml/m as discriminatory nodes for AF, with a 33-fold greater hazard of AF (p < 0.001) in patients categorized as high risk. The classification and regression trees algorithm discriminated high and low AF risk in the validation cohort.

Conclusions: PACS and PALS provide incremental predictive information about incident AF in HFpEF. The inclusion of these LA strain components to the diagnostic algorithm may help guide screening and further monitoring for AF risk in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.07.040DOI Listing
January 2021

Ferric carboxymaltose for iron deficiency at discharge after acute heart failure: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

Lancet 2020 12 13;396(10266):1895-1904. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Robertson Center for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric carboxymaltose, compared with placebo, on outcomes in patients who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure.

Methods: AFFIRM-AHF was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial done at 121 sites in Europe, South America, and Singapore. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 μg/L, or 100-299 μg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. To maintain masking of patients and study personnel, treatments were administered in black syringes by personnel not involved in any study assessments. The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular death up to 52 weeks after randomisation, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had at least one post-randomisation data point. Secondary outcomes were the composite of total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular death; cardiovascular death; total heart failure hospitalisations; time to first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death; and days lost due to heart failure hospitalisations or cardiovascular death, all evaluated up to 52 weeks after randomisation. Safety was assessed in all patients for whom study treatment was started. A pre-COVID-19 sensitivity analysis on the primary and secondary outcomes was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937454, and has now been completed.

Findings: Between March 21, 2017, and July 30, 2019, 1525 patients were screened, of whom 1132 patients were randomly assigned to study groups. Study treatment was started in 1110 patients, and 1108 (558 in the carboxymaltose group and 550 in the placebo group) had at least one post-randomisation value. 293 primary events (57·2 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 372 (72·5 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·62-1·01, p=0·059). 370 total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular deaths occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 451 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p=0·050). There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030). Fewer days were lost due to heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death for patients assigned to ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo (369 days per 100 patient-years vs 548 days per 100 patient-years; RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·97, p=0·035). Serious adverse events occurred in 250 (45%) of 559 patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 282 (51%) of 551 patients in the placebo group.

Interpretation: In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death.

Funding: Vifor Pharma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32339-4DOI Listing
December 2020

Renal profiling based on estimated glomerular filtration rate and spot urine sodium identifies high-risk acute heart failure patients.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 Nov 14. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Heart Diseases, Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Aims: In acute heart failure (AHF), assessment of renal function comprises estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which does not provide any information about renal sodium/water handling. We describe the interactions between urinary sodium concentration and eGFR to better characterize AHF patients.

Methods And Results: In 219 patients with AHF, spot urine sodium (UNa ) and eGFR were assessed on admission, day 1 and day 2 of hospitalization. We found no correlation between UNa and eGFR (calculated on each consecutive day, as an average of all three values, and as changes from baseline; all P > 0.05). The population was subsequently divided into four profiles based on eGFR (preserved vs. impaired; cutoff of 60 mL/min/1.73 m ) and UNa (sodium excreter vs. non-excreter; cutoff of 60 mmol/L). At day 1, there were 70 (31.9%) patients classified as preserved eGFR/sodium excreter, 37 (16.8%) as impaired eGFR/sodium non-excreter, 72 (32.9%) as impaired eGFR/sodium excreter, and 40 (18%) as preserved eGFR/sodium non-excreter. Both sodium non-excreter profiles were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital heart failure worsening [odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-6.4], inotrope use (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.7) and rehospitalization due to AHF (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.2; all P < 0.05). The preserved eGFR/sodium non-excreter profile was associated with highest 1-year mortality (52.5%) and remained an independent prognosticator after adjustment for other prognosticators (hazard ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.7-5.2; P < 0.0005).

Conclusions: In AHF, values of spot UNa and eGFR are not interrelated. Concomitant assessment of eGFR and spot UNa may be useful for better clinical and therapeutic profiling of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2053DOI Listing
November 2020

Acceptance of the disease and sexual functions of patients with heart failure.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2020 Nov 3:1474515120944518. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Centre for Heart Diseases, University Hospital, Poland.

Background: Sexual activity is an important element of quality of life for many individuals suffering from heart failure.

Aims: The study investigated the influence of disease acceptance on sexual function in a population of male patients with chronic heart failure.

Methods: The study included 80 patients with chronic heart failure (mean age 63.3±9.2 years) who filled in the Mell-Krat Scale questionnaire to evaluate sexual needs and reactions. We also used the International Index of Erection Function (IIEF-5) inventory and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS).

