Publications by authors named "Evgenia Glogova"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Long-Term Outcome and Role of Biology within Risk-Adapted Treatment Strategies: The Austrian Neuroblastoma Trial A-NB94.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

St. Anna Children's Hospital, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

We evaluated long-term outcome and genomic profiles in the Austrian Neuroblastoma Trial A-NB94 which applied a risk-adapted strategy of treatment (RAST) using stage, age and amplification (MNA) status for stratification. RAST ranged from surgery only to intensity-adjusted chemotherapy, single or multiple courses of high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell rescue depending on response to induction chemotherapy, and irradiation to the primary tumor site. Segmental chromosomal alterations (SCAs) were investigated retrospectively using multi- and pan-genomic techniques. The A-NB94 trial enrolled 163 patients. Patients with localized disease had an excellent ten-year (10y) event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of 99 ± 1% and 93 ± 2% whilst it was 80 ± 13% and 90 ± 9% for infants with stage 4S and for infants with stage 4 non-MNA disease both 83 ± 15%. Stage 4 patients either >12 months or ≤12 months but with MNA had a 10y-EFS and OS of 45 ± 8% and 47 ± 8%, respectively. SCAs were present in increasing frequencies according to stage and age: in 29% of localized tumors but in 92% of stage 4 tumors ( < 0.001), and in 39% of patients ≤ 12 months but in 63% of patients > 12 months ( < 0.001). RAST successfully reduced chemotherapy exposure in low- and intermediate-risk patients with excellent long-term results while the outcome of high-risk disease met contemporary trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867286PMC
February 2021

Age Dependency of the Prognostic Impact of Tumor Genomics in Localized Resectable -Nonamplified Neuroblastomas. Report From the SIOPEN Biology Group on the LNESG Trials and a COG Validation Group.

J Clin Oncol 2020 11 9;38(31):3685-3697. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Children's Cancer Research Institute, St Anna Kinderkrebsforschung, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: For localized, resectable neuroblastoma without amplification, surgery only is recommended even if incomplete. However, it is not known whether the genomic background of these tumors may influence outcome.

Patients And Methods: Diagnostic samples were obtained from 317 tumors, International Neuroblastoma Staging System stages 1/2A/2B, from 3 cohorts: Localized Neuroblastoma European Study Group I/II and Children's Oncology Group. Genomic data were analyzed using multi- and pangenomic techniques and fluorescence in-situ hybridization in 2 age groups (cutoff age, 18 months) and were quality controlled by the International Society of Pediatric Oncology European Neuroblastoma (SIOPEN) Biology Group.

Results: Patients with stage 1 tumors had an excellent outcome (5-year event-free survival [EFS] ± standard deviation [SD], 95% ± 2%; 5-year overall survival [OS], 99% ± 1%). In contrast, patients with stage 2 tumors had a reduced EFS in both age groups (5-year EFS ± SD, 84% ± 3% in patients < 18 months of age and 75% ± 7% in patients ≥ 18 months of age). However, OS was significantly decreased only in the latter group (5-year OS ± SD in < 18months and ≥ 18months, 96% ± 2% and 81% ± 7%, respectively; = .001). In < 18months, relapses occurred independent of segmental chromosome aberrations (SCAs); only 1p loss decreased EFS (5-year EFS ± SD in patients 1p loss and no 1p loss, 62% ± 13% and 87% ± 3%, respectively; = .019) but not OS (5-year OS ± SD, 92% ± 8% and 97% ± 2%, respectively). In patients ≥ 18 months, only SCAs led to relapse and death, with 11q loss as the strongest marker (11q loss and no 11q loss: 5-year EFS ± SD, 48% ± 16% and 85% ± 7%, = .033; 5-year OS ± SD, 46% ± 22% and 92% ± 6%, = .038).

