Publications by authors named "Eve Laloy"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Endoscopic assessment of presumed acquired pyloric narrowing in cats: A retrospective study of 27 cases.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Mar 20;136:408-415. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Neston CH64 7TE, UK.

Acquired pyloric narrowing is a rare and poorly-documented condition in cats, but the endoscopic appearance of pyloric narrowing has never previously been reported. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical, endoscopic and histological features in cats with gastrointestinal signs where the pylorus could not be passed during endoscopy, and to compare these data with a control group. Medical files of cats that underwent upper GI endoscopy by the same operator between 2006 and 2015 were reviewed. Cats for which the pylorus could not be passed were assigned to the case group, whilst those with an easily-passable pylorus were assigned to the control group. The case group comprised 27 cats and control group comprised 35 cats. Median age and weight were not different between groups, but there were more Siamese cats in the case group (6/27) compared with the control group (1/35; P = 0.04). Chronic vomiting was the main clinical sign in both groups, but the vomitus was more likely to contain food in case group (23/25) than in cats in control group (17/30; P < 0.01). Endoscopic findings confirmed gastric inflammation in both groups, whilst histological findings revealed similar lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the gastric mucosa and the duodenum in most cases, neoplastic features being infrequent. Acquired pyloric narrowing is probably an underdiagnosed condition in adult cats. A possible association between pyloric narrowing and gastrointestinal inflammatory disease requires further study but, for now, it is recommended that multiple gastric, pyloric, and duodenal biopsies be acquired during the endoscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.03.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Cutaneous and systemic granulomatous disease associated with hairy vetch toxicosis in a French Holstein dairy herd.

Vet Dermatol 2021 Apr 13;32(2):196-199. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

CHUVA pôle Animaux de Production, ENVA, Maisons-Alfort, 94700, France.

This report describes an outbreak of hairy vetch toxicosis afflicting a herd of cattle with a fatal cutaneous and systemic granulomatous disease. It highlights how this condition remains poorly recognized by cattle production professionals in Europe and the need for communication about vetch-associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12927DOI Listing
April 2021

Cutaneous and systemic granulomatous disease associated with hairy vetch toxicosis in a French Holstein dairy herd.

Vet Dermatol 2021 Apr 13;32(2):196-199. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

CHUVA pôle Animaux de Production, ENVA, Maisons-Alfort, 94700, France.

This report describes an outbreak of hairy vetch toxicosis afflicting a herd of cattle with a fatal cutaneous and systemic granulomatous disease. It highlights how this condition remains poorly recognized by cattle production professionals in Europe and the need for communication about vetch-associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12927DOI Listing
April 2021

Safety studies and viral shedding of intramuscular administration of oncolytic vaccinia virus TG6002 in healthy beagle dogs.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Aug 25;16(1):307. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Transgene, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France.

Background: Cancer is a leading cause of mortality for both humans and dogs. As spontaneous canine cancers appear to be relevant models of human cancers, developing new therapeutic approaches could benefit both species. Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach in cancer treatment. TG6002 is a recombinant oncolytic vaccinia virus deleted in the thymidine kinase and ribonucleotide reductase genes and armed with the suicide gene FCU1 that encodes a protein which catalyses the conversion of the non-toxic 5-fluorocytosine into the toxic metabolite 5-fluorouracil. Previous studies have shown the ability of TG6002 to infect and replicate in canine tumor cell lines, and demonstrated its oncolytic potency in cell lines, xenograft models and canine mammary adenocarcinoma explants. Moreover, 5-fluorouracil synthesis has been confirmed in fresh canine mammary adenocarcinoma explants infected with TG6002 with 5-fluorocytosine. This study aims at assessing the safety profile and viral shedding after unique or repeated intramuscular injections of TG6002 in seven healthy Beagle dogs.

Results: Repeated intramuscular administrations of TG6002 at the dose of 5 × 10 PFU/kg resulted in no clinical or biological adverse effects. Residual TG6002 in blood, saliva, urine and feces of treated dogs was not detected by infectious titer assay nor by qPCR, ensuring the safety of the virus in the dogs and their environment.

Conclusions: These results establish the good tolerability of TG6002 in healthy dogs with undetectable viral shedding after multiple injections. This study supports the initiation of further studies in canine cancer patients to evaluate the oncolytic potential of TG6002 and provides critical data for clinical development of TG6002 as a human cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02524-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446062PMC
August 2020

Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Chad.

