Publications by authors named "Evgeny N Imyanitov"

176 Publications

Polygenic risk modeling for prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer risk.

Eur J Hum Genet 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Diagnostics, Warsaw, Poland.

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have the potential to improve risk stratification. Joint estimation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) effects in models could improve predictive performance over standard approaches of PRS construction. Here, we implemented computationally efficient, penalized, logistic regression models (lasso, elastic net, stepwise) to individual level genotype data and a Bayesian framework with continuous shrinkage, "select and shrink for summary statistics" (S4), to summary level data for epithelial non-mucinous ovarian cancer risk prediction. We developed the models in a dataset consisting of 23,564 non-mucinous EOC cases and 40,138 controls participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) and validated the best models in three populations of different ancestries: prospective data from 198,101 women of European ancestries; 7,669 women of East Asian ancestries; 1,072 women of African ancestries, and in 18,915 BRCA1 and 12,337 BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestries. In the external validation data, the model with the strongest association for non-mucinous EOC risk derived from the OCAC model development data was the S4 model (27,240 SNPs) with odds ratios (OR) of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.28-1.48, AUC: 0.588) per unit standard deviation, in women of European ancestries; 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08-1.19, AUC: 0.538) in women of East Asian ancestries; 1.38 (95% CI: 1.21-1.58, AUC: 0.593) in women of African ancestries; hazard ratios of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.29-1.43, AUC: 0.592) in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.35-1.64, AUC: 0.624) in BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. Incorporation of the S4 PRS in risk prediction models for ovarian cancer may have clinical utility in ovarian cancer prevention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00987-7DOI Listing
January 2022

Identification of recurrent pathogenic alleles using exome sequencing data: Proof-of-concept study of Russian subjects.

Eur J Med Genet 2022 Feb 11;65(2):104426. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

St.-Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, St.-Petersburg, 194100, Russia; N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, St.-Petersburg, 197758, Russia.

Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful tool for the cataloguing of population-specific genetic diseases. Within this proof-of-concept study we evaluated whether analysis of a small number of individual exomes is capable of identifying recurrent pathogenic alleles. We considered 106 exomes of subjects of Russian origin and revealed 13 genetic variants, which occurred more than twice and fulfilled the criteria for pathogenicity. All these alleles turned out to be indeed recurrent, as revealed by the analysis of 1045 healthy Russian donors. Eight of these variants (NAGA c.973G>A, ACADM c.985A>C, MPO c.2031-2A>C, SLC3A1 c.1400T>C, LRP2 c.6160G>A, BCHE c.293A>G, MPO c.752T>C, FCN3 c.349delC) are non-Russian-specific, as their high prevalence was previously demonstrated in other European populations. The remaining five disease-associated alleles appear to be characteristic for subjects of Russian origin and include CLCN1 c.2680C>T (myotonia congenita), DHCR7 c.453G>A (Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome), NUP93 c.1162C>T (steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, type 12), SLC26A2 c.1957T>A (multiple epiphyseal dysplasia) and EIF3F c.694T>G (mental retardation). These recessive disease conditions may be of particular relevance for the Russian Federation and other countries with a significant Slavic population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104426DOI Listing
February 2022

Somatic loss of the remaining allele occurs approximately in half of CHEK2-driven breast cancers and is accompanied by a border-line increase of chromosomal instability.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, Leningradskaya str. 68, Pesochny, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 197758.

Purpose: Germline mutations in CHEK2 gene represent the second most frequent cause of hereditary breast cancer (BC) after BRCA1/2 lesions. This study aimed to identify the molecular characteristics of CHEK2-driven BCs.

Methods: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the remaining CHEK2 allele was examined in 50 CHEK2-driven BCs using allele-specific PCR assays for the germline mutations and analysis of surrounding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Paired tumor and normal DNA samples from 25 cases were subjected to next-generation sequencing analysis.

Results: CHEK2 LOH was detected in 28/50 (56%) BCs. LOH involved the wild-type allele in 24 BCs, mutant CHEK2 copy was deleted in 3 carcinomas, while in one case the origin of the deleted allele could not be identified. Somatic PIK3CA and TP53 mutations were present in 13/25 (52%) and 4/25 (16%) tumors, respectively. Genomic features of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), including the HRD score ≥ 42, the predominance of BRCA-related mutational signature 3, and the high proportion of long (≥ 5 bp) indels, were observed only in 1/20 (5%) BC analyzed for chromosomal instability. Tumors with the deleted wild-type CHEK2 allele differed from LOH-negative cases by elevated HRD scores (median 23 vs. 7, p = 0.010) and higher numbers of chromosomal segments affected by copy number aberrations (p = 0.008).

Conclusion: Somatic loss of the wild-type CHEK2 allele is observed in approximately half of CHEK2-driven BCs. Tumors without CHEK2 LOH are chromosomally stable. BCs with LOH demonstrate some signs of chromosomal instability; however, its degree is significantly lower as compared to BRCA1/2-associated cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-022-06517-3DOI Listing
January 2022

Molecular tests for prediction of tumor sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs.