Conclusion: Genomic aberrations of resectable non-amplified stage 2 neuroblastomas have a distinct age-dependent prognostic impact. Chromosome 1p loss is a risk factor for relapse but not for diminished OS in patients < 18 months, SCAs (especially 11q loss) are risk factors for reduced EFS and OS in those > 18months. In older patients with SCA, a randomized trial of postoperative chemotherapy compared with observation alone may be indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.02132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605396PMC
November 2020

The impact of donor type on the outcome of pediatric patients with very high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A study of the ALL SCT 2003 BFM-SG and 2007-BFM-International SG.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jan 4;56(1):257-266. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

St Anna Children's Hospital, Universitätsklinik für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Medizinische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria.

Allogeneic HSCT represents the only potentially curative treatment for very high risk (VHR) ALL. Two consecutive international prospective studies, ALL-SCT-(I)BFM 2003 and 2007 were conducted in 1150 pediatric patients. 569 presented with VHR disease leading to any kind of HSCT. All patients >2 year old were transplanted after TBI-based MAC. The median follow-up was 5 years. 463 patients were transplanted from matched donor (MD) and 106 from mismatched donor (MMD). 214 were in CR1. Stem cell source was unmanipulated BM for 330 patients, unmanipulated PBSC for 135, ex vivo T-cell depleted PBSC for 62 and cord-blood for 26. There were more advanced disease, more ex vivo T-cell depletion, and more chemotherapy based conditioning regimen for patients transplanted from MMD as compared to those transplanted from MSD or MD. Median follow up (reversed Kaplan Meier estimator) was 4.99 years, median follow up of survivals was 4.88, range (0.01-11.72) years. The 4-year CI of extensive cGvHD was 13 ± 2% and 17 ± 4% (p = NS) for the patients transplanted from MD and MMD, respectively. 4-year EFS was statistically better for patients transplanted from MD (60 ± 2% vs. 42 ± 5%, p < 0.001) for the whole cohort. This difference does not exist if considering separately patients treated in the most recent study. There was no difference in 4-year CI of relapse. The 4-year NRM was lower for patients transplanted from MD (9 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 4%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, donor-type appears as a negative risk-factor for OS, EFS, and NRM. This paper demonstrates the impact of donor type on overall results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for very-high risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia with worse results when using MMD stem cell source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01014-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796856PMC
January 2021

Transplantation in Children and Adolescents with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia from a Matched Donor versus an HLA-Identical Sibling: Is the Outcome Comparable? Results from the International BFM ALL SCT 2007 Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 11 15;25(11):2197-2210. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

St Anna Children's Hospital, UKKJ, MUW, Vienna, Austria.

Eligibility criteria for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary according to disease characteristics, response to treatment, and type of available donor. As the risk profile of the patient worsens, a wider degree of HLA mismatching is considered acceptable. A total of 138 children and adolescents who underwent HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors (MSDs) and 210 who underwent HSCT from matched donors (MDs) (median age, 9 years; 68% male) in 10 countries were enrolled in the International-BFM ALL SCT 2007 prospective study to assess the impact of donor type in HSCT for pediatric ALL. The 4-year event-free survival (65 ± 5% vs 61 ± 4%; P = .287), overall survival (72 ± 4% versus 68 ± 4%; P = .235), cumulative incidence of relapse (24 ± 4% versus 25 ± 3%; P = .658) and nonrelapse mortality (10 ± 3% versus 14 ± 3%; P = .212) were not significantly different between MSD and MD graft recipients. The risk of extensive chronic (cGVHD) was lower in MD graft recipients than in MSD graft recipients (hazard ratio [HR], .38; P = .002), and the risks of severe acute GVHD (aGVHD) and cGVHD were higher in peripheral blood stem cell graft recipients than in bone marrow graft recipients (HR, 2.06; P = .026). Compared with the absence of aGVHD, grade I-II aGVHD was associated with a lower risk of graft failure (HR, .63; P = .042) and grade III-IV aGVHD was associated with a higher risk of graft failure (HR, 1.85; P = .020) and nonleukemic death (HR, 8.76; P < .0001), despite a lower risk of relapse (HR, .32; P = .021). Compared with the absence of cGVHD, extensive cGVHD was associated with a higher risk of nonleukemic death (HR, 8.12; P < .0001). Because the outcomes of transplantation from a matched donor were not inferior to those of transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling, eligibility criteria for transplantation might be reviewed in pediatric ALL and possibly in other malignancies as well. Bone marrow should be the preferred stem cell source, and the addition of MTX should be considered in MSD graft recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.011DOI Listing
November 2019

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors is associated with higher infection rates in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia-A prospective international multicenter trial on behalf of the BFM-SG and the EBMT-PDWP.