Results: The study showed that the acceptance of the illness was positively associated with all of the Mell-Krat components such as sexual need, = (3.27), frequency of intercourse, = (2.46), position and technique, = (1.88). Also, according to the IIEF-5 questionnaire, 84.42% of respondents had erectile dysfunction. Taken together these indicated that psychological adjustments such as acceptance of disease increase quality of all aspects of sexual functions in heart failure patients, including their erectile functions.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that psychological adjustments to feelings of loss associated with the onset of heart failure disease is the important determinant of quality of sexual life among male adults. Our research implicates that effects of AIS on sexual functioning give reasonable information to tailor sexual counselling for males suffering from heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1474515120944518DOI Listing
November 2020

Iron status, catabolic/anabolic balance, and skeletal muscle performance in men with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

Cardiol J 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Wroclaw Medical University.

Background: Metabolic derangements related to tissue energetics constitute an important pathophysiological feature of heart failure. We investigated whether iron deficiency and catabolic/anabolic imbalance contribute to decreased skeletal muscle performance in men with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and whether these pathologies are related to each other.

Methods: We comprehensively examined 23 men with stable HFrEF (median age [interquartile range]: 63 [59-66] years; left ventricular ejection fraction: 28 [25-35]%; New York Heart association class I/II/III: 17/43/39%). We analyzed clinical characteristics, iron status, hormones, strength and fatigability of forearm flexors and quadriceps (surface electromyography), and exercise capacity (6-minute walking test).

Results: None of the patients had anemia whereas 8 were iron-deficient. Flexor carpi radialis fatigability correlated with lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHR, p < 0.05), and there was a trend towards greater fatigability in patients with higher body mass index and lower serum ferritin (both p < 0.1). Flexor carpi ulnaris fatigability correlated with lower serum iron and CHR (both p < 0.05). Vastus medialis fatigability was related to lower free and bioavailable testosterone (FT and BT, respectively, both p < 0.05), and 6MWT distance was shorter in patients with higher cortisol/FT and cortisol/BT ratio (both p < 0.05). Lower ferritin and transferrin saturation correlated with lower percentage of FT and BT. Men with HFrEF and ID had higher total testosterone, but lower percentage of FT and BT.

Conclusions: Iron deficiency correlates with lower bioactive testosterone in men with HFrEF. These two pathologies can both contribute to decreased skeletal muscle performance in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2020.0138DOI Listing
November 2020

High soluble transferrin receptor in patients with heart failure: a measure of iron deficiency and a strong predictor of mortality.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 Oct 27. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Aims: Iron deficiency (ID) is frequent in heart failure (HF), linked with exercise intolerance and poor prognosis. Intravenous iron repletion improves clinical status in HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45%. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of serum biomarkers in diagnosing ID. The aims of this study were (i) to identify the iron biomarker with the greatest accuracy for the diagnosis of ID in bone marrow in patients with ischaemic HF, and (ii) to establish the prevalence of ID using this biomarker and its prognostic value in HF patients.

Methods And Results: Bone marrow was stained for iron in 30 patients with ischaemic HF with LVEF ≤45% and 10 healthy controls, and ID was diagnosed for 0-1 grades (Gale scale). A total of 791 patients with HF with LVEF ≤45% were prospectively followed up for 3 years. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were assessed as iron biomarkers. Most patients with HF (n = 25, 83%) had ID in bone marrow, but none of the controls (P < 0.001). Serum sTfR had the best accuracy in predicting ID in bone marrow (area under the curve 0.920, 95% confidence interval 0.761-0.987, for cut-off 1.25 mg/L sensitivity 84%, specificity 100%). Serum sTfR was ≥1.25 mg/L in 47% of HF patients, in 56% and 46% of anaemics and non-anaemics, respectively (P < 0.05). The reclassification methods revealed that serum sTfR significantly added the prognostic value to the baseline prognostic model, and to the greater extent than plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide. Based on internal derivation and validation procedures, serum sTfR ≥1.41 mg/L was the optimal threshold for predicting 3-year mortality, independent of other established variables.

Conclusions: High serum sTfR accurately reflects depleted iron stores in bone marrow in patients with HF, and identifies those with a high 3-year mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2036DOI Listing
October 2020

Common mechanistic pathways in cancer and heart failure. A scientific roadmap on behalf of the Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 12 12;22(12):2272-2289. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Medical University of Graz, University Heart Center - Division of Cardiology, Graz, Austria.