Cancer Lett 2022 02 20;526:41-52. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Tumor Growth Biology, N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, St.-Petersburg, 197758, Russia; Department of Medical Genetics, St.-Petersburg Pediatric Medical University, St.-Petersburg, 194100, Russia.

Chemotherapy constitutes the backbone of cancer treatment. Several predictive assays assist personalized administration of cytotoxic drugs and are recommended for use in a clinical setting. The deficiency of DNA repair by homologous recombination (HRD), which is caused by inactivation of BRCA1/2 genes or other genetic events, is associated with high tumor responsiveness to platinum compounds, bifunctional alkylating agents and topoisomerase II poisons. Low activity of MGMT predicts the efficacy of nitrosoureas and tetrazines. Some clinically established pharmacogenetic tests allow for the adjustment of drug dosage, for example, the analysis of DPYD allelic variants for administration of fluoropyrimidines and UGT1A1 genotyping for the use of irinotecan. While there are promising molecular predictors of tumor sensitivity to pemetrexed, gemcitabine and taxanes, they remain in the investigational stage and require additional validation. Comprehensive molecular analysis of tumors obtained from drug responders and non-responders is likely to reveal new clinically useful predictive markers for cytotoxic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.11.021DOI Listing
February 2022

Cancer Therapy Guided by Mutation Tests: Current Status and Perspectives.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 10;22(20). Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Tumor Growth Biology, N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, 197758 Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

The administration of many cancer drugs is tailored to genetic tests. Some genomic events, e.g., alterations of EGFR or BRAF oncogenes, result in the conformational change of the corresponding proteins and call for the use of mutation-specific compounds. Other genetic perturbations, e.g., HER2 amplifications, ALK translocations or MET exon 14 skipping mutations, cause overproduction of the entire protein or its kinase domain. There are multilocus assays that provide integrative characteristics of the tumor genome, such as the analysis of tumor mutation burden or deficiency of DNA repair. Treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancer requires testing for EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, MET, RET and KRAS gene alterations. Colorectal cancer patients need to undergo KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, HER2 and microsatellite instability analysis. The genomic examination of breast cancer includes testing for HER2 amplification and PIK3CA activation. Melanomas are currently subjected to BRAF and, in some instances, KIT genetic analysis. Predictive DNA assays have also been developed for thyroid cancers, cholangiocarcinomas and urinary bladder tumors. There is an increasing utilization of agnostic testing which involves the analysis of all potentially actionable genes across all tumor types. The invention of genomically tailored treatment has resulted in a spectacular improvement in disease outcomes for a significant portion of cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8536080PMC
October 2021

Cytotoxic and targeted therapy for BRCA1/2-driven cancers.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2021 Aug 28;19(1):36. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, Pesochny, Saint-Petersburg, 197758, Russia.

Tumors arising in BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers usually demonstrate somatic loss of the remaining BRCA1/2 allele and increased sensitivity to platinum compounds, anthracyclines, mitomycin C and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). Exposure to conventional platinum-based therapy or PARPi results in the restoration of BRCA1/2 function and development of resistance to systemic therapy, therefore, there is a need for other treatment options. Some studies suggested that the use of specific drug combinations or administration of high-dose chemotherapy may result in pronounced tumor responses. BRCA1/2-driven tumors are characterized by increased immunogenicity; promising efficacy of immune therapy has been demonstrated in a number of preclinical and clinical investigations. There are outstanding issues, which require further consideration. Platinum compounds and PARPi have very similar mode of antitumor action and are likely to render cross-resistance to each other, so their optimal position in cancer treatment schemes may be a subject of additional studies. Sporadic tumors with somatically acquired inactivation of BRCA1/2 or related genes resemble hereditary neoplasms with regard to the spectrum of drug sensitivity; the development of user-friendly BRCAness tests presents a challenge. Many therapeutic decisions are now based on the BRCA1/2 status, so the significant reduction of the turn-around time for predictive laboratory assays is of particular importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13053-021-00193-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399736PMC
August 2021

Platinum drugs and taxanes: can we overcome resistance?

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 26;7(1):155. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Faculty of Medicine, MV Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Cancer therapy is aimed at the elimination of tumor cells and acts via the cessation of cell proliferation and induction of cell death. Many research publications discussing the mechanisms of anticancer drugs use the terms "cell death" and "apoptosis" interchangeably, given that apoptotic pathways are the most common components of the action of targeted and cytotoxic compounds. However, there is sound evidence suggesting that other mechanisms of drug-induced cell death, such as necroptosis, ferroptosis, autophagy, etc. may significantly contribute to the fate of cancer cells. Molecular cross-talks between apoptotic and nonapoptotic death pathways underlie the successes and the failures of therapeutic interventions. Here we discuss the nuances of the antitumor action of two groups of the widely used anticancer drugs, i.e., platinum salts and taxane derivatives. The available data suggest that intelligent interference with the choice of cell death pathways may open novel opportunities for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00554-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257727PMC
June 2021

Content of circulating tumor DNA depends on the tumor type and the dynamics of tumor size, but is not influenced significantly by physical exercise, time of the day or recent meal.