Am J Hematol 2019 08 29;94(8):880-890. Epub 2019 May 29.

St. Anna Kinderspital and Children's Cancer Research Institute (CCRI), Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Severe infections (SI) significantly impact on non-relapse mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We assessed 432 children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after total body irradiation based myeloablative HSCT within the multicenter ALL-BFM-SCT 2003 trial for SI grade 3 or higher according to common terminology criteria for adverse events. A total 172 patients experienced at least one SI. Transplantation from matched unrelated donors (MUD) was associated with any type of SI in the pre-engraftment period (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57; P < .001), and with any SI between day +30 and + 100 (HR: 2.91; P = .011). Bacterial (HR: 2.24; P = .041) and fungal infections (HR: 4.06; P = .057) occurred more often in the pre-engraftment phase and viral infections more often before day +30 (HR: 2.66; P = .007) or between day +30 and + 100 (HR: 3.89; P = .002) after HSCT from MUD as compared to matched sibling donors. Chronic GvHD was an independent risk factor for any type of SI after day +100 (HR: 2.57; P < .002). We conclude that allogeneic HSCT from MUD in children and adolescents with pediatric ALL is associated with higher infection rates, which seems attributable to an intensified GvHD prophylaxis including serotherapy and methotrexate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6772138PMC
August 2019

Presence of centromeric but absence of telomeric group B KIR haplotypes in stem cell donors improve leukaemia control after HSCT for childhood ALL.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 11 14;54(11):1847-1858. Epub 2019 May 14.

Division of Pediatric Stem Cell Therapy, Clinic for Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Clinical Immunology, Center for Child and Adolescent Health, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) provides high cure rates for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), relapses remain the main cause of treatment failure. Whereas donor killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotype was shown to impact on relapse incidence in adult myeloid leukaemia similar studies in paediatric ALL are largely missing. Effect of donor KIR genotype on transplant outcome was evaluated in 317 children receiving a first myeloablative HSCT from an HLA-matched unrelated donor or sibling within the prospective ALL-SCT-BFM-2003 trial. Analysis of donor KIR gene polymorphism revealed that centromeric presence and telomeric absence of KIR B haplotypes was associated with reduced relapse risk. A centromeric/telomeric KIR score (ct-KIR score) integrating these observations correlated with relapse risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.58; P = 0.002) while it had no impact on graft-versus-host disease or non-relapse mortality. In multivariable analyses ct-KIR score was associated with reduced relapse risk (HR 0.58; P = 0.003) and a trend towards improved event-free survival (HR 0.76; P = 0.059). This effect proved independent of MRD level prior to HSCT. Our data suggest that in children with ALL undergoing HSCT after myeloablative conditioning, donor selection based on KIR genotyping holds promise to improve clinical outcome by decreasing relapse risk and prolonged event-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0543-zDOI Listing
November 2019

Low incidence of symptomatic osteonecrosis after allogeneic HSCT in children with high-risk or relapsed ALL - results of the ALL-SCT 2003 trial.

Br J Haematol 2018 10 20;183(1):104-109. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Children's Cancer Research Institute (CCRI), St. Anna Kinderkrebsforschung, Vienna, Austria.

Osteonecrosis (ON) was prospectively assessed in 557 children and adolescents in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Stem Cell Transplantation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 2003 trial. Median age at haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was 10·3 years (range 0·5-26). Cumulative incidence of symptomatic ON (sON) was 9% at 5 years (standard deviation 1%), median time from HSCT to diagnosis of sON was 12·4 months (range 1-126). Multivariate analysis identified age at HSCT [10-15 years vs. <10 years: hazard ratio (HR) 3·73, P = 0·009; >15 years vs. <10 years: HR 5·46, P = 0·001], diagnosis of sON prior to HSCT and chronic graft-versus-host disease (yes versus no: HR 2·696, P = 0·015) as significant independent risk factors for the development of sON.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15511DOI Listing
October 2018

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from HLA-Mismatched Donors for Pediatric Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated According to the 2003 BFM and 2007 International BFM Studies: Impact of Disease Risk on Outcomes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 09 14;24(9):1848-1855. Epub 2018 May 14.