Vet Med Sci 2020 02 16;6(1):114-121. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Laboratoire de Santé Animale de Maisons-Alfort, UMR Virologie 1161, INRA, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, France.

This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in domestic ruminants and at characterizing the virus strains circulating in four areas of Chad (East Batha, West Batha, Wadi Fira and West Ennedi). The study was carried out between October and November 2016. A total of 1,520 sera samples (928 cattle, 216 goats, 254 sheep and 122 dromedaries) were collected randomly for FMD serological analyses. Nine epithelial tissue samples were also collected from cattle showing clinical signs, for FMDV isolation and characterization. Serological results showed an overall NSP seroprevalence of 40% (375/928) in cattle in our sample (95% CrI [19-63]). However, seroprevalences of 84% (27/32), 78% (35/45) and 84% (21/25) were estimated in cattle over 5 years of age in East Batha, West Batha and Wadi Fira, respectively. In cattle under 1 year of age, 67% (18/27) seroprevalence was estimated in Wadi Fira, 64% (14/22) in East Batha and 59% (13/22) in West Batha. It was found that the high seroprevalences have been obtained in areas where pastures are shared by several different herds but also in farms where two to three species (bovine, caprine and ovine) are raised together. ELISA PrioCHECK FMDV types O and A and in-house solid phase competition ELISA serotyping results showed that the four O, A, SAT1 and SAT2 serotypes have circulated in Chad in 2016. However, the type SAT2 dominated with an overall seroprevalence of 43% (29/67) and was present in the four areas investigated. The phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 coding sequence allowed determining the serotype SAT2 topotype VII, close to viral strains found in Cameroon in 2015 with a similarity of 98.60%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036305PMC
February 2020

Model of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in multilayered cells derived from bovine dorsal soft palate.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jan 29;67(1):133-148. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Host Pathogen Interaction Group, Section of Ruminant Medicine, Department of Clinical Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious vesicular disease in livestock, with serious consequences for international trade. The virus persists in the nasopharynx of cattle and this slows down the process to obtain an FMDV-free status after an outbreak. To study biological mechanisms, or to identify molecules that can be targeted to diagnose or interfere with persistence, we developed a model of persistent FMDV infection in bovine dorsal soft palate (DSP). Primary DSP cells were isolated after commercial slaughter and were cultured in multilayers at the air-liquid interface. After 5 weeks of culture without further passage, the cells were infected with FMDV strain O/FRA/1/2001. Approximately, 20% of cells still had a polygonal morphology and displayed tight junctions as in stratified squamous epithelia. Subsets of cells expressed cytokeratin and most or all cells expressed vimentin. In contrast to monolayers in medium, multilayers in air demonstrated only a limited cytopathic effect. Integrin α β expression was observed in mono- but not in multilayers. FMDV antigen, FMDV RNA and live virus were detected from day 1 to 28, with peaks at day 1 and 2. The proportion of infected cells was highest at 24 hr (3% and 36% of cells at an MOI of 0.01 and 1, respectively). At day 28 after infection, at a time when animals that still harbour FMDV are considered carriers, FMDV antigen was detected in 0.2%-2.1% of cells, in all layers, and live virus was isolated from supernatants of 6/8 cultures. On the consensus level, the viral genome did not change within the first 24 hr after infection. Only a few minor single nucleotide variants were detected, giving no indication of the presence of a viral quasispecies. The air-liquid interface model of DSP brings new possibilities to investigate FMDV persistence in a controlled manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003861PMC
January 2020

Primary hyperparathyroidism due to a cystic parathyroid adenoma in a cat.

Open Vet J 2019 07 8;9(2):109-113. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

U955-IMRB, Inserm, Unité de médecine interne, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, UPEC, Maisons-Alfort F-94700, France.

A 15-year-old neutered female domestic shorthair cat was presented for weight loss, polydipsia/polyuria, and lethargy. A large fluctuant mass was palpated in the ventral right cervical region. Biochemistry results were consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid hormone level in the fluid was higher to that observed in the plasma, consistent with a cystic parathyroid lesion. Right parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy were performed without complications. Ionized calcium normalized within a few hours. Histopathology yielded a diagnosis of cystic parathyroid adenoma. Follow-up showed complete recovery of clinical signs and normalization of ionized calcium. This case shows an uncommon presentation of feline primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to a cystic parathyroid adenoma and is, to our knowledge, the first case presented with a large palpable mass in which parathyroid hormone concentration was measured. This report highlights the value of selective hormonal analyses of the cystic fluid to confirm the origin of the cystic lesion pre-operatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ovj.v9i2.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626155PMC
July 2019

Resumeq: A Novel Way of Monitoring Equine Diseases Through the Centralization of Necropsy Data.