Cancer Genet 2021 08 28;256-257:165-178. Epub 2021 May 28.

N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, St. Petersburg 197758, Russia; St. Petersburg Pediatric Medical University, St. Petersburg 194100, Russia; I.I. Mechnikov North-Western Medical University, St. Petersburg 191015, Russia; St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate factors, which influence the content of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA).

Methods: 398 serial plasma samples were collected within 1-7 consecutive days from patients with EGFR-mutated lung cancer (n = 13), RAS/RAF-mutated colorectal cancer (n = 54) and BRAF-mutated melanoma (n = 17), who presented with measurable tumor disease. The amount of ctDNA was determined by ddPCR.

Results: Among 82 patients, who donated 2-6 serial plasma samples, 42 subjects were classified as ctDNA-positive; only 22% cases were mutation-positive across all consecutive tests, while 24/82 (29%) patients showed presence of mutated ctDNA in some but not all blood draws. Subjects with progressing tumors had higher probability of being detected ctDNA-positive as compared to patients, who responded to therapy or had stable disease (39/55 (71%) vs. 4/24 (17%); p = 0.0001). Our study failed to reveal the impact of the time of the day, recent meal or prior physical exercise on the results of ctDNA testing.

Conclusions: Presence of ctDNA in plasma is particularly characteristic for patients, who experience clinical progression of tumor disease. Consecutive plasma tests may occasionally provide discordant data; thus, the repetition of analysis may be advised in certain cases in order to ensure the validity of negative ctDNA result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2021.05.014DOI Listing
August 2021

The predictive ability of the 313 variant-based polygenic risk score for contralateral breast cancer risk prediction in women of European ancestry with a heterozygous BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.

Genet Med 2021 09 10;23(9):1726-1737. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between a previously published 313 variant-based breast cancer (BC) polygenic risk score (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant heterozygotes.

Methods: We included women of European ancestry with a prevalent first primary invasive BC (BRCA1 = 6,591 with 1,402 prevalent CBC cases; BRCA2 = 4,208 with 647 prevalent CBC cases) from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA), a large international retrospective series. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall and ER-specific PRS and CBC risk.

Results: For BRCA1 heterozygotes the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative PRS showed the largest association with CBC risk, hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.06-1.18), C-index = 0.53; for BRCA2 heterozygotes, this was the ER-positive PRS, HR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.25), C-index = 0.57. Adjusting for family history, age at diagnosis, treatment, or pathological characteristics for the first BC did not change association effect sizes. For women developing first BC < age 40 years, the cumulative PRS 5th and 95th percentile 10-year CBC risks were 22% and 32% for BRCA1 and 13% and 23% for BRCA2 heterozygotes, respectively.

Conclusion: The PRS can be used to refine individual CBC risks for BRCA1/2 heterozygotes of European ancestry, however the PRS needs to be considered in the context of a multifactorial risk model to evaluate whether it might influence clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01198-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460445PMC
September 2021

Molecular predictors of the outcome of paclitaxel plus carboplatin neoadjuvant therapy in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 09 2;88(3):439-450. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Tumor Growth Biology, N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, Saint-Petersburg, 197758, Russia.

Background: Patients with advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) are usually treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin; however, predictive markers for this drug combination are unknown.

Methods: Tumor samples from 71 consecutive HGSOC patients, who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin, were subjected to molecular analysis.

Results: BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers (n = 22) had longer treatment-free interval (TFI) than non-carriers (n = 49) (9.5 months vs. 3.8 months; P = 0.007). Fifty-one HGSOCs had sufficient quality of tumor DNA for the next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis by the SeqCap EZ CNV/LOH Backbone Design panel. All 13 tumors obtained from BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers and 12 sporadic HGSOCs showed a high number of evenly spread chromosomal breaks, which was defined as a BRCAness phenotype; median TFI for this combined group approached 9.5 months. The remaining 26 HGSOCs had similarly high global LOH score (above 20%); however, in contrast to BRCAness tumors, LOH involved large chromosomal segments; these patients had significantly lower TFI (3.7 months; P = 0.006). All patients with CCNE1 amplification (n = 7), TP53 R175H substitution (n = 6), and RB1 mutation (n = 4) had poor response to paclitaxel plus carboplatin.