St. Anna Children's Hospital, Universitätsklinik für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Medizinische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is beneficial for pediatric patients with relapsed or (very) high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in remission. A total of 1115 consecutive patients were included in the ALL SCT 2003 BFM study and the ALL SCT 2007 I-BFM study and were stratified according to relapse risk (standard versus high versus very high risk of relapse) and donor type (matched sibling versus matched donor versus mismatched donor). A total of 148 patients (60% boys; median age, 8.7 years; B cell precursor ALL, 75%) were transplanted from mismatched donors, which was defined as either less than 9/10 HLA-compatible donors or less than 5/6 unrelated cord blood after myeloablative conditioning regimen (total body irradiation based, 67%) for high relapse risk (HRR; n = 42) or very HRR (VHRR) disease (n = 106). The stem cell source was either bone marrow (n = 31), unmanipulated peripheral stem cells (n = 28), T cell ex vivo depleted peripheral stem cells (n = 59), or cord blood (n = 25). The median follow-up was 5.1 years. The 4-year rates of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival were 56% ± 4% and 52% ± 4%, respectively, for the entire cohort. Patients transplanted from mismatched donors for HRR disease obtained remarkable 4-year OS and event-free survival values of 82% ± 6% and 80% ± 6%, respectively, whereas VHRR patients obtained values of 45% ± 5% and 42% ± 5% (P < .001), respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 29% ± 4% and that of nonrelapse mortality 19% ± 3%. The cumulative incidence of limited and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease was 13% ± 3% and 15% ± 4%, respectively, among the 120 patients living beyond day 100. Multivariate analysis showed that OS was lower for transplanted VHRR patients (P = .002; hazard ratio [HR], 3.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 8.20) and for patients beyond second complete remission (CR2) versus first complete remission (P < .001; HR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.79 to 7.56); relapse occurred more frequently in patients with VHRR disease (P = .026; HR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.16 to 9.60) and for those beyond CR2 (P = .005; HR, 4.16; 95% CI, 1.52 to 10.59). Nonrelapse mortality was not significantly higher for cytomegalovirus-positive recipients receiving cytomegalovirus-negative grafts (P = .12; HR, 1.96; 95% CI, .84 to 4.58). HSCT with a mismatched donor is feasible in pediatric ALL patients but leads to inferior results compared with HSCT with better matched donors, at least for patients transplanted for VHRR disease. The results are strongly affected by disease status. The main cause of treatment failure is still relapse, highlighting the urgent need for interventional strategies after HSCT for patients with residual leukemia before and/or after transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.05.009DOI Listing
September 2018

Outcome of relapse after allogeneic HSCT in children with ALL enrolled in the ALL-SCT 2003/2007 trial.

Br J Haematol 2018 01 28;180(1):82-89. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure in children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Prognosis is considered dismal but data on risk factors and outcome are lacking from prospective studies. We analysed 242 children with recurrence of ALL after first allo-SCT enrolled in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM) ALL-SCT-BFM 2003 and ALL-SCT-BFM international 2007 studies. Median time from allo-SCT to relapse was 7·7 months; median follow-up from relapse after allo-SCT until last follow-up was 3·4 years. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 15% and overall survival (OS) was 20%. The main cause of death was disease progression or relapse (86·5%). The majority of children (48%) received salvage therapy without second allo-SCT, 26% of the children underwent a second allo-SCT and 25% received palliative treatment only. In multivariate analyses, age, site of relapse, time to relapse and type of salvage therapy were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS and EFS, whereas factors associated with first SCT were not statistically significant. Combined approaches incorporating novel immunotherapeutic treatment options and second allo-SCT hold promise to improve outcome in children with post allo-SCT relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14965DOI Listing
January 2018

