Publications by authors named "Evan Luther"

118 Publications

National reduction in cerebral arteriovenous malformation treatment correlated with increased rupture incidence.

J Neurointerv Surg 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: Recently, there has been a shift in management of unruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) following studies suggesting that medical management alone was superior to interventional therapy.

Objective: To evaluate the influence of contemporary AVM management on AVM rupture patterns in the United States.

Methods: 154 297 AVM admissions were identified between 2003 and 2017 in the National Inpatient Sample. Annual AVM intervention and rupture rates were computed and multivariable logistic regression assessed the likelihood of AVM intervention pre- and post-2014. Segmented regression identified significant change points and fitted segmented linear models for annual intervention and rupture rates. Correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between annual AVM intervention and rupture rates.

Results: For unruptured AVMs, intervention likelihood and proportion decreased after 2014 (28.1% to 22.3%, p<0.0001; adjusted OR=0.857, 95% CI 0.751 to 0.977, p=0.02). Ruptured AVM admissions increased from 14.7% to 18.6% after 2014 (p<0.0001). Between 2003 and 2017, segmented linear regression identified one significant change point in intervention rate between 2014 and 2015. Average annual percent change for rupture incidence and intervention rate increased by 0.49% (p=0.0001) and decreased by 1.17% (p=0.0001), respectively. Annual AVM intervention rates were inversely correlated with annual AVM rupture incidence (Pearson coefficient=-0.82, p=0.0002). In 2017, the annual AVM rupture rate (20.6%) surpassed the annual AVM intervention rate (19.7%).

Conclusions: After 2014, the likelihood of intervention for unruptured AVMs decreased while the incidence of ruptured AVMs increased. These findings suggest that fewer unruptured AVM treatments may lead to increases in AVM rupture incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnis-2022-019110DOI Listing
July 2022

Brain Metastasis from Pancreatic Cancer: Our Experience and Systematic Review.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Objective: To systematically review existing literature on the neurosurgical management and outcomes of brain metastasis from pancreatic cancer in comparison with our institutional experience of this patient cohort.

Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic literature review was performed using PubMed, Ovid Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from date of database inception to March 2022. Studies were selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Simultaneously, a retrospective analysis was conducted of patients who underwent neurosurgical evaluation and treatment for intracranial metastatic lesions from pancreatic origin at a single institution.

Results: The original literature search yielded 292 articles, of which 17 studies comprising 23 patients with brain metastases of pancreatic origin were ultimately selected. Median overall survival from primary diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was 22 months (interquartile range: 3-84) and 3 months (interquartile range: 1-36) after diagnosis of brain metastasis. In our institutional cohort, 4 patients were identified with a median overall survival of 30.5 months (interquartile range: 2-108). Our institutional cohort experienced a prolonged median overall survival (3 months vs. 30.5 months, P = 0.03) compared with the literature.

Conclusions: Brain metastasis from pancreatic cancer is rare and associated with a fatal outcome. However, based on the data presented in this review, patient-specific and treatment-related factors could signal better prognosis. Further studies are needed to elucidate multimodal therapy and survival to suggest a more personalized decision-making process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2022.07.060DOI Listing
July 2022

Commentary: Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization for Chronic Subdural Hematoma Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate With D5W Push Technique.

Neurosurgery 2022 Aug 7;91(2):e63-e64. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/neu.0000000000002051DOI Listing
August 2022

Positive predictive value and trends of inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) in diagnosing cushing disease and ectopic ACTH secretion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2022 Jun 24;220:107350. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) offers a means of differentiating between Cushing disease and Cushing syndrome with lower false-positive and false-negative rates relative to traditional techniques. However, consolidated data on efficiency reflecting contemporary use is lacking. We present a comprehensive meta-analysis of IPSS as a means of diagnosing ACTH-cortisol axis derangements via both CRH and desmopressin-stimulated techniques.

Methods: Searches of 7 electronic databases from inception to December 2020 were conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. Outcomes were pooled by random-effects meta-analyses of proportions where possible. We performed a meta-analysis of sixty-eight unique publications, assessing each technique for positive predictive value (PPV), false positive rates, and overall changes in practice patterns over time.