Conclusion: This study describes a cost-efficient method of detecting the BRCAness phenotype, which is compatible with the laboratory-scale NGS equipment. Some molecular predictors allow the identification of potential non-responders to paclitaxel plus carboplatin, who may need to be considered for other treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-021-04301-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficacy of lorlatinib in lung carcinomas carrying distinct ALK translocation variants: The results of a single-center study.

Transl Oncol 2021 Aug 21;14(8):101121. Epub 2021 May 21.

I.P. Pavlov St.-Petersburg State Medical University, St.-Petersburg 197022, Russia; Institute of Medical Primatology, Sochi 354376, Russia; N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, St.-Petersburg 197758, Russia; St.-Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, St.-Petersburg 194100, Russia; I.I. Mechnikov North-Western Medical University, St.-Petersburg 191015, Russia.

Background: Lorlatinib is a novel potent ALK inhibitor, with only a few studies reporting the results of its clinical use.

Methods: This study describes the outcomes of lorlatinib treatment for 35 non-small cell lung cancer patients with ALK rearrangements, who had 2 (n = 5), 1 (n = 26) or none (n = 4) prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors and received lorlatinib mainly within the compassionate use program.

Results: Objective tumor response (OR) and disease control (DC) were registered in 15/35 (43%) and 33/35 (94%) patients, respectively; brain metastases were particularly responsive to the treatment (OR: 22/27 (81%); DC: 27/27 (100%)). Median progression free survival (PFS) was estimated to be 21.8 months, and median overall survival (OS) approached to 70.1 months. Only 4 out of 35 patients experienced no adverse effects; two of them were the only subjects who had no clinical benefit from lorlatinib. PFS and OS in the no-adverse-events lorlatinib users were strikingly lower as compared to the remaining patients (1.1 months vs. 23.7 months and 10.5 months vs. not reached, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). ALK translocation variants were known for 28 patients; there was no statistical difference between patients with V.1 and V.3 rearrangements with regard to the OS or PFS.

Conclusion: Use of lorlatinib results in excellent disease outcomes, however caution must be taken for patients experiencing no adverse effects from this drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144735PMC
August 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Neoadjuvant therapy of BRCA1-driven ovarian cancer by combination of cisplatin, mitomycin C and doxorubicin.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2021 Feb 3;19(1):14. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, 197758, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Background: Cisplatin, mitomycin C and anthracyclines demonstrate high activity in BRCA1-deficient tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the triplet combination of these drugs in BRCA1-driven high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs).

Methods: Ten HGSOC patients with germ-line BRCA1 mutation received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) consisting of mitomycin C 10 mg/m (day 1), doxorubicin 30 mg/m (days 1 and 8) and cisplatin 80 mg/m (day 1), given every 4 weeks (MAP regimen). The comparator group included 16 women, who received standard NACT combination of paclitaxel 175 mg/m and carboplatin (6 AUC), given every 3 weeks (TCbP scheme).

Results: None of the patients treated by the MAP scheme demonstrated complete pathologic response in ovaries, while 4 women showed absence of tumor cells in surgically excised omental specimens. When chemotherapy response scores (CRS) were considered, poor responsiveness (CRS 1) was not observed in the MAP group, but was common for the TCbP regimen (6/16 (38 %) for ovaries and 5/16 (31 %) for omentum; p = 0.05 and 0.12, respectively). Median treatment-free interval (TFI) was not reached in women treated by the MAP, but was 9.5 months for the TCbP scheme (p = 0.1). The rate of the recurrence within 1 year after the completion of the treatment was 4/10 (40 %) for the MAP and 10/13 (77 %) for the TCbP (p = 0.1).

Conclusions: The attempt to intensify NACT by administering combination of 3 drugs did not result in high rate of complete pathologic responses. However, there was a trend towards higher efficacy of the MAP regimen versus conventional TCbP scheme with regard to CRS and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13053-021-00173-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860626PMC
February 2021

LncRNA ZFAS1 inhibits triple-negative breast cancer by targeting STAT3.

Biochimie 2021 Mar 9;182:99-107. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Zoology, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, 151001, India. Electronic address:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive subtype of breast cancer with fewer treatment options than other types of invasive breast cancer due to the loss of the estrogen, progesterone receptors and low levels of the HER2 protein, resulting in a poor prognosis for these patients. Here, we found that the expression of the lncRNA, ZFAS1, was significantly downregulated (∼3.0-fold) in blood samples of TNBC patients (n=40) compared to matched healthy controls (n=40). Functionally, silencing of ZFAS1 promoted cell proliferation and colonization of human MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells by inhibiting the expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 (CDKN1A) and p27 (CDKN1B) compared to the scrambled siRNA control cells. Further, we found that downregulation of ZFAS1 led to decreased protein levels of the epithelial markers, E-cadherin, Claudin-1, and Zo-1, with increased protein levels of the mesenchymal markers, Slug and ZEB1. In addition, by utilizing the bioinformatic tools such as RAID v2.0 (RNA Interactome Database Version 2.0), AnnoLnc (Annotate human lncRNA database), and GEPIA (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis), we identified a strong negative correlation between ZFAS1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) gene expression (R = -0.11, p-value = 0.0002). Further, we observed that decreased ZFAS1 expression significantly (p < 0.05) increased STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 (at Ser727 residue) protein levels in TNBC cells. The composite data indicate that ZFAS1 may function as a tumor-suppressor lncRNA with potential as a diagnostic/prognostic marker and may offer a new target for the treatment of TNBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2020.12.026DOI Listing
March 2021