The co-occurrence of cancer and heart failure (HF) represents a significant clinical drawback as each disease interferes with the treatment of the other. In addition to shared risk factors, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence reveals numerous commonalities in the biology underlying both pathologies. Inflammation emerges as a common hallmark for both diseases as it contributes to the initiation and progression of both HF and cancer. Under stress, malignant and cardiac cells change their metabolic preferences to survive, which makes these metabolic derangements a great basis to develop intersection strategies and therapies to combat both diseases. Furthermore, genetic predisposition and clonal haematopoiesis are common drivers for both conditions and they hold great clinical relevance in the context of personalized medicine. Additionally, altered angiogenesis is a common hallmark for failing hearts and tumours and represents a promising substrate to target in both diseases. Cardiac cells and malignant cells interact with their surrounding environment called stroma. This interaction mediates the progression of the two pathologies and understanding the structure and function of each stromal component may pave the way for innovative therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes in patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists is essential to establish unified guidelines. To this aim, pre-clinical models that mimic the human situation, where both pathologies coexist, are needed to understand all the aspects of the bidirectional relationship between cancer and HF. Finally, adequately powered clinical studies, including patients from all ages, and men and women, with proper adjudication of both cancer and cardiovascular endpoints, are essential to accurately study these two pathologies at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894564PMC
December 2020

10 year trends in hospitalization rates due to heart failure and related in-hospital mortality in Poland (2010-2019).

ESC Heart Fail 2020 Oct 22. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Heart Diseases, Wrocław Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Aims: Heart failure (HF) remains a major public health challenge worldwide. Contemporary epidemiological data on HF hospitalization rates and related in-hospital mortality are scarce also in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the trends in hospitalization rates due to HF and related in-hospital mortality in Poland in the recent decade.

Methods And Results: Data on HF hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality in patients aged >17 years in Poland between 2010 and 2019 were obtained from the central database of the Polish National Health Fund. Hospitalizations with either primary or secondary diagnosis of HF were identified using the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes (I50, I42, J81 with extensions, and R57.0). There were 4 259 698 HF hospitalizations and 608 577 in-hospital deaths (14% in-hospital mortality) reported during 2010-2019 in Poland. During this period, there was a steady increase in the number of HF hospitalizations per 1000 inhabitants in subsequent years, being more pronounced in men than in women (in 2019: 16 and 13 HF hospitalizations per 1000 inhabitants in men and women, respectively). The relative risk of HF hospitalization was higher in men than in women, and this gender-related difference steadily increased from 9% in 2010 to 25% in 2019. During 2010-2019, there was an increase in the number of HF hospitalizations per 1000 inhabitants in subsequent age groups, with a trend being more pronounced in men than in women (129 and 99 HF hospitalizations per 1000 inhabitants in men and women aged ≥80 years, respectively). During this period, there was a slight increase in in-hospital mortality during HF hospitalization in subsequent years, being more pronounced in women than in men (in 2019: 16% and 14% of in-hospital mortality in women and men, respectively). The relative risk of in-hospital mortality during HF hospitalization was higher in women than in men, and this gender-related difference steadily increased from 8% in 2010 to 18% in 2019. During this period, in-hospital mortality during HF hospitalization was ~12% for women and men aged 18-29 years, whereas the highest values of in-hospital mortality reached ~19% for patients aged ≥80 years.

Conclusions: We have observed steady growing trends in HF hospitalization rates and related in-hospital mortality in Poland over the last decade. Both age and gender have differentiated the reported epidemiological patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754958PMC
October 2020

Elevated plasma endothelin-1 is related to low natriuresis, clinical signs of congestion, and poor outcome in acute heart failure.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 Oct 16. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, Wrocław, 50-556, Poland.

Aims: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor, which regulates renal and vascular function. We aimed to relate plasma levels of ET-1 with the clinical picture and outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF).