Results: A total of 68 studies satisfied all criteria, with 3685 (3471, 94.2% confirmed) and 332 (285, 85.8% confirmed) patients tested for Cushing's disease and syndrome, respectively. Pooled analyses demonstrated an overall PPV of 89.3% (95%CI[83.6%, 94.0%]) in CRH stimulation diagnosis of Cushing disease. In desmopressin stimulation, our analyses demonstrated an overall PPV of 96.5% (95%CI[94.5%, 98.1%]) in diagnosis of Cushing disease. There was a significant decline in the use of CRH-stimulation IPSS in diagnosis of both Cushing disease (p = 0.0055) and Cushing syndrome (p = 0.013). Concurrently, there was a significant increase in the use of desmopressin-stimulation IPSS in diagnosis of both pathologies (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate significant changes in practice patterns with respect to IPSS stimulation technique. Our pooled analyses demonstrate improved diagnostic performance in desmopressin stimulation procedures relative to CRH stimulation procedures. Further multi-institutional studies with special attention to acquiring quality data for sensitivity, specificity, and other critical analyses are necessary to truly evaluate this promising technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2022.107350DOI Listing
June 2022

Concurrent intraventricular intracranial myxoid mesenchymal tumor and ependymoma in a long-term Ewing sarcoma survivor.

Neuropathology 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Intracranial myxoid mesenchymal tumor, FET::CREB fusion positive is a rare, recently described central nervous system neoplasm. It is characterized by EWSR1::CREB family transcription factor fusion, typically arises in children and adolescents, and is locally aggressive even after gross total resection. Currently, there are little data available to guide management and gauge long-term prognosis. Furthermore, there have been no reports of these lesions occurring simultaneously with other intracranial neoplasms or in patients with a history of malignancy. Here we describe the first case of a very unusual patient with intracranial myxoid mesenchymal tumor of the right lateral ventricle with a concurrent fourth ventricular ependymoma who had a remote history of Ewing sarcoma of the right fibula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12844DOI Listing
June 2022

Traumatic brain injury and subsequent brain tumor development: a systematic review of the literature.

Neurosurg Rev 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

The role of prior head trauma in stimulating brain tumor development has been previously described in the literature but continues to be debated. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review interrogating the contemporary literature to delineate any possible relationship between traumatic brain injury and brain tumor development. A systematic review exploring development of post-TBI brain tumor was conducted by searching electronic databases. Abstracts from articles were read and selected for full-text review according to criteria previously established in the scientific literature. Relevant full-text articles were divided into case reports and single-arm studies and epidemiological studies. Of 1070 resultant articles, 18 case reports and single-arm studies (level of evidence of IV and V) with 45 patients were included. The most common cause of TBI was traffic accidents. The average period between TBI and subsequent tumor diagnosis was 12.8 years. Meningiomas represented the largest share of tumors, followed by gliomas. Most post-TBI brain tumors developed in the frontal and temporal lobes. Fifteen epidemiological studies were also interrogated from a variety of countries (level of evidence of III). Case-control studies were more common than cohort studies. There were 9 of 15 studies proposed a possible relationship between history of head trauma and development of brain tumor. The relationship between head trauma and neoplastic growth continues to be heavily debated. There are certainly case reports and epidemiological studies in the literature that suggest a correlational relationship between the two. However, there is no concrete evidence of a causal relationship between TBI and brain tumors. More research is needed to definitively delineate the extent of any such relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-022-01819-yDOI Listing
June 2022

Radical supramaximal resection for newly diagnosed left-sided eloquent glioblastoma: safety and improved survival over gross-total resection.

J Neurosurg 2022 May 27:1-8. Epub 2022 May 27.

1Department of Neurosurgery and.