Revisiting multiple erroneous genetic testing results and clinical misinterpretations in a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome: lessons for translational medicine.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2021 Jan 6;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, Pesochniy, Saint-Petersburg, 197758, Russia.

Background: Many cancer patients undergo sophisticated laboratory testing, which requires proper interpretation and interaction between different specialists.

Case Presentation: We describe a patient with an extensive family history of cancer, who was diagnosed with bilateral breast cancer and two lung cancer lumps by the age of 40 years. She submitted a lung cancer specimen to a genetic profiling service, which reported the presence of the EGFR mutation (a combination of G719S and L833V substitutions) and the TP53 с.322_327del (p.G108_F109del) mutation in the tumor tissue. Possible therapeutic options were discussed at a medical conference, where one of the discussants raised a concern that the identified TP53 mutation may not necessarily be somatic, but reflect the germ-line status of the gene. Review of clinical records and follow-up dialog with the patient revealed, that she previously provided her blood for DNA analysis in two laboratories. The first laboratory utilized a custom NGS assay and did not detect the TP53 mutation, instead pointed to a potential pathogenic significance of the MSH6 c.2633 T > C (p.V878A) allele. The second laboratory revealed the TP53 с.322_327del (p.G108_F109del) allele but stated in the written report that it has an unknown pathogenic significance. To resolve the possible uncertainty regarding the role of the TP53 с.322_327del (p.G108_F109del) variant, we suggested that the patient invite her second cousin for genetic testing, as she was affected by neuroblastoma at the age of 3 years. This analysis revealed the presence of the same TP53 variant.

Conclusion: We provide point-by-point discussion, reviewing multiple laboratory mistakes and clinical misinterpretations occurred with this patient. This case report exemplifies the need to involve rigorous clinical expertise in the daily practice of medical laboratory facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13053-020-00157-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789132PMC
January 2021

Molecular testing and targeted therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: Current status and perspectives.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jan 11;157:103194. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Oncology, I.I. Mechnikov North-Western Medical University, St.-Petersburg, 195067, Russia; Department of Thoracic Oncology, N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, St.-Petersburg, 197758, Russia.

Molecular testing has become a mandatory component of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) management. The detection of EGFR, BRAF and MET mutations as well as the analysis of ALK, ROS1, RET and NTRK translocations have already been incorporated in the NSCLC diagnostic standards, and the inhibitors of these kinases are in routine clinical use. There are emerging biomarkers, e.g., KRAS G12C substitutions and HER2 activating alterations, which are likely to enter NSCLC guidelines upon the approval of the corresponding drugs. In addition to genetic examination, NSCLCs are usually subjected to the analysis of PD-L1 protein expression in order to direct the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Comprehensive NSCLC testing for multiple predictive markers requires the analysis of distinct biological molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and, therefore, the involvement of different analytical platforms (PCR, DNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, FISH). There are ongoing efforts aimed at the integration of multiple NSCLC molecular assays into a single diagnostic pipeline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2020.103194DOI Listing
January 2021

Aberrant COL11A1 splicing causes prelingual autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss in the DFNA37 locus.

Hum Mutat 2021 01 11;42(1):25-30. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Tübingen Hearing Research Centre, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Alpha-chain collagen molecules encoded by genes that include COL11A1 are essential for skeletal, ocular, and auditory function. COL11A1 variants have been reported in syndromes involving these organ systems. However, a description of the complete clinical spectrum is lacking, as evidenced by a recent association of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss due to a splice-altering variant in COL11A1, mapping the DFNA37 locus. Here, we describe two German families presenting prelingual autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss with novel COL11A1 heterozygous splice-altering variants (c.652-1G>C and c.4338+2T>C) that were molecularly characterized. Interestingly, the c.652-1G>C variant affects the same intron 4 canonical splice site originally reported in the DFNA37 family (c.652-2A>C) but elicits a different splicing outcome. Furthermore, the c.4338+2T>C variant originated de novo. We provide clinical and molecular genetic evidence to unambiguously confirm that COL11A1 splice-altering variants cause DFNA37 hearing loss and affirm that COL11A1 be included in the genetic testing of patients with nonsyndromic deafness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24136DOI Listing
January 2021

Gastric Cancer in BRCA1 Germline Mutation Carriers: Results of Endoscopic Screening and Molecular Analysis of Tumor Tissues.