Front Vet Sci 2019 26;6:135. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Coordination and Support Unit for Surveillance, ANSES, Lyon, France.

The French surveillance network for causes of equine mortality (Resumeq) was created in 2015 for the qualitative surveillance of equine mortality through the centralization in a national database of necropsy data and their subsequent epidemiological analysis. It was designed to identify the causes of equine mortality, monitor their evolution over time and space, and detect emerging diseases as early as possible. Resumeq is an event-based surveillance system involving various players and structures. It is organized around a steering body, a scientific and technical support committee and a coordination unit. Different tools have been developed specifically for Resumeq. These include standardized necropsy protocols, a thesaurus for the anatomopathological terms and the causes of equine death, and an interactive web application so that network contributors can display data analysis results. The four French veterinary schools, seventeen veterinary laboratories, and ten veterinary clinics already contribute to the production and centralization of standardized data. To date, the data from around 1,000 equine necropsies have been centralized. While most deaths were located in western France, the geographic coverage is gradually improving. Data analysis allows the main causes of death to be ranked and major threats identified on a local, regional or national level. Initial results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of this national surveillance tool. Moreover, in the future, this surveillance could take an international dimension if several countries decided to jointly capitalize on their necropsy data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6524722PMC
April 2019

Proteogenomics Uncovers Critical Elements of Host Response in Bovine Soft Palate Epithelial Cells Following In Vitro Infection with Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus.

Viruses 2019 01 12;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald, Germany.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most devastating disease of cloven-hoofed livestock, with a crippling economic burden in endemic areas and immense costs associated with outbreaks in free countries. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus, will spread rapidly in naïve populations, reaching morbidity rates of up to 100% in cattle. Even after recovery, over 50% of cattle remain subclinically infected and infectious virus can be recovered from the nasopharynx. The pathogen and host factors that contribute to FMDV persistence are currently not understood. Using for the first time primary bovine soft palate multilayers in combination with proteogenomics, we analyzed the transcriptional responses during acute and persistent FMDV infection. During the acute phase viral RNA and protein was detectable in large quantities and in response hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) were overexpressed, mediating antiviral activity and apoptosis. Although the number of pro-apoptotic ISGs and the extent of their regulation decreased during persistence, some ISGs with antiviral activity were still highly expressed at that stage. This indicates a long-lasting but ultimately ineffective stimulation of ISGs during FMDV persistence. Furthermore, downregulation of relevant genes suggests an interference with the extracellular matrix that may contribute to the skewed virus-host equilibrium in soft palate epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11010053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356718PMC
January 2019

Coccygeal chordoma in a degu: case report and review of the literature.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2019 Jan 12;31(1):142-145. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratoire d'anatomo-cytopathologie, Biopôle Alfort (Laloy, Sautier, Servely), Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, France.

An 8-y-old, intact female degu ( Octodon degus) was presented with a slow-growing mass on the tail tip. The mass was completely removed by partial caudectomy. Histologically, the last coccygeal vertebra was replaced by a lobulated neoplasm composed of large clear polygonal cells embedded in a myxoid alcian blue-positive matrix with highly vacuolated cytoplasm (physaliferous cells) and intracytoplasmic periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules. The neoplasm exhibited the morphologic features of a "classic" chordoma of humans, which is 1 of 3 distinct chordoma subtypes. Immunohistochemistry revealed dual expression of cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and vimentin, consistent with a diagnosis of chordoma. Chordomas are uncommon slow-growing neoplasms in humans and animals, arising from notochordal remnants. Depending on their subtype and location, they can have a high local recurrence rate and metastatic risk. Chordoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass on the tail of a degu, similar to the clinical situation in ferrets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638718814584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505757PMC
January 2019

Validation of a new experimental model for assessing drug efficacy against infection with Trypanosoma equiperdum in horses.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Nov 9;263:27-33. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

ANSES, Dozulé Laboratory for Equine Diseases, Bacteriology Unit, 14430, Goustranville, France.