Objective: Supramaximal resection (SMR) has arisen as a possible surrogate to gross-total resection (GTR) to improve survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (nGBM). However, SMR has traditionally been limited to noneloquent regions and its feasibility in eloquent nGBM remains unclear. The authors conducted a retrospective multivariate propensity-matched analysis comparing survival outcomes for patients with left-sided eloquent nGBM undergoing SMR versus GTR.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients at our institution who underwent SMR or GTR of a left-sided eloquent nGBM during the period from 2011 to 2020. All patients underwent some form of preoperative or intraoperative functional mapping and underwent awake or asleep craniotomy (craniotomy under general anesthesia); however, awake craniotomy was performed in the majority of patients and the focus of the study was SMR achieved via awake craniotomy and functional mapping with lesionectomy and additional peritumoral fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) resection. Propensity scores were generated controlling for age, tumor location, and preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score with the nearest-neighbor algorithm.

Results: A total of 102 patients (48 SMR, 54 GTR) were included in this study. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients receiving SMR were 22.9 and 5.1 months, respectively. Propensity matching resulted in a final cohort of 27 SMR versus 27 GTR patients. SMR conferred improved OS (21.55 vs 15.49 months, p = 0.0098) and PFS (4.51 vs 3.59 months, p = 0.041) compared to GTR. There was no significant difference in postoperative complication rates or KPS score in SMR compared with GTR patients (p = 0.236 and p = 0.736, respectively). In patients receiving SMR, improved OS and PFS showed a dose-dependent relationship with extent of FLAIR resection (EOFR) on log-rank test for trend (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: SMR by means of awake craniotomy with functional mapping for left-sided eloquent nGBM is safe and confers a survival benefit compared to GTR obtained with lesionectomy alone while preserving postoperative neurological integrity. When tolerated, greater EOFR with SMR may be associated with improved survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2022.3.JNS212399DOI Listing
May 2022

Use of an External Ventricular Drain for Treatment of a Thoracolumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Cureus 2022 Apr 12;14(4):e24066. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Neurological Surgery, Levene Neurosurgical Consulting Inc., Boca Raton, USA.

Post-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a known complication in spine surgery. This mostly iatrogenic issue is typically treated using a variety of modalities (i.e., bed rest, epidural patch), CSF diversion methods, or primary repair. The use of an external ventricular drain to treat this post-operative complication has been infrequently reported. We describe a case of a CSF leak after thoraco-lumbar surgery treated using an external ventricular drain and a review of the literature regarding this treatment modality. A 70-year-old man presented to our clinic with a recent diagnosis of multiple myeloma with progressive thoracic kyphosis and spinal stenosis. He developed progressive neurological deficits over the course of several weeks. Radiological studies showed significant thoracic kyphosis and severe cord compression in the thoraco-lumbar area. The patient underwent a T9-L4 posterior instrumentation and fusion with decompression surgery that developed post-operative wound infection and a CSF leak. An external ventricular drain (EVD) was used successfully as a CSF diversion method where direct thoracolumbar approaches were not feasible. Given the effectiveness of EVD placement in treating this post-operative complication, we concluded that the use of an EVD can be a potentially safe and effective way to treat thoracolumbar CSF leakage when lumbar or cervical drainage is not feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.24066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097466PMC
April 2022

Contemporary outcomes of diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor in pediatric patients: A case series and literature review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2022 07 30;218:107265. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States; Department of Neurological Surgery, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, United States.

Background: Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT), also known as oligodendrogliomatosis, is a rare neuro-oncologic condition along the neuraxis that remains poorly understood in children. We sought to describe our institutional experience and quantitively summarize the clinical survival and prognostic features of DLGNT in the pediatric population across the contemporary literature.

Methods: We report four institutional cases of pediatric DLGNT diagnosed between 2000 and 2020 based on retrospective review of our records, and performed a comprehensive literature search for published cases from 2000 onwards to create an integrated cohort for analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimations, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression were utilized to interrogate the data.