Pathobiology 2020 6;87(6):367-374. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Tumor Growth Biology, N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Introduction: There is some evidence suggesting a link between BRCA1/2 germline mutations and increased risk of gastric cancer.

Methods: Endoscopic screening for stomach malignancies was performed in 120 BRCA1 mutation carriers in order to evaluate the probability of detecting the tumor disease.

Results: No instances of gastric cancer were revealed at the first visit. The analysis of atrophic changes performed by OLGA (Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment) criteria revealed that OLGA stages I-IV alterations were observed in 26 of 41 (63%) subjects aged >50 years as compared to 29 of 79 (37%) in younger subjects (p = 0.007, χ2 test). One BRCA1 mutation carrier developed gastric cancer 4 years after the first visit for endoscopic examination. We performed next-generation sequencing analysis for this tumor and additional 4 archival gastric cancers obtained from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Somatic loss of the remaining BRCA1/2 allele was observed in 3 out of 5 tumors analyzed; all of these carcinomas, but none of the malignancies with the retained BRCA1/2 copy, showed chromosomal instability.

Conclusion: Taken together, these data justify further studies on the relationships between the BRCA1/2 and gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511323DOI Listing
July 2021

Harmonization of Molecular Testing for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Emphasis on PD-L1.

Front Oncol 2020 30;10:549198. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Institute of Oncology, Hadassah Moscow, Moscow, Russia.

Comprehensive molecular testing plays a critical role in the choice of treatment for non-small lung cell cancer (NSCLC). The analysis of druggable alterations in EGFR, BRAF, MET, KRAS, ALK, ROS1, RET and NTRK1/2/3 genes is more or less standardized and can be achieved using a single diagnostic platform, e.g., next generation sequencing (NGS) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In contrast to above targets, PD-L1 testing requires the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC). There are multiple PD-L1 IHC assays, which utilize distinct antibodies and detection systems. These PD-L1 tests are tailored to distinct drugs, often rely on different thresholds and scoring guidelines, and are characterized by incomplete inter-laboratory and inter-observer reproducibility. Several studies evaluated the performance of PD-L1 RNA expression tests, as PCR-based RNA analysis is compatible with other NSCLC molecular testing platforms, can be performed in a semi-automated manner, and has a potential for proper standardization. These investigations revealed a correlation between PD-L1 protein and RNA expression; however, there were NSCLCs demonstrating decent amounts of PD-L1 transcript in the absence of PD-L1 IHC staining. Clinical studies are required to evaluate, which of the two PD-L1 testing approaches, i.e., RNA or protein expression measurement, has a better predictive value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.549198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554524PMC
September 2020

Rapid Improvement of the Performance Status and Reduction of the Tumor Size in KRAS-Mutated Colorectal Cancer Patient Receiving Binimetinib, Hydroxychloroquine, and Bevacizumab.

Case Rep Oncol 2020 May-Aug;13(2):985-989. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Oncology, I.P. Pavlov Medical University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Activating RAS mutations occur in more than a half of colorectal cancers (CRCs). RAS-mutated CRCs are notoriously difficult to treat given that they are characterized by the aggressive disease course and the lack of appropriate targeted therapies. Recent preclinical studies demonstrated that RAS-mutated cells escape from therapeutic MEK inhibition by the development of autophagy, and this escape may be prevented by the administration of an antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine. The available clinical data are limited to a single case observation involving a patient with KRAS-mutated pancreatic cancer. Here, we report a woman with KRAS G12D-mutated CRC, whose tumor did not respond to conventional therapy. The combination of binimetinib, hydroxychloroquine, and bevacizumab was administered as a last-hope option. The patient experienced rapid improvement of the performance status. The tumor lumps demonstrated 17% reduction in the size within the first 6 weeks of the therapy. This report calls for evaluation of the efficacy of a combination of MEK inhibitors and hydroxychloroquine, possibly with the addition of bevacizumab, in chemotherapy-resistant patients with RAS-mutated cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506371PMC
August 2020

Frequency and molecular characteristics of PALB2-associated cancers in Russian patients.

Int J Cancer 2021 01 6;148(1):203-210. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, St. Petersburg, Russia.