Trypanosoma equiperdum, the causative agent of dourine, may affect the central nervous system, leading to neurological signs in infected horses. This location protects the parasite from most (if not all) existing chemotherapies. In this context, the OIE terrestrial code considers dourine as a non-treatable disease and imposes a stamping-out policy for affected animals before a country may achieve its dourine-free status. The use of practices as drastic as euthanasia remains controversial, but the lack of a suitable tool for studying a treatment's efficacy against dourine hampers the development of an alternative strategy for dourine infection management. The present study reports on the development of an experimental infection model for assessing drug efficacy against the nervous form of dourine. The model combines the infection of horses by Trypanosoma equiperdum and the search for trypanosomes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through an ultrasound-guided cervical sampling protocol. After a development phase involving four horses, we established an infection model that consists of inoculating 5 × 10T. equiperdum OVI parasites intravenously into adult Welsh mares (Equus caballus). To evaluate its efficacy, eight horses were infected according to this model. In all these animals, parasites were observed in the blood at 2 days post-inoculation (p.i.) and in CSF (12.5 ± 1.6 days p.i.) and seroconversion was detected (8.25 ± 0.5 days p.i.). All eight animals also developed fever (rectal temperature > 39 °C), low hematocrit (< 27%), and ventral edema (7.9 ± 2.0 days p.i.), together with other inconstant clinical signs such as edema of the vulva (six out of eight horses) or cutaneous plaques (three out of eight horses). This model provides a robust infection protocol that induces an acute trypanosome infection and that allows parasites to be detected in the CSF of infected horses within a period of time compatible with animal experimentation constraints. We conclude that this model constitutes a suitable tool for analyzing the efficacy of anti-Trypanosoma drugs and vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.10.005DOI Listing
November 2018

Bilateral bullous keratopathy secondary to melting keratitis in a Suri alpaca ().

Clin Case Rep 2018 04 15;6(4):626-630. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

CHUVA, Unité d'Opthalmologie Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort Université Paris - Est Maisons-Alfort F-94700 France.

An young alpaca was evaluated for bilateral progressive melting corneal ulcers and developped secondary bullous keratopathy during hospitalization. The tragic progression of melting ulcers in both eyes observed in our case leads us to recommend a rapid intensive medical therapy in young and debilitated alpacas presenting a corneal ulcer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.1389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5889221PMC
April 2018

Fetopathic effects of experimental Schmallenberg virus infection in pregnant goats.

Vet Microbiol 2017 Nov 14;211:141-149. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Université Paris-Est, ANSES, Laboratoire de Santé Animale, UMR 1161 Virologie ANSES-INRA-ENVA, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging virus responsible for congenital malformations in the offspring of domestic ruminants. It is speculated that infection of pregnant dams may also lead to a significant number of unrecognized fetal losses during the early period of gestation. To assess the pathogenic effects of SBV infection of goats in early pregnancy, we inoculated dams at day 28 or 42 of gestation and followed the animals until day 55 of gestation. Viremia in the absence of clinical signs was detected in all virus-inoculated goats. Fetal deaths were observed in several goats infected at day 28 or 42 of gestation and were invariably associated with the presence of viral genomic RNA in the affected fetuses. Among the viable fetuses, two displayed lesions in the central nervous system (porencephaly) in the presence of viral genome and antigen. All fetuses from goats infected at day 42 and the majority of fetuses from goats infected at day 28 of gestation contained viral genomic RNA. Viral genome was widely distributed in these fetuses and their respective placentas, and infectious virus could be isolated from several organs and placentomes of the viable fetuses. Our results show that fetuses of pregnant goats are susceptible to vertical SBV infection during early pregnancy spanning at least the period between day 28 and 42 of gestation. The outcomes of experimental SBV infection assessed at day 55 of gestation include fetal mortalities, viable fetuses displaying lesions of the central nervous system, as well as viable fetuses without any detectable lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.011DOI Listing
November 2017

Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearances of the caecum in cats presenting with chronic clinical signs of caecocolic disease.

J Feline Med Surg 2017 02 25;19(2):94-104. Epub 2016 Sep 25.