Results: Of our four cases, three females aged 2-, 3- and 13-years old at diagnosis survived 6-years, 3-years and 14-months respectively, and one male aged 5-years old at diagnosis was still alive 5 years later. Our overall integrated cohort consisted of 54 pediatric DLGNT patients, with 19 (35%) female and 35 (65%) male patients diagnosed at an average age of 6.4 years (range, 1.3-17 years) by means of surgical biopsy. Chemotherapy was used in 45 cases (83%), and mean follow-up time of 54 months (range, 3-204). Across the entire cohort, overall survival 1 month after diagnosis was 96% (95% CI 86-99%), and by 10 years was 69% (95% CI 49-82%). On multivariate analysis of complete data, chemotherapy treatment (HR=0.23, P = 0.04) was statistically predictive of longer overall survival.

Conclusions: More than 2-out-of-3 pediatric DLGNT patients survive beyond one decade. Chemotherapy is statistically associated with longer survival in DLGNT pediatric patients and should form the core of any treatment regimen in this setting. Early detection by means of judicious imaging and surgical biopsy for tissue diagnosis can lead to earlier treatment and likely superior outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2022.107265DOI Listing
July 2022

The Emerging Relevance of H3K27 Trimethylation Loss in Meningioma: A Systematic Review of Recurrence and Overall Survival with Meta-Analysis.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jul 16;163:87-95.e1. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: It has been proposed in the most recent 2021 World Health Organization classification of brain tumors that the loss of trimethylation at histone 3 lysine site 27 (H3K27me3) might prognosticate meningioma outcomes. However, to date, the emerging literature has remained diffuse in its stance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the prognostic relevance of H3K27me3 loss in meningioma.

Methods: Searches of 7 electronic databases from inception to October 2021 were conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) guidelines. Articles were screened against prespecified criteria. Outcomes were pooled by random effects meta-analyses of proportions, where possible.

Results: A total of 7 retrospective cohort studies satisfied all the criteria, with a total of 2180 meningioma patients overall (1291 male patients [59%]; mean age, 56 years). Across all 7 studies, the pooled incidence of H3K27me3 loss was estimated at 15% (95% confidence interval, 8%-24%). Across 6 studies, the pooled multivariate-derived hazard ratio estimate for recurrence was 1.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.31; P < 0.01). Overall survival on univariate analysis was significantly shorter with H3K27me3 loss in 2 of 4 studies (50%), and 2 studies had described a significant association between H3K27me3 loss and shorter overall survival on multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: The contemporary metadata favor a greater incidence of meningioma recurrence based independently on H3K27me3 loss, with a statistically significant difference. It is possible that these effects are more pronounced for grade 2 meningiomas; however, more robust data and analysis are needed to augment this position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2022.04.048DOI Listing
July 2022

Intracranial aneurysms in the infant population: an institutional case series and individual participant data meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2022 Apr 15:1-11. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Miami; and.

Objective: Infantile intracranial aneurysms are exceedingly rare. The goal of this study was to evaluate an institutional case series of infantile intracranial aneurysms, as well as those reported in the contemporary literature, to determine their demographics, presentation, management, and long-term outcome.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review from 1980 to 2020 was performed to identify individual cases of intracranial aneurysms in the infantile population ≤ 2 years of age. Additional cases from the authors' institution were identified during the same time period. An individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) was performed, abiding by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Patient demographic, radiographic, and clinical information was obtained. Descriptive statistical data were recorded, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: Patient data were obtained for 133 patients from 87 articles in the literature. Ten additional patients at the authors' institution were also identified, for a total of 143 patients included in the IPDMA. The majority (72.7%) of this cohort consisted of idiopathic aneurysms, while 13.3% were posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms, 9.8% were infectious mycotic aneurysms, and 4.2% were aneurysms associated with a systemic connective tissue disorder or vasculitis. The mean age at presentation was 6.6 months. The majority of infants (97.9%) harbored only 1 aneurysm, and hemorrhage was the most common presenting feature (78.3%). The mean aneurysm size was 14.4 mm, and giant aneurysms ≥ 25 mm comprised 12.9% of the cohort. Most aneurysms occurred in the anterior circulation (80.9%), with the middle cerebral artery (MCA) being the most commonly affected vessel (51.8%). Management strategies included open surgical aneurysm ligation (54.0%), endovascular treatment (35.0%), surgical decompression without aneurysm treatment (4.4%), and medical supportive management only (13.9%). Surgical aneurysm ligation was more commonly performed for MCA and anterior cerebral artery aneurysms (p = 0.004 and p = 0.015, respectively), while endovascular techniques were favored for basilar artery aneurysms (p = 0.042). The mean follow-up period was 29.9 months; 12.4% of the cohort died, and 67.0% had a favorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 5).