PALB2 is а high-penetrance gene for hereditary breast cancer (BC). Our study aimed to investigate the spectrum of PALB2 mutations in Russian cancer patients. PALB2 sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in 3/190 (1.6%) young-onset and/or familial and/or bilateral BC cases but none in 96 ovarian cancer (OC) or 172 pancreatic cancer patients. Subsequently, seven recurrent PALB2 pathogenic alleles were selected from this and previous Slavic studies and tested in an extended patient series. PALB2 pathogenic variants were detected in 5/585 (0.9%) "high-risk" BC, 10/1508 (0.7%) consecutive BC and 5/1802 (0.3%) OC cases. Haplotyping suggested that subjects with Slavic alleles c.509-510delGA (n = 10) and c.172-175delTTGT (n = 4) as well as carriers of Finnish c.1592delT mutation (n = 4) originated from a single founder each, while PALB2 p.R414X allele (n = 4) had at least two independent founders. Somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was revealed in 5/10 chemonaive BCs and in 0/2 BC samples obtained after neoadjuvant therapy. Multigene sequencing identified somatic PALB2 inactivating point mutation in one out of two tumors without PALB2 LOH but in none of four BCs with PALB2 LOH. Genomic instability, as determined by NGS, was observed in four out of five tumors with biallelic PALB2 inactivation but not in the BC sample with the preserved wild-type PALB2 allele. PALB2 germ-line mutations contribute to a small fraction of cancer cases in Russia. The majority although not all PALB2-driven BCs have somatic inactivation of the remaining PALB2 allele and therefore potential sensitivity to platinum compounds and PARP inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33317DOI Listing
January 2021

Treating non-small cell lung cancer with selumetinib: an up-to-date drug evaluation.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2020 Nov 3;21(16):1943-1953. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Oncology, I.P. Pavlov St.-Petersburg State Medical University , St.-Petersburg, 197022, Russia.

Introduction: RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling is implicated in tumor development by promoting cell proliferation and other cancer hallmarks. MEK1/2 kinases are up-regulated in the majority of human cancers due to activation of tyrosine kinase receptors, RAS proteins, BRAF kinase, or some other members of the MAPK pathway. Targeting of MEK1/2 kinases may counterbalance cancer progression.

Areas Covered: The authors analyze the scientific publications relevant to selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) systematically and provide their expert opinion.

Expert Opinion: Selumetinib is an oral selective allosteric inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Single-agent selumetinib is usually administered in hydrogen sulfate capsules 75 mg twice a day; combination with other therapeutic compounds may or may not require reduced dosing of this drug. The established dose for pediatric patients is 25 mg per square meter twice a day. Selumetinib was extensively evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Studies utilizing this drug as a monotherapy did not confirm its efficacy toward NSCLC. A phase II trial showed that the addition of selumetinib to docetaxel improved response rates and progression-free survival (PFS) in chemotherapy-pretreated KRAS-mutated NSCLC patients; however, a subsequent phase III study did not confirm these findings. There are several highly successful non-NSCLC selumetinib trials involving, e.g., patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 related tumors and children with low-grade BRAF-driven gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2020.1798930DOI Listing
November 2020

Frequency and spectrum of founder and non-founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a large series of Russian breast cancer and ovarian cancer patients.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Nov 9;184(1):229-235. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Department of Tumor Growth Biology, N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Background: The spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Slavic countries is characterized by a high prevalence of founder alleles.

Methods: We analyzed a large data set of Russian breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) patients, who were subjected to founder mutation tests or full-length BRCA1 and BRCA2 analysis.

Results: The most commonly applied test, which included four founder mutations (BRCA1: 5382insC, 4153delA, 185delAG; BRCA2: 6174delT), identified BRCA1 or BRCA2 heterozygosity in 399/8533 (4.7%) consecutive BC patients, 230/2317 (9.9%) OC patients, and 30/118 (25.4%) women with a combination of BC and OC. The addition of another four recurrent BRCA1 mutations to the test (BRCA1 C61G, 2080delA, 3819del5, 3875del4) resulted in evident increase in the number of identified mutation carriers (BC: 16/993 (1.6%); OC: 34/1289 (2.6%); BC + OC: 2/39 (5.1%)). Full-length sequencing of the entire BRCA1 and BRCA2 coding region was applied to 785 women, very most of whom demonstrated clinical signs of BRCA-driven disease, but turned out negative for all described above founder alleles. This analysis revealed additional BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers in 54/282 (19.1%) BC, 50/472 (10.6%) OC, and 13/31 (42%) BC + OC patients. The analysis of frequencies of founder and "rare" BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic alleles across various clinical subgroups (BC vs. OC vs. BC + OC; family history positive vs. negative; young vs. late-onset; none vs. single vs. multiple clinical indicators of BRCA1- or BRCA2-associated disease) revealed that comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 analysis increased more than twice the number of identified mutation carriers in all categories of the examined women.

Conclusion: Full-length BRCA1 and BRCA2 sequencing is strongly advised to Slavic subjects, who have medical indications for BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing but are negative for recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05827-8DOI Listing
November 2020

Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 10 15;22(10):1653-1666. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Exeter, UK.

Purpose: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

Results: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

Conclusion: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0862-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521995PMC
October 2020

Mitomycin C plus cisplatin for systemic treatment of recurrent BRCA1-associated ovarian cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2020 12 26;38(6):1872-1878. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

N.N. Petrov National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Leningradskaya, 68, Pesochny-2, 197758, St.-Petersburg, Russia.