2 Department of Internal Medicine, University Paris-Est Créteil, National Veterinary School of Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Objectives This study aimed to describe the ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological characteristics of the caecum and ileocaecocolic junction in cats suffering from chronic clinical signs compatible with caecocolic disease. Methods Cats presenting with clinical signs suggestive of a caecocolic disease were prospectively recruited. All cats underwent an ultrasonographic examination of the caecum, ileum, colon, ileocolic lymph nodes and local mesenteric fat, in addition to comprehensive abdominal ultrasonography. This was followed by a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the caecocolic mucosa; caecocolic tissue samples were systematically collected for histologic analysis. Results Eighteen cats were included. Eleven of 18 cats had ultrasonographic abnormalities adjacent to the ileocaecocolic junction (lymphadenopathy, local steatitis) and 13/18 cats had abnormalities directly related to the junction (wall thickening, loss of wall layering). Seventeen of 18 cats had at least one ultrasonographic abnormality. Endoscopically, hyperaemia, oedema, discoloration and/or erosions were found in all cats. Each cat was classified as having mild or moderate-to-severe lesions according to endoscopic results; no classification could be established statistically for ultrasonographic results. The accentuation of the dimpled pattern tended to be inversely related to the severity of endoscopic lesion scoring. Histologically, a large proportion of cats showed typhlitis (13/16), one had lymphoma and two were normal. All cats with typhlitis also had colitis. There was only slight agreement between endoscopic and histological caecal results regarding the severity of lesions. Loss of caecal wall layering on ultrasound was found in 7/18 cats and, surprisingly, did not appear as a reliable predictor of the severity of inflammation or of malignancy; neither did local steatitis nor lymph node size. Conclusions and relevance Ultrasonography and endoscopy should not be used as the sole methods to investigate the ileocaecocolic region in cats with clinical signs suggestive of caecocolic disease. The presence of chronic clinical signs should routinely prompt histological biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X16663594DOI Listing
February 2017

Scleral and corneal xanthomatous inflammation in a gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

Vet Ophthalmol 2017 Mar 31;20(2):177-180. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, UP Ophtalmologie, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, F-94704, France.

Bilateral multifocal corneal opacity was detected in a 4.5-year-old male captive gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) without other clinical ocular changes. Histopathological examination revealed a severe diffuse granulomatous scleritis and focal keratitis with intralesional cholesterol, consistent with xanthomatous inflammation. This is the first report of xanthomatous inflammation in a gray mouse lemur. This condition may be the result of systemic factors (lipid metabolism disorders) and/or local predisposing factors such as hemorrhage or inflammation. The pathogenesis in this case could not be fully determined. Further studies on lemurs are required for a better understanding of their lipid metabolism, as well as for diagnosing and evaluating the incidence of xanthomatous inflammation in these species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12374DOI Listing
March 2017

Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearance of the caecum in clinically healthy cats.

J Feline Med Surg 2017 02 10;19(2):85-93. Epub 2016 Jul 10.

1 Department of Medical Imaging, University Paris-Est Créteil, National Veterinary School of Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the ultrasonographic and endoscopic appearance and characteristics of the caecum in asymptomatic cats, and to correlate these findings with histology. Methods Ex vivo ultrasonographic and histologic evaluations of a fresh caecum were initially performed. Then, 20 asymptomatic cats, privately owned or originating from a reproductive colony, were recruited. All cats had an ultrasonographic examination of the ileocaecocolic junction, where the thickness of the caecal wall, ileocolic lymph nodes and the echogenicity of the local fat were assessed. They all underwent a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the mucosa and biopsies for histology. Results An ultrasonographic hypoechoic nodular inner layer, which corresponded to the coalescence of multiple lymphoid follicles originating from the submucosa and protruding in the mucosa on histology, was visible in all parts of the caecum. The combined mucosa and submucosa was measured ultrasonographically and defined as the follicular layer. Although all cats were asymptomatic, 3/19 cats showed mild caecal inflammation on histology. The most discriminatory ultrasonographic parameter in assessing this subclinical inflammation was the thickness of the follicular layer at the entrance of the caecum, with a cut-off value of 2.0 mm. All cats (20/20) showed some degree of macroscopic 'dimpling' of the caecal mucosa on endoscopy. Conclusions and relevance Lymphoid follicles in the caecal mucosa and submucosa constitute a unique follicular layer on ultrasound. In asymptomatic cats, a subtle, non-clinically relevant inflammation may exist and this is correlated with an increased thickness of the follicular layer on ultrasound. On endoscopy, a 'dimpled aspect' to the caecal mucosa is a normal finding in the asymptomatic cat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X15602740DOI Listing
February 2017

Chronic gastritis and enterocolitis associated with Leishmania infection in an 18-month-old, intact female dog.