Conclusions: This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the largest analysis of infantile intracranial aneurysms to date. The majority were idiopathic aneurysms involving the anterior circulation. Surgical and endovascular techniques yielded equally favorable outcomes in this cohort. Long-term outcomes in the infantile population compared favorably to outcomes in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2022.2.PEDS21234DOI Listing
April 2022

The declining incidence of cervical spine surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a single-surgeon series and literature review.

J Neurosurg Spine 2022 Apr 1:1-7. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Objective: With an increasing number of disease-modifying drugs available to manage rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spine surgeons have anecdotally noted decreased rates of cervical spine surgical procedures in this population. Although these medications have been shown to mitigate RA progression and its systemic effects on joint destruction, there are currently no large-scale studies of RA patients that suggest the use of these disease-modifying drugs has truly coincided with a decline in cervical spine surgery.

Methods: Patients with RA who underwent cervical spinal fusion from 1998 to 2021 performed by the senior author were retrospectively reviewed. The cohort was stratified into 3 categories based on procedure level: 1) occipitocervical, 2) atlantoaxial, and 3) subaxial. The number of surgical procedures per year in each subgroup was evaluated to determine treatment trends over time. National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) data on both RA and non-RA patients who underwent cervical fusion were analyzed to assess for surgical trends over time and for differences in likelihood of surgical intervention between RA and non-RA patients over the epoch.

Results: From 1998 to 2021, the number of overall cervical fusions performed in RA patients significantly declined (-0.13 procedures/year, p = 0.01) in this cohort, despite an overall significant increase in cervical fusions in non-RA patients over the same period. NIS analysis of cervical fusions across all patients similarly demonstrated a significant increase in cervical fusions over the same epoch (19,278 cases/year, p < 0.0001). When normalized for changes in population size, the incidence of new surgical procedures was lower in patients with RA regardless of surgical technique. Anterior cervical fusion was the most common approach used over the epoch in both RA and non-RA patients; correspondingly, RA patients were significantly less likely to undergo anterior cervical fusion (OR 0.655, 95% CI -0.4504 to -0.3972, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: At the authors' institution, there was a clear decline in the number of cervical fusions performed to treat the 3 most common forms of cervical spine pathology in RA patients (basilar impression, atlantoaxial instability, and subaxial cervical deformity). Although national trends suggest an increase in total cervical fusions in both RA and non-RA patients, the incidence of new procedures in patients with RA was significantly lower than in patients without RA, which supports the anecdotal results of spine surgeons nationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2022.2.SPINE226DOI Listing
April 2022

Radial Access Techniques.

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Apr 2;33(2):149-159. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Jackson Health System, Lois Pope Life Center, 2nd Floor, 1095 Northwest 14th Terrace, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Transradial access (TRA) has gained traction in neurointerventions as studies continue to demonstrate improved access site safety and equivalent end artery effectiveness when compared with traditional transfemoral techniques. Herein, we describe the technical nuances of obtaining TRA with a focus on distal TRA, left TRA, and sheathless TRA using larger bore catheters. We also discuss various strategies to avoid access site conversion if radial artery spasm or radial anomalies are encountered and offer some solutions for forming the Simmons catheter especially when it cannot be performed in the descending aorta. Lastly, we provide some insights regarding contraindications to TRA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2021.11.003DOI Listing
April 2022

Systematic Review of Epigenetic Therapies for Treatment of IDH-mutant Glioma.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jun 18;162:47-56. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are present in 70% of World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas. IDH mutation induces accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate. Therefore, therapies targeting reversal of epigenetic dysregulation in gliomas have been suggested. However, the utility of epigenetic treatments in gliomas remains unclear. Here, we present the first clinical systematic review of epigenetic therapies in treatment of IDH-mutant gliomas and highlight their safety and efficacy.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases from 2000 to January 2021 following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened to include clinical usage of epigenetic therapies in case reports, prospective case series, or clinical trials. Primary and secondary outcomes included safety/tolerability of epigenetic therapies and progression-free survival/overall survival, respectively.