Background Previous studies on neoadjuvant therapy for BRCA1-driven ovarian cancer (OC) demonstrated higher efficacy of mitomycin C plus cisplatin combination as compared to standard drug schemes. These data call for evaluation of the utility of this regimen for the treatment of recurrent BRCA1-associated OC. Methods The study included 12 BRCA1 germ-line mutation carriers, whose disease relapsed after one (n = 4) or two (n = 8) lines of chemotherapy. The patients received cisplatin 100 mg/m and mitomycin C 10 mg/m, given every four weeks, for 6 (n = 10), 8 (n = 1) or 5 (n = 1) cycles. Retrospective data on conventional treatment of OC relapses in BRCA1 heterozygotes (n = 47) served as a control. Results Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 4/12 (33%) cases. There were 6 complete responses (CR), 4 partial responses (PR) and 2 instances of stable disease (SD). Comparison of patients receiving mitomycin C plus cisplatin (n = 4) or conventional therapy (n = 44) at first relapse demonstrated marginal improvement of the progression-free survival (PFS) (16.6 months vs. 10.2 months, P = .067). Use of mitomycin C plus cisplatin (n = 8) for the treatment of second relapse resulted in significant prolongation of PFS as compared to standard regimens (n = 31) (14.8 months vs. 4.8 months, P = .002). Conclusions Mitomycin C plus cisplatin shows promising activity in recurrent BRCA1-driven ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-00965-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Small fraction of testicular cancer cases may be causatively related to CHEK2 inactivating germ-line mutations: evidence for somatic loss of the remaining CHEK2 allele in the tumor tissue.

Fam Cancer 2021 01;20(1):49-53

N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology, Leningradskaya, 68, Pesochny-2, St.-Petersburg, Russia, 197758.

A recent study suggested a role of CHEK2 loss-of-function germ-line pathogenic variants in the predisposition to testicular cancer (TC) (AlDubayan et al. JAMA Oncol 5:514-522, 2019). We attempted to validate this finding relying on the high population frequency of recurrent CHEK2 pathogenic variants in Slavic populations. CHEK2 pathogenic alleles (c.1100delC (p.Thr367Metfs); del5395 [del ex9-10]; IVS2 + 1G > A [c.444 + 1G > A]) were detected in 7/280 (2.5%) TC patients vs. 3/424 (0.7%) healthy men and 6/1007 (0.6%) healthy women [OR 4.0 (95% CI 1.5-11), p = 0.009 for pooled control groups]. Somatic CHEK2 loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) was detected in 4 out of 6 tumors available for analysis; strikingly all these instances of LOH involved inactivation of the wild-type allele. The CHEK2 c.470T > C (p.Ile157Thr) variant was detected in 21/280 (7.5%) affected vs. 22/424 (5.2%) non-affected men [OR 1.5 (95% CI 0.8-2.7), p = 0.3]. Somatic CHEK2 LOH was revealed only in 6 out of 21 tumors obtained from CHEK2 c.470T > C (p.Ile157Thr) carriers, with the C-allele lost in two cases and T-allele deleted in four tumors. The results of comparison of allele frequencies in TC patients versus population controls coupled with the data on CHEK2 LOH status in tumor tissues support the association of CHEK2 pathogenic variants with TC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-020-00190-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Next generation sequencing analysis of consecutive Russian patients with clinical suspicion of inborn errors of immunity.

Clin Genet 2020 09 17;98(3):231-239. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Medical Genetics, St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Primary immune deficiencies are usually attributed to genetic defects and, therefore, frequently referred to as inborn errors of immunity (IEI). We subjected the genomic DNA of 333 patients with clinical signs of IEI to next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 344 immunity-related genes and, in some instances, additional genetic techniques. Genetic causes of the disease were identified in 69/333 (21%) of subjects, including 11/18 (61%) of children with syndrome-associated IEIs, 45/202 (22%) of nonsyndromic patients with Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) warning signs, 9/56 (16%) of subjects with periodic fever, 3/30 (10%) of cases of autoimmune cytopenia, 1/21 (5%) of patients with unusually severe infections and 0/6 (0%) of individuals with isolated elevation of IgE level. There were unusual clinical observations: twins with severe immunodeficiency carried a de novo CHARGE syndrome-associated SEMA3E c.2108C>T (p.S703L) allele; however, they lacked clinical features of CHARGE syndrome. Additionally, there were genetically proven instances of Netherton syndrome, Х-linked agammaglobulinemia, severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), IPEX and APECED syndromes, among others. Some patients carried recurrent pathogenic alleles, such as AIRE c.769C>T (p.R257*), NBN c.657del5, DCLRE1C c.103C>G (p.H35D), NLRP12 c.1054C>T (p.R352C) and c.910C>T (p.H304Y). NGS is a powerful tool for high-throughput examination of patients with malfunction of immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13789DOI Listing
September 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020
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