Vet Q 2015 8;35(4):236-9. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

a Internal Medicine Department, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d'Alfort , Universite Paris-Est , 7 avenue du general de Gaulle, Maisons-Alfort , Cedex 94704 , France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2015.1050529DOI Listing
August 2016

Schmallenberg virus infection among red deer, France, 2010-2012.

Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Jan;20(1):131-4

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884713PMC
January 2014

Comparison of the neuropathology induced by two West Nile virus strains.

PLoS One 2013 18;8(12):e84473. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Virology (UMR1161), French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), Maisons-Alfort, France ; Virology (UMR1161), French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Maisons-Alfort, France ; Virology (UMR1161), Paris-Est University, National Veterinary School of Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Some strains of West Nile virus (WNV) are neuroinvasive and may induce fatal encephalitis/meningitis in a variety of animal species including humans. Whether, however, there is a strain-specific signature in the brain is as yet unknown. Here we investigated the neuropathogenesis induced by two phylogenetically distant WNV strains of lineage 1, WNV(IS98) and WNV(KUN35 911). While four-week old C57Bl/6J mice were susceptible to both strains and succumbed rapidly after intraperitoneal inoculation, differences were observed in virulence and clinical disease. WNV(KUN35 911), the less virulent strain as judged by determination of LD50, induced typical signs of encephalitis. Such signs were not observed in WNV(IS98)-infected mice, although they died more rapidly. Histological examination of brain sections also revealed differences, as the level of apoptosis and inflammation was higher in WNV(KUN35 911)- than WNV(IS98)-infected mice. Moreover, staining for cleaved caspase 3 showed that the two WNV strains induced apoptotic death through different molecular mechanisms in one particular brain area. Finally, the two strains showed similar tropism in cortex, striatum, brainstem, and cerebellum but a different one in hippocampus. In summary, our data show that, upon peripheral administration, WNV(IS98) and WNV(KUN35 911) strains induce partially distinct lesions and tissue tropism in the brain. They suggest that the virulence of a WNV strain is not necessarily correlated with the severity of apoptotic and inflammatory lesions in the brain.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0084473PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3867487PMC
October 2014

Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

Vet Microbiol 2013 Oct 6;166(3-4):461-6. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Suedufer 10, 17493 Greifswald - Insel Riems, Germany.

Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.06.030DOI Listing
October 2013

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 experimentation on adult cattle.

Res Vet Sci 2013 Oct 27;95(2):794-8. Epub 2013 Jul 27.

ANSES, UMR 1161 Virologie ANSES-INRA-ENVA, 23 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an arthropod-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae), is an emerging pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants closely related to bluetongue virus (BTV). EHDV serotype 6 (EHDV6) has recently caused outbreaks close to Europe in Turkey and Morocco and a recent experimental study performed on calves inoculated with these two EHDV6 strains showed that the young animals have remained clinically unaffected. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of an EHDV6 strain from La Reunion Island in adult Holstein (18-month-old heifers). This EHDV6 strain has induced clinical signs in cattle in the field. Samples taken throughout the study were tested with commercially available ELISA and real-time RT-PCR kits. Very mild clinical manifestations were observed in cattle during the experiment although high levels of viral RNA and virus were found in their blood. EHDV was isolated from the blood of infected animals at 8 dpi. Antibodies against EHDV were first detected by 7 dpi and persisted up to the end of the study. Virus was detected in various tissue samples until 35 dpi, but was not infectious. In view of the recent circulation of different arboviruses in Europe, this study demonstrates what the EHD induces a strong viraemia in adult Holstein cattle and shows that a spread of EHD on European livestock cattle is possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.06.026DOI Listing
October 2013

Fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a cat.

J Feline Med Surg 2010 Dec 17;12(12):967-71. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Unité de Chirurgie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 avenue du Général De Gaulle, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

A 3-year-old neutered male Bengal cat with a history of chronic mucopurulent bilateral nasal discharge and sneezing was diagnosed with severe fungal rhinosinusitis. A diagnosis was obtained after computer tomography imaging, histopathological examination and fungal culture. The mold Scedosporium apiospermum was identified as the aetiological agent. To our knowledge, this case is the first description of a rhinitis or sinusitis caused by this agent in a cat. Aggressive surgical debridement combined with topical and systemic antifungal therapy was performed. Unfortunately, the treatment resulted only in a partial remission of signs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2010.07.004DOI Listing
December 2010