Cost-Effectiveness of Defibrotide in the Prophylaxis of Veno-Occlusive Disease after Pediatric Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Jul 27;23(7):1128-1133. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

St. Anna Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) remains a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Prophylactic use of defibrotide (DF) might further reduce VOD rates but has no impact on the incidence of severe VOD or VOD-associated mortality. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic DF according to the British Committee for Standards in Haematology/British Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation guidelines in 348 children who underwent transplantation between 2001 and 2014 in our hospital, 138 of whom were at risk for VOD. The VOD incidence was 7.4% for the total cohort. Patients at risk had a higher incidence of VOD compared with patients without risk factors (15.2% versus 2.4%, P < .0001). VOD occurred more often in patients after busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning than in patients after total body irradiation (11.2% versus 3.5%, P = .001). Donor types or the transplantation-related mortality (TRM) risk score did not correlate with VOD incidence. In 81% of patients who responded to therapeutic DF, VOD resolved completely. Overall VOD-associated mortality was .3% for the complete cohort, 3.7% for patients diagnosed with VOD, and 20% for patients with severe VOD. Neither the cumulative incidence of TRM (19% ± 8% versus 17% ± 2%, P = .706) nor the median length of hospitalization differed between patients with VOD and patients without. The median costs per HSCT in patients with VOD were about one-third higher than the overall median costs per transplantation at our institution. The calculated total costs of prophylactic DF treatment for 138 patients at risk was almost 6 times as high as the incremental costs for patients with VOD. We conclude that prophylactic DF for children at risk for VOD is not cost-effective with respect to TRM and length of hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.03.022DOI Listing
July 2017

Peripheral blood late mixed chimerism in leucocyte subpopulations following allogeneic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignancies: does it matter?

Br J Haematol 2016 06 21;173(6):905-17. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Department of Paediatrics, St. Anna Children's Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The impact of persistent mixed chimerism (MC) after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unclarified. We investigated the incidence of MC in peripheral blood beyond day +50 after HSCT and its impact on rejection, chronic graft-versus-host disease (c-GvHD) and relapse in 161 children receiving allogeneic HSCT for haematological malignancies. The 1-year incidence of late MC was 26%. Spontaneous conversion to complete donor chimerism (CC) occurred in 43% of patients as compared to 62% after donor lymphocyte infusions. No graft rejection occurred. The 1-year incidence of c-GvHD was 20 ± 7% for MC, and 18 ± 4% for CC patients (P = 0·734). The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) according to chimerism status at days +50 and +100 was 22 ± 4% for CC patients vs. 22 ± 8% for MC patients (day +50; P = 0·935) and 21 ± 4% vs. 20 ± 7% (day +100; P = 0·907). Three-year CIRs in patients with persistent MC and patients with CC/limited MC were comparable (8 ± 7% vs. 19 ± 4%; P = 0·960). HSCT for acute leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome as secondary malignancies (hazard ratio (HR) 4·7; P = 0·008), for AML (HR 3·0; P = 0·02) and from mismatched donors (HR 3·1; P = 0·03) were independent factors associated with relapse. Our data suggest that late MC neither protects from c-GvHD nor does it reliably predict impending disease relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14008DOI Listing
June 2016

European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Analysis of Treosulfan Conditioning Before Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children and Adolescents With Hematological Malignancies.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Jan 23;63(1):139-48. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

St. Anna Kinderspital and Childrens Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Standard myeloablative conditioning regimens for children with hematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic HSCT are based mainly on total body irradiation or busulfan. Their serious short- and long-term side effects warranted the exploration of less toxic alternatives. Treosulfan is increasingly used for adults and children before HSCT due to its potent immunosuppressive and cytotoxic effects combined with low organ toxicity.

Procedure: To further investigate the role of treosulfan conditioning in children, the EBMT Pediatric diseases working party performed a retrospective analysis of 193 children with hematological malignancies (ALL n = 71, AML n = 47, MDS/MPS n = 40, other leukemia/lymphoma n = 25) undergoing allogeneic HSCT following treosulfan between January 2005 and July 2010.

