Publications by authors named "Eveline Jona"

5 Publications

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Does moxonidine reduce Achilles tendon or musculoskeletal pain in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome? A secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

BMC Endocr Disord 2020 Aug 26;20(1):131. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Background: Sympathetic activity and insulin resistance have recently been linked with chronic tendon and musculoskeletal pain. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is linked with insulin resistance and increased sympathetic drive and was therefore an appropriate condition to study the effects of modulating sympathetic activity on Achilles tendon and musculoskeletal symptoms.

Methods: A secondary analysis of a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial on women with polycystic ovarian syndrome was conducted. Participants received 12 weeks of moxonidine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 18). Musculoskeletal symptom and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaires were distributed, and ultrasound tissue characterisation quantified tendon structure at 0 and 12 weeks. 2-way ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons.

Results: There was no difference in mean change in musculoskeletal symptoms (- 0.6 ± 1.7 vs - 0.4 ± 1.8, p = 0.69) or VISA-A (moxonidine - 0.2 ± 8.8 vs placebo + 4.2 ± 14.6, p = 0.24) attributable to the intervention. There was no difference in any measures of Achilles structure. Moxonidine did not reduce sympathetic drive when compared to placebo.

Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the effects of blocking sympathetic drive on musculoskeletal and Achilles tendon symptoms in a metabolically diverse population. While the study was limited by small sample size and lack of sympathetic modulation, moxonidine did not change tendon pain/structure or musculoskeletal symptoms.

Trial Registration:, NCT01504321 . Registered 5 January 2012.
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August 2020

Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2019 03 7;90(3):425-432. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Physiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased obesity with a greater propensity to weight gain and a lack of sustainable lifestyle interventions. Altered brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is a potential contributor to obesity in PCOS. BAT activity and modulation have not been studied in PCOS. This observational study explored BAT thermogenesis and its associations in women with and without PCOS.

Participants And Methods: Cutaneous temperature was recorded from supraclavicular (indicator of BAT activity) and upper arm regions using dataloggers (SubCue, Calgary, Canada) in a cross-sectional substudy, nested within a randomized control trial, of community-recruited premenopausal women with (n = 47, Rotterdam diagnostic criteria) and without (n = 11) PCOS.

Results: Complete temperature data were available in 44 PCOS (mean age: 30.0 ± 6.2, mean BMI: 29.3 ± 5.5) and 11 non-PCOS (mean age: 33.0 ± 7.0, mean BMI: 25 ± 3) women. Women with PCOS had lower supraclavicular skin temperature compared to controls overall (33.9 ± 0.7 vs 34.5 ± 1, P < 0.05) and during sleep (34.5 ± 0.6 vs 35.2 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). In the PCOS group, supraclavicular skin temperature overall and over sleep and waking hours correlated inversely with testosterone (r = -0.41 P < 0.05, r = -0.485 P < 0.01 and r = -0.450 P < 0.01 respectively). Testosterone levels explained approximately 15%, 30% and 20% of the variability in supraclavicular skin temperature overall and over sleep and waking hours in women with PCOS, respectively.

Conclusion: Women with PCOS have lower BAT activity compared to controls. BAT thermogenesis is negatively associated with androgen levels in PCOS.
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March 2019

Effect of Central Sympathoinhibition With Moxonidine on Sympathetic Nervous Activity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Physiol 2018 25;9:1486. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Moxonidine is a centrally acting sympatholytic drug with known beneficial effects on hypertension, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and inflammation. In this double-blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial we examined the effect of moxonidine on modulating sympathetic activity and downstream metabolic abnormalities in 48 pre-menopausal women with PCOS (Rotterdam diagnostic criteria), recruited from the community (January 2013-August 2015). Participants received moxonidine (0.2 mg daily initially, up titrated to 0.4 mg daily in 2 weeks) ( = 23) or placebo ( = 25) for 12 weeks. Multiunit muscle sympathetic activity (by microneurography) and plasma noradrenaline levels were measured (primary outcomes). Fasting lipids, insulin resistance, serum androgens, and inflammatory markers were measured as secondary outcomes. Forty three women completed the trial (19 moxonidine, 24 placebo). Mean change in burst frequency (-3 ± 7 vs. -3 ± 8 per minute) and burst incidence (-3 ± 10 vs. -4 ± 12 per 100 heartbeat) did not differ significantly between moxonidine and placebo groups. Women on moxonidine had a significant reduction in hs-CRP compared to placebo group (-0.92 ± 2.3 vs. -0.04 ± 1.5) which did not persist post Bonferroni correction. There was a significant association between markers of insulin resistance at baseline and reduction in sympathetic activity with moxonidine. Moxonidine was not effective in modulating sympathetic activity in PCOS. Anti-inflammatory effects of moxonidine and a relationship between insulin resistance and sympathetic response to moxonidine are suggested which need to be further explored. (NCT01504321).
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October 2018