Methods And Results: We studied 113 patients with AHF [mean age 65 ± 13 (years), median (upper and lower quartiles) N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, 5422 (2689; 8582) (pg/mL)], in whom plasma levels of ET-1 were serially measured at admission (10.8 ± 5.2), Day 1 (9.5 ± 3.4), and Day 2 (8.9 ± 3.8) (pg/mL). The population was divided into tertiles across baseline ET-1 levels. Patients in the highest ET-1 tertile had predominant clinical signs of peripheral congestion; however, no difference was observed in pulmonary congestion and severity of dyspnoea. They also presented lower spot urine sodium at admission (75 ± 35 vs. 99 ± 43 vs. 108 ± 30), 6 h (84 ± 34 vs. 106 ± 43 vs. 106 ± 35), and Day 1 (75 ± 38 vs. 96 ± 36 vs. 100 ± 35) (mmol/L), when compared with the second and first tertile, respectively (all P < 0.05); furthermore, they received higher doses of intravenous furosemide from Day 2 and had longer intravenous diuretics, as median switch to oral furosemide was 4 (3; 4) vs. 3 (2; 4) vs. 2 (2; 3) (days), respectively, P < 0.05. There was no difference in serum creatinine, urea, and renal injury biomarkers (kidney injury molecule-1, serum cystatin C, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) between the ET-1 tertiles. Higher values of ET-1 measured at each time point were related with a higher risk of 1 year mortality.

Conclusions: Elevation of ET-1 is related to clinical signs of peripheral congestion, low urine sodium excretion, and poor outcome in AHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755016PMC
October 2020

Myocardial iron content in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy: how much is known?

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 11 28;22(11):2047-2048. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, and Centre for Heart Diseases, University Hospital, Wroclaw, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2023DOI Listing
November 2020

On the search for the right definition of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Cardiol J 2020 28;27(5):449-468. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

"Club 30", Polish Cardiac Society, Poland.

The definition of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has evolved from a clinically based "diagnosis of exclusion" to definitions focused on objective evidence of diastolic dysfunction and/or elevated left ventricular filling pressures. Despite advances in our understanding of HFpEF pathophysiology and the development of more sophisticated imaging modalities, the diagnosis of HFpEF remains challenging, especially in the chronic setting, given that symptoms are provoked by exertion and diagnostic evaluation is largely conducted at rest. Invasive hemodynamic study, and in particular - invasive exercise testing, is considered the reference method for HFpEF diagnosis. However, its use is limited as opposed to the high number of patients with suspected HFpEF. Thus, diagnostic criteria for HFpEF should be principally based on non-invasive measurements. As no single non-invasive variable can adequately corroborate or refute the diagnosis, different combinations of clinical, echocardiographic, and/or biochemical parameters have been introduced. Recent years have brought an abundance of HFpEF definitions. Here, we present and compare four of them: 1) the 2016 European Society of Cardiology criteria for HFpEF; 2) the 2016 echocardiographic algorithm for diagnosing diastolic dysfunction; 3) the 2018 evidence-based H2FPEF score; and 4) the most recent, 2019 Heart Failure Association HFA-PEFF algorithm. These definitions vary in their approach to diagnosis, as well as sensitivity and specificity. Further studies to validate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of HFpEF definitions are warranted. Nevertheless, it seems that the best HFpEF definition would originate from a randomized clinical trial showing a favorable effect of an intervention on prognosis in HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2020.0124DOI Listing
September 2020

Frailty and the risk of all-cause mortality and hospitalization in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 Sep 21. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Clinical Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Bartla 5, Wroclaw, 51-618, Poland.

To estimate the risk of all-cause mortality and hospitalization in frail patients with chronic heart failure (HF), a systematic search and meta-analysis was carried out to identify all prospective cohort studies conducted among adults with HF where frailty was quantified and related to the primary endpoints of all-cause mortality and/or hospitalization. Twenty-nine studies reporting the link between frailty and all-cause mortality in 18 757 patients were available for the meta-analysis, along with 11 studies, with 13 525 patients, reporting the association between frailty and hospitalization. Frailty was a predictor of all-cause mortality and hospitalization with summary hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-1.65, P < 0.001] and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.27-1.54, P < 0.001), respectively. Summary HRs for all-cause mortality among frail inpatients undergoing ventricular assist device implantation, inpatients hospitalized for HF, and outpatients were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.18-1.73, P < 0.001), 1.58 (95% CI: 0.94-2.22, P = not significant), and 1.53 (95% CI: 1.28-1.78, P < 0.001), respectively. Summary HRs for all-cause mortality and frailty based on Fried's phenotype were 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03-1.93, P < 0.001) and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.05-1.79, P < 0.001) for inpatients and outpatients, respectively, and based on other frailty measures were 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12-1.72, P < 0.001) and 1.60 (95% CI: 1.43-1.77, P < 0.001) for inpatients and outpatients, respectively. Across clinical contexts, frailty in chronic HF is associated with an average of 48% and 40% increase in the hazard of all-cause mortality and hospitalization, respectively. The relationship between frailty and all-cause mortality is similar across clinical settings and comparing measurement using Fried's phenotype or other measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754732PMC
September 2020