Results: Early regimen-related toxicity was low and mainly gastrointestinal. Veno-occlusive disease and neurological toxicity were rare. There was no association of toxicity with type of disease or treosulfan dose. High-grade early toxicity was not higher in infants or patients undergoing second or later transplantation. Treatment related mortality was low at 14%. Three-year event-free survival was 45 ± 4% and not significantly influenced by number of transplants, however it appeared to be significantly better for infants (P = 0.022). When compared to treosulfan plus fludarabine, the combination of treosulfan, fludarabine and an alkylator (either thiotepa or melphalan) resulted in significantly better overall survival (OS, P = 0.048) and a trend toward better EFS.

Conclusions: Treosulfan based conditioning is a safe and effective approach for children with hematological malignancies, including and importantly for infants and those patients undergoing second or later transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25764DOI Listing
January 2016

Lack of bone lesions at diagnosis is associated with inferior outcome in multisystem langerhans cell histiocytosis of childhood.

Br J Haematol 2015 Apr 18;169(2):241-8. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale 7, Ragusa, Italy.

Skeletal involvement is generally, but not universally, characteristic of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We investigated whether the presence of bone lesions at diagnosis is a prognostic factor for survival in LCH. Nine hundred and thirty-eight children with multisystem (MS) LCH, both high (386 RO+) and low (RO-) risk, were evaluated for bone lesions at diagnosis. Risk organ (RO+) involvement was defined as: haematopoietic system (haemoglobin <100 g/l, and/or white blood cell count <4·0 × 10(9) /l and/or platelet count <100 × 10(9) /l), spleen (>2 cm below the costal margin), liver (>3 cm and/or hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, and/or increased aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase). Given the general view that prognosis in LCH worsens with increasing extent of disease, the surprising finding was that in MS+RO+ LCH the probability of survival with bone involvement 74 ± 3% (n = 230, 56 events) was reduced to 62 ± 4% (n = 156, 55 events) if this was absent (P = 0·007). An even greater difference was seen in the subgroup of patients with both liver and either haematopoiesis or spleen involvement: 61 ± 5% survival (n = 105; 52 events) if patients had bony lesions, versus 47 ± 5% (n = 111; 39 events) if they did not (P = 0·014). This difference was retained in multivariate analysis (P = 0·048). Although as yet unexplained, we conclude that bone involvement at diagnosis is a previously unrecognized favourable prognostic factor in MS+RO+ LCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13271DOI Listing
April 2015

Treosulfan-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic HSCT in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Ann Hematol 2015 Feb 19;94(2):297-306. Epub 2014 Sep 19.

St. Anna Kinderspital and Children's Cancer Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 6, 1090, Vienna, Austria,

Standard myeloablative conditioning regimens for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia are based on total body irradiation (TBI). However, TBI causes profound short-term and long-term side effects, provoking the necessity for alternative regimens. Treosulfan combines a potent immunosuppressive and antileukaemic effect with myeloablative activity and low toxicity profile. We retrospectively studied toxicity and outcome of 71 paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following treosulfan-based conditioning aiming to identify risk factors for treatment failure and dose-depending outcome differences. Early regimen-related toxicity was low. No case of veno-occlusive disease was reported. There was no association of toxicity with age or number of HSCT. Event-free survival (EFS) of infants was significantly better compared to older children. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 51 % and not significantly influenced by number of HSCT (first HSCT 54 %, ≥second HSCT 44 %, p = 0.71). In multivariate analysis, OS and EFS were significantly worse for patients transplanted without complete remission (p = 0.04 and 0.004). Treatment-related mortality was low at 14 %. We conclude that treosulfan-based conditioning is a safe and efficacious approach for paediatric ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-014-2196-8DOI Listing
February 2015