Results: A total of 133 patients across 8 clinical studies were included in our analysis. IDH inhibitors appear to have the best safety profile, with an overall grade 3/grade 4 adverse event rate of 9%. Response rates to IDH-mutant inhibitors were highest in nonenhancing gliomas (stable disease achieved in 55% of patients). In contrast, histone deacetylase inhibitors demonstrate a lower safety profile with single-study adverse events as high as 28%.

Conclusion: IDH inhibitors appear promising given their benign toxicity profile and ease of monitoring. Histone deacetylase inhibitors appear to have a narrow therapeutic index, as lower concentrations do not appear effective, while increased doses can produce severe immunosuppressive effects. Preliminary data suggest that epigenetic therapies are generally well tolerated and may control disease in certain patient groups, such as those with nonenhancing lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2022.03.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9177782PMC
June 2022

The utility of congenital cardiac status to predict endoscopic third ventriculostomy and ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure in hydrocephalic infants.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2022 Mar 4:1-8. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami; and.

Objective: The effect of congenital cardiac status on endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) failure in hydrocephalic infants is unknown. Because cardiac status in infants can impact central venous pressure (CVP), it is possible that congenital heart disease (CHD) and congenital cardiac anomalies may render these cerebrospinal fluid diversion interventions more susceptible to failure. Correspondingly, the aim of this study was to determine how CHD and congenital cardiac anomalies may impact the failure of these initial interventions.

Methods: A retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was conducted. Infants (aged < 1 year) with known congenital cardiac status managed with either ETV or VPS were included. Quantitative data were compared using either parametric or nonparametric methods, and failure rates were modeled using univariable and multivariable regression analyses.

Results: A total of 18,763 infants treated with ETV or VPS for hydrocephalus were identified in our search, with ETV used to treat 7657 (41%) patients and VPS used to treat 11,106 (59%). There were 6722 (36%) patients who presented with CHD at admission, and a total of 25 unique congenital cardiac anomalies were detected across the cohort. Overall, the most common anomaly was patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in 4990 (27%) patients, followed by atrial septal defect (ASD) in 2437 (13%) patients and pulmonary hypertension in 810 (4%) patients. With respect to initial intervention failure, 3869 (21%) patients required repeat surgical intervention during admission. This was significantly more common in the ETV group than the VPS group (36% vs 10%, p < 0.01). In both the ETV and VPS groups, CHD (p < 0.01), including all congenital cardiac anomalies, was an independent and significant predictor of failure. ASD (p < 0.01) and PDA (p < 0.01) both significantly predicted ETV failure, and PDA (p < 0.01) and pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.02) both significantly predicted VPS failure.

Conclusions: These results indicate that congenital cardiac status predicts ETV and VPS failure in patients with infantile hydrocephalus. The authors hypothesized that this finding was primarily due to changes in CVP; however, this may not be completely universal across both interventions and all congenital cardiac anomalies. Future studies about optimization of congenital cardiac status with ETV and VPS are required to understand the practical significance of these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2022.1.PEDS21567DOI Listing
March 2022