Integration of a palliative approach into heart failure care: a European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Association position paper.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 12 4;22(12):2327-2339. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology has published a previous position paper and various guidelines over the past decade recognizing the value of palliative care for those affected by this burdensome condition. Integrating palliative care into evidence-based heart failure management remains challenging for many professionals, as it includes the identification of palliative care needs, symptom control, adjustment of drug and device therapy, advance care planning, family and informal caregiver support, and trying to ensure a 'good death'. This new position paper aims to provide day-to-day practical clinical guidance on these topics, supporting the coordinated provision of palliation strategies as goals of care fluctuate along the heart failure disease trajectory. The specific components of palliative care for symptom alleviation, spiritual and psychosocial support, and the appropriate modification of guideline-directed treatment protocols, including drug deprescription and device deactivation, are described for the chronic, crisis and terminal phases of heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1994DOI Listing
December 2020

Assessment of Frailty and Occurrence of Anxiety and Depression in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

Clin Interv Aging 2020 15;15:1151-1161. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Public Health, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and its incidence increases with age. The elderly population is commonly affected by frailty syndrome (FS). FS syndrome along with anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent among elderly patients with AF. It is unclear whether depression contributes to AF or vice versa. The purpose of this study was to assess correlations between FS and the occurrence of anxiety and depression symptoms in a group of elderly patients with AF.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional study included 100 elderly patients (69 females, 31 males, mean age: 70.27 years) with AF. Standardized research instruments were used including the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) to assess FS, and two questionnaires to assess depression including the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS).

Results: Mild FS was found in 38% and moderate FS in 29% of patients. Based on GDS scores, depression symptoms were found in 51% of patients' sample. Based on HADS scores, 20% of patients were found to have anxiety symptoms, and 28% revealed depression symptoms. Single-factor analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between HADS anxiety symptoms (r=0.492), HADS depression symptoms (r=0.696), and GDS score (r=0.673) on the one hand, and overall TFI frailty score on the other. Multiple-factor analysis identified overall GDS score, education, and lack of bleeding as significant independent predictors of TFI scores (p<0.05).

Conclusion: FS is common in the population of elderly patients with AF. We found evidence for the association between symptoms of anxiety and depression and the incidence of FS in this group of patients. Due to the risk of consequences which may in part be irreversible, screening for FS is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S258634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371919PMC
December 2020

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the prevention and therapy of coronavirus disease 2019: new hopes and old cardiovascular concerns.

Kardiol Pol 2020 08 14;78(7-8):811-817. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland; Center for Heart Diseases, University Hospital, Wrocław, Poland

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http://dx.doi.org/10.33963/KP.15511DOI Listing
August 2020

A curriculum for heart failure nurses: an expert opinion of the Section of Nursing and Medical Technicians and the Heart Failure Working Group of the Polish Cardiac Society.

Kardiol Pol 2020 06 2;78(6):647-652. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Coronary Disease and Heart Failure, Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University, John Paul II Hospital, Kraków, Poland

The rates of mortality and morbidity due to heart failure (HF) are expected to significantly rise over the next 10 years owing to an ageing population and will be the highest of all rates pertaining to cardiovascular diseases. To face this rapidly progressing problem, that is, the increasing prevalence of HF and need for care of patients with this disease, an attempt was made to develop a curriculum targeted at HF nurses. The HF nurse, as a member of the therapeutic team, has to play an active role in monitoring patients' physical and mental condition, coordinating hospital care, planning intervention after discharge from the hospital, and involving the patient and / or his or her family in self‑care, effective cooperation, and communication with the therapeutic team. The curriculum was conceived to complement the knowledge of HF and improve HF nurses' educational skills. The proposed model of education, based on the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and led by trained educators, will enable clinicians to fully implement the principles of coordinated care and properly assess the effectiveness of educational interventions in patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33963/KP.15405DOI Listing
June 2020

The heart failure specialists of tomorrow: a network for young cardiovascular scientists and clinicians.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 06 30;7(3):873-877. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Centre for Heart Diseases, University Hospital, Wroclaw, and Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

The "Heart failure specialists of Tomorrow" (HoT) group gathers young researchers, physicians, basic scientists, nurses and many other professions under the auspices of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. After its foundation in 2014, it has quickly grown to a large group of currently 925 members. Membership in this growing community offers many advantages during, before, and after the 'Heart Failure and World Congress on Acute Heart Failure'. These include: eligibility to receive travel grants, participation in moderated poster sessions and young researcher and clinical case sessions, the HoT walk, the career café, access to the networking opportunities, and interaction with a large and cohesive international community that constantly seeks multinational collaborations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261537PMC
June 2020

Multidimensional Approach to Frailty.