High-molecular-weight adiponectin is inversely associated with sympathetic activity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Fertil Steril 2018 03 7;109(3):532-539. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Diabetes and Vascular Medicine Unit, Monash Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine the role of high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin and its relationship to sympathetic activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Design: Cross sectional study using biobanked samples.

Setting: Not applicable.

Patient(s): Premenopausal women with PCOS (n = 46, Rotterdam diagnostic criteria) and without PCOS (n = 22).

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): High-molecular-weight adiponectin levels with secondary outcomes of sympathetic activity and leptin levels.

Result(s): The high-molecular-weight adiponectin level was lower in women with PCOS (median 2.2 [interquartile range (IQR)2.3] μg/mL) than in controls (median 3 [IQR2.5] μg/mL) (age and BMI adjusted), and it correlated inversely with the values measured for homeostatic model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting insulin, triglycerides, and free androgen index and positively with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in all participants and in the PCOS group. In the PCOS group, sympathetic activity (burst frequency) was statistically significantly higher than in controls (median 26 [IQR11] vs. median 22 [IQR14], respectively) and correlated inversely with HMW adiponectin (r = -0.230). The leptin levels were similar between the women with PCOS and controls and did not statistically significantly correlate with HMW adiponectin or sympathetic activity. On multiple regression analysis, burst frequency and SHBG explained 40% of the HMW adiponectin variability (B = -0.7; 95% CI -1.2 to -0.2; and B = 0.01; 95% CI 0.004-0.01) in PCOS.

Conclusion(s): Alongside insulin resistance, increased sympathetic activity is associated with and may modulate HMW adiponectin levels in women with PCOS.
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March 2018

Sympathetic activation and endothelial dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome are not explained by either obesity or insulin resistance.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2015 Dec 13;83(6):812-9. Epub 2015 May 13.

Human Neurotransmitters Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition underpinned by insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Previous data suggest autonomic imbalance [elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and decreased heart rate variability (HRV)] as well as endothelial dysfunction in PCOS. However, it is not clear whether these abnormalities are driven by obesity and metabolic disturbance or whether they are independently related to PCOS.

Participants And Methods: We examined multiunit and single-unit muscle SNS activity (by microneurography), HRV (time and frequency domain analysis) and endothelial function [ischaemic reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) using the EndoPAT device] in 19 overweight/obese women with PCOS (BMI: 31·3 ± 1·5 kg/m(2), age: 31·3 ± 1·6 years) and compared them with 21 control overweight/obese women (BMI: 33·0 ± 1·4 kg/m(2), age: 28·2 ± 1·6 years) presenting a similar metabolic profile (fasting total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure).

Results: Women with PCOS had elevated multiunit muscle SNS activity (41 ± 2 vs 33 ± 3 bursts per 100 heartbeats, P < 0·05). Single-unit analysis showed that vasoconstrictor neurons were characterized by elevated firing rate and probability and incidence of multiple spikes (P < 0·01 for all parameters). Women with PCOS also had impaired endothelial function (RHI: 1·77 ± 0·14 vs 2·18 ± 0·14, P < 0·05). HRV did not differ between the groups.

Conclusion: Women with PCOS have increased sympathetic drive and impaired endothelial function independent of obesity and metabolic disturbances. Sympathetic activation and endothelial dysfunction may confer greater cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS.
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December 2015