Iatrogenic radial arteriovenous fistula closure via intraluminal compression in a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 3;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Neurological Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an arteriopathy of medium-sized vessels causing pathological arterial wall fragility. However, only minimal data exist on evaluating the risk of transradial access (TRA) in these patients. We describe the case of a woman in her 70s who underwent left middle meningeal artery embolisation for an acute-on-chronic subdural haematoma via right TRA. Radial angiography demonstrated significant FMD throughout the entire right upper extremity. To prevent radial spasm, a 23 cm sheath was placed without difficulty. However, follow-up angiography demonstrated the presence of a new radial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) just distal to the brachial bifurcation. Since no forearm haematoma or limb ischaemia developed, the procedure was continued transradially. After embolisation, the guide catheter was removed and follow-up angiography demonstrated resolution of the fistula. This case illustrates that, in the absence of concerning clinical signs, compression from the guide catheter alone may facilitate thrombosis of an acutely identified iatrogenic radial AVF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-248085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8895944PMC
March 2022

Same-day discharge after brain tumor resection: a prospective pilot study.

J Neurooncol 2022 Apr 22;157(2):345-353. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Lois Pope Life Center, 1095 14th Terrace, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Purpose: Outpatient brain surgery has many advantages for the psychological and physical wellbeing of patients, as well as reduced costs to the health care system. Compared with inpatient admissions, same day discharges reduce patient exposure to nosocomial infection, thromboembolic complications, and medical error. We aim to establish a prospectively collected quality outcomes database to examine the outcomes of patients that undergo brain tumor resection and are discharged home the same day as surgery.

Methods: We have established a prospectively collected quality outcomes database to examine the outcomes of all patients that underwent brain tumor resection by a single neurosurgeon (R.J.K) at our institution from August 2020 to August 2021 and were discharged home the same day as surgery.

Results: Over the one-year period this study was conducted, 37 of 334 patients met inclusion criteria for the outpatient protocol. Thirty-two patients were discharged on the same day as surgery. Five patients (14%) were considered eligible for outpatient surgery but were ultimately admitted to the hospital postoperatively and were discharged after an overnight observation. No postoperative complications were noted at two-week postoperative follow-up.

Conclusion: In select patients undergoing brain tumor surgery, same day discharge should be considered. Establishing a multidisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, radiologists, and physical therapists is critical to achieving this aim. Physicians should have a low threshold to admit a patient with concerning exam findings, complications, or complicated past medical history. Once discharged, open communication with the patient and their family is critical to detect complications that should trigger rehospitalization and intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-022-03969-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8861287PMC
April 2022

Transcortical resection of a giant bilobed falcine meningioma.

Br J Neurosurg 2022 Feb 17:1-4. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Introduction: Falcine meningiomas present significant surgical challenges because they often involve the falx bilaterally, are concealed by a significant amount of normal brain parenchyma and are frequently deep in location and in close proximity to the anterior cerebral arteries. Many prefer the interhemispheric approach for these lesions, but this operative corridor is not without risk as venous infarctions and cortical injury can occur.

Clinical Presentation: We present an alternative technique utilizing a transcortical approach to resect a giant, bilobed falcine meningioma in a 68-year-old female who presented with progressive abulia, urinary incontinence, and bilateral lower extremity weakness over 2 years. A unilateral right frontal craniotomy and a corticectomy through the right superior frontal gyrus was used to safely resect the entire tumor. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged home without issue. Pathology demonstrated that the lesion was an atypical meningioma and she subsequently received adjuvant fractionated radiotherapy. At 2-year follow-up, she has no neurologic deficits, never developed any postoperative seizures and has not had any evidence of tumor recurrence.

Conclusion: The transcortical approach can be used as a safe alternative for resecting falcine meningiomas without adding significant undue risk to the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2022.2034744DOI Listing
February 2022

A multiparametric pharmacogenomic strategy for drug repositioning predicts therapeutic efficacy for glioblastoma cell lines.

Neurooncol Adv 2022 Jan-Dec;4(1):vdab192. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: Poor prognosis of glioblastoma patients and the extensive heterogeneity of glioblastoma at both the molecular and cellular level necessitates developing novel individualized treatment modalities via genomics-driven approaches.

Methods: This study leverages numerous pharmacogenomic and tissue databases to examine drug repositioning for glioblastoma. RNA-seq of glioblastoma tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, = 117) were compared to "normal" frontal lobe samples from Genotype-Tissue Expression Portal (GTEX, = 120) to find differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Using