Front Psychol 2020 25;11:564. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

William F. Conell School of Nursing, Boston College, Newton, MA, United States.

The concept of frailty syndrome (FS) was first described in the scientific literature three decades ago. For a very long time, we understood it as a geriatric problem, recently becoming one of the dominant concepts in cardiology. It identifies symptoms of FS in one in 10 elderly people. It is estimated that in Europe, 17% of elderly people have FS. The changes in FS resemble and often overlap with changes associated with the physiological aging process of the body. Although there are numerous scientific reports confirming that FS is age correlated, it is not an unavoidable part of the aging process and does not apply only to the elderly. FS is a reversible clinical condition. To maximize benefits of frailty-reversing activities for patient with frailty, identification of its determinants appears to be fundamental. Many of the determinants of the FS have already been known: reduction in physical activity, malnutrition, sarcopenia, polypharmacy, depressive symptom, cognitive disorders, and lack of social support. This review shows that insight into FS determinants is the starting point for building both the comprehensive definition of FS and the adoption of the assessment method of FS, and then successful clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115252PMC
March 2020

Deranged Iron Status Evidenced by Iron Deficiency Characterizes Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

Dermatology 2020 10;236(1):52-58. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

Background: Proinflammatory activation and autoimmune processes underlie the pathophysiology of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Iron deficiency (ID) is frequently present in inflammation-mediated chronic diseases, irrespective of anemia.

Objectives: We aimed to characterize iron status in patients with HS.

Methods: Serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin saturation (Tsat), soluble transferrin receptor and hepcidin were assessed as the biomarkers of iron status in 74 patients with HS and 44 healthy subjects. ID was defined as ferritin <100 µg/L or ferritin 100-299 µg/L with Tsat <20% (following the definition used in the other studies in chronic disease).

Results: Compared with controls, patients with HS demonstrated a deranged iron status as evidenced by decreased levels of ferritin (91 ± 87 vs. 157 ± 99 µg/L), Tsat (21.5 ± 10.8 vs. 42.2 ± 11.7%) and hepcidin (31.3 ± 25.9 vs. 44.2 ± 22.0 ng/mL) (all p < 0.05 vs. controls). There was also a trend toward higher values of soluble transferrin receptor (1.23 ± 0.35 vs. 1.12 ± 0.19 mg/L) (p = 0.09 vs. controls). Disease severity (assessed with the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Severity Index and the 3-degree Hurley scale) did not differentiate iron status biomarkers. ID was present in 75% of HS patients, and its prevalence was not related with disease severity (Hurley I/II/III - 82 vs. 73 vs. 67%). In HS, none of the iron status biomarkers correlated with the levels of interleukin-6 (a marker of proinflammatory activation).

Conclusions: The majority of HS patients demonstrate derangements in iron status typical of ID. These abnormalities are neither related to proinflammatory activation nor associated with disease severity. Whether it may have a therapeutic impact needs to be further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505184DOI Listing
September 2020

Monitoring of iron status in patients with heart failure.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2019 Dec 31;21(Suppl M):M32-M35. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

The 2016 ESC/HFA heart failure (HF) guidelines emphasize the importance of identifying and treating iron deficiency (ID) in patients with HF. Iron deficiency can occur in half or more of HF sufferers, depending on age and the phase of the disease. Iron deficiency can be a cause of anaemia, but it is also common even without anaemia, meaning that ID is a separate entity, which should be screened for within the HF population. Although assessment of iron stores in bone marrow samples is the most accurate method to investigate iron status, it is not practical in most HF patients. Levels of circulating iron biomarkers are an easily available alternative; especially, ferritin and transferrin saturation (Tsat). In patients with HF serum ferritin level <100 µg/L (regardless of Tsat value) or between 100 and 299 µg/L with Tsat <20% are considered as recommended criteria for the diagnosis of ID, criteria which have been used in the clinical trials in HF that have led to a recommendation to treat ID with intravenous iron. We discuss the optimal measures of iron biomarkers in patients with HF in order to screen and monitor iron status and introduce some novel ways to assess iron status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suz231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937508PMC
December 2019