No impact of total or myeloid Cd34+ cell numbers on neutrophil engraftment and transplantation-related mortality after allogeneic pediatric bone marrow transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 May 31;20(5):676-83. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Children's Cancer Research Institute, St. Anna Kinderkrebsforschung, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Although the influence of transplanted bone marrow (BM) CD34+ cells on neutrophil engraftment (NE) and transplantation outcomes has been discussed controversially, thresholds between 2 and 4 × 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells are commonly accepted. This has substantial consequences for a donor in terms of BM volume to be collected, which frequently covers up to 15 to 20 mL/kg. As the BM CD34+ compartment contains varying fractions of CD34+/CD19+ B lymphoid progenitors, we tested the hypothesis that the infused CD34+/CD45dim/CD19-/CD10- myeloid stem cells might reliably predict NE in 94 children who received BM from 37 HLA-identical sibling donors (MSD) and 57 matched unrelated donors after myeloablative conditioning. The grafts contained a median of 3.6 × 10(6)/kg total CD34+ cells, which consisted of a median of 73% myeloid CD34+ cells and 27% B lymphoid progenitors. Grafts from donors <15 years old yielded significantly lower myeloid fractions compared with grafts from older donors (P < .001). All patients achieved sustained NE after median 20 (range, 11 to 40) days. By multivariate analysis, neither the number of total CD34+ cells (P = .605) nor of myeloid CD34+ cells (P = .981) correlated with NE, whereas transplantation from MSD (hazard ratio [HR] 3.51; P = .019) and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (HR 2.24; P = .002) remained independent factors associated with earlier NE. Furthermore, neither total nor myeloid CD34+ cell quantities were associated with incidences of severe infections before NE (P = .271 and P = .132) or transplantation-related mortality (TRM) at day +100 (P = .294 and P = .490). Taking into account that the number of transplanted total CD34+ or myeloid CD34+ cells does not seem to have a relevant impact on time to NE, sepsis rates, or TRM, the need of certain threshold cell numbers should be revisited, at least for pediatric MSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.01.026DOI Listing
May 2014

Development of treatment and clinical results in childhood AML in Austria (1993-2013).

Memo 2014 1;7(1):63-74. Epub 2014 Mar 1.

1St. Anna Kinderspital and Children's Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 6, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Background: Since the early 1990s, three consecutive pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) trials have been performed in Austria (AML-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 93, AML-BFM 98, and AML-BFM 2004) in close cooperation with the international BFM study center. Herein, we review the pertinent patient characteristics, therapy, and outcome data.

Patients And Methods: From January 1993 to April 2013, 249 children and adolescents (193 protocol patients) diagnosed with AML were enrolled in the three BFM studies. Patients were mainly treated in one of five pediatric hematology/oncology centers distributed over Austria.

Results: Many characteristics and outcome parameters were not statistically different between the three trials. Almost similar proportions of patients were stratified into two risk groups: standard risk (SR) (approximately 37 % overall) and high-risk (HR) (61 %). rearrangements were found in 23 % of patients overall as the most frequent genetic aberration subtype. Complete remission (CR) was achieved by 84-95 % of patients. The most important type of event was leukemic relapse (5-year cumulative incidence 40 ± 8 %, 21 ± 5 %, and 39 ± 6 %;  = 0.058), with a trend to a higher rate specifically in SR patients of study AML-BFM 2004 compared with AML-BFM 98. Importantly, the frequency of death from causes other than relapse sequelae declined over the years (AML-BFM 93: 5/42 12 %, AML-BFM 98: 5/57 9 %, and AML-BFM 2004: 5/94 5 %). Altogether, event-free survival at 5 years varied insignificantly (48 ± 8 %, 61 ± 7 %, and 50 ± 6 %;  = 0.406). Nevertheless, survival (pSU) apparently improved from BFM 93 to subsequent studies, both overall (57 ± 8 %, 75 ± 6 %, and 62 ± 6 %;  = 0.046) and regarding the HR group (5-year-probability of survival (pSU) 40 ± 10 %, 66 ± 8 %, and 52 ± 8 %;  = 0.039).

Conclusion: Treatment of pediatric AML in Austria renders survival rates in the range of international best practice. However, unambiguous statistical comparison of treatment periods is eventually hampered by small numbers and inequalities of recruitment. Hence, only internationally collaborative trials will allow developing treatment further to achieve higher cure rates with fewer events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12254-014-0135-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102234PMC
March 2014