Publications by authors named "Evelyn M Habit"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biogeography, habitat transitions and hybridization in a radiation of South American silverside fishes revealed by mitochondrial and genomic RAD data.

Mol Ecol 2020 02 29;29(4):738-751. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Rivers and lake systems in the southern cone of South America have been widely influenced by historical glaciations, carrying important implications for the evolution of aquatic organisms, including prompting transitions between marine and freshwater habitats and by triggering hybridization among incipient species via waterway connectivity and stream capture events. Silverside fishes (Odontesthes) in the region comprise a radiation of 19 marine and freshwater species that have been hypothesized on the basis of morphological or mitochondrial DNA data to have either transitioned repeatedly into continental waters from the sea or colonized marine habitats following freshwater diversification. New double digest restriction-site associated DNA data presented here provide a robust framework to investigate the biogeographical history of and habitat transitions in Odontesthes. We show that Odontesthes silversides originally diversified in the Pacific but independently colonized the Atlantic three times, producing three independent marine-to-freshwater transitions. Our results also indicate recent introgression of marine mitochondrial haplotypes into two freshwater clades, with more recurring instances of hybridization among Atlantic- versus Pacific-slope species. In Pacific freshwater drainages, hybridization with a marine species appears to be geographically isolated and may be related to glaciation events. Substantial structural differences of estuarine gradients between these two geographical areas may have influenced the frequency, intensity and evolutionary effects of hybridization events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15350DOI Listing
February 2020

Phylogeography of the catfish Hatcheria macraei reveals a negligible role of drainage divides in structuring populations.

Mol Ecol 2012 Feb 29;21(4):942-59. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Evolutionary Ecology Laboratories, Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

Southern South America provides a set of unusual geographic features that make it particularly interesting for studying phylogeography. The Andes Mountains run along a north-to-south axis and act as a barrier to gene flow for much of the biota of this region, with southern portions experiencing extensive historical glaciation. Geological data reveal a series of drainage reversals, shifting from Pacific Ocean outlets to Atlantic Ocean outlets because of glacier formation that dammed and reversed rivers. Once glaciers melted around 13 000 years ago, drainages returned to the Pacific Ocean. This geologic history predicts that aquatic organisms in Pacific rivers should have their closest relationships to their counterparts in Atlantic rivers immediately to their east. We tested this prediction in the trichomycterid catfish Hatcheria macraei from 38 locations using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that most populations found in Pacific rivers were closely related to fish found in the adjacent Atlantic draining Río Chubut. Surprisingly, one documented drainage reversal (from Río Deseado into Río Baker) did not result in movement of H. macraei. Overall, we found the lowest levels of genetic structure between most Pacific rivers that are adjacent to the Atlantic draining Río Chubut. We also found low levels of population structuring among three of four contemporary river basins that drain to the Atlantic Ocean. Our findings suggest that drainage basin boundaries have historically not played an important long-term role in structuring between nine of 11 drainages, an unusual finding in freshwater biogeography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05408.xDOI Listing
February 2012

Climate-induced changes to the ancestral population size of two Patagonian galaxiids: the influence of glacial cycling.

Mol Ecol 2011 Dec 11;20(24):5280-94. Epub 2011 Nov 11.

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Patagonia is one of the few areas in the Southern Hemisphere to have been directly influenced by Quaternary glaciers. In this study, we evaluate the influence that Quaternary glacial ice had on the genetic diversity of two congeneric fish species, the diadromous Galaxias maculatus and the nondiadromous Galaxias platei, using multilocus estimates of effective population size through time. Mid-Quaternary glaciations had far-reaching consequences for both species. Galaxias maculatus and G. platei each experienced severe genetic bottlenecks during the period when Patagonia ice sheet advance reached its maximum positions c. 1.1-0.6 Ma. Concordant drops in effective size during this time suggest that range sizes were under similar constraints. It is therefore unlikely that coastal (brackish/marine) environments served as a significant refuge for G. maculatus during glacial periods. An earlier onset of population declines for G. platei suggests that this species was vulnerable to modest glacial advances. Declines in effective sizes were continuous for both species and lasted into the late-Pleistocene. However, G. maculatus exhibited a strong population recovery during the late-Quaternary (c. 400,000 bp). Unusually long and warm interglacials associated with the late-Quaternary may have helped to facilitate a strong population rebound in this primarily coastal species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05352.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus.

BMC Evol Biol 2010 Mar 8;10:67. Epub 2010 Mar 8.

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background: The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (approximately 300 individuals from 36 locations).

Results: Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055). By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463). Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM) oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic) explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%). Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior). Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100x (60x-190x)] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups.

Conclusions: First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern populations involved the most ancient and most derived lineages, and was likely facilitated by drainage reversal(s) during one or more cooling events of the late Pleistocene. Overall female effective population size represents the end result of a widespread and several hundred-fold increase over approximately 0.5 Ma, spanning several climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene. The minor influence of glacial cycles on the genetic structure and diversity of G. maculatus likely reflects the access to marine refugia during repeated bouts of global cooling. Evidence of genetic structure that was detected on a finer scale between lakes/rivers is most likely the result of both biological attributes (i.e., resident non-migratory behavior and/or landlocking and natal homing in diadromous populations), and the Coastal Cordillera as a dispersal barrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-10-67DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2838892PMC
March 2010

Across the southern Andes on fin: glacial refugia, drainage reversals and a secondary contact zone revealed by the phylogeographical signal of Galaxias platei in Patagonia.

Mol Ecol 2008 Dec 12;17(23):5049-61. Epub 2008 Nov 12.

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H4J1.

We employed DNA sequence variation at two mitochondrial (control region, COI) regions from 212 individuals of Galaxias platei (Pisces, Galaxiidae) collected throughout Patagonia (25 lakes/rivers) to examine how Andean orogeny and the climatic cycles throughout the Quaternary affected the genetic diversity and phylogeography of this species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed four deep genealogical lineages which likely represent the initial division of G. platei into eastern and western lineages by Andean uplift, followed by further subdivision of each lineage into separate glacial refugia by repeated Pleistocene glacial cycles. West of the Andes, refugia were likely restricted to the northern region of Patagonia with small relicts in the south, whereas eastern refugia appear to have been much larger and widespread, consisting of separate northern and southern regions that collectively spanned most of Argentinean Patagonia. The retreat of glacial ice following the last glacial maximum allowed re-colonization of central Chile from nonlocal refugia from the north and east, representing a region of secondary contact between all four glacial lineages. Northwestern glacial relicts likely followed pro-glacial lakes into central Chilean Patagonia, whereas catastrophic changes in drainage direction (Atlantic --> Pacific) for several eastern palaeolakes were the likely avenues for invasions from the east. These mechanisms, combined with evidence for recent, rapid and widespread population growth could explain the extensive contemporary distribution of G. platei throughout Patagonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03987.xDOI Listing
December 2008

A new species of Pomphorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) in freshwater fishes from central Chile.

J Parasitol 2007 Feb;93(1):179-83

Departamento de Zoología, Centro EULA, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160, Concepción, Chile.

This study describes a new species of Pomphorhynchus collected from Percilia gillissi Girard, 1855 from the Zañartu canal, between the sister basins of the Itata and Laja rivers, in central Chile. Pomphorhynchus moyanoi n. sp. is characterized by an asymmetrical, well-differentiated subspherical bulb and 12-14 longitudinal rows of 13-14 hooks; the third and the fourth hook in each row are stout. Among South American species, P. moyanoi n. sp. shows some similarities to the Chilean species P. yamagutii Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973, but it differs in having a longer neck, larger bulb, and different proboscis armature arrangement. Pomphorhynchus moyanoi n. sp. differs from P. patagonicus Ortubay, Ubeda, Semenas & Kennedy 1991, in the bulb shape (protuberances), number of rows, fourth hook size and basal hook size. Pomphorhynchus moyanoi n. sp. also differs from P. sphaericus in the arrangement of hooks (number of rows and hooks per row), length and width of the proboscis, neck width, and symmetry of the bulb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-894R.1DOI Listing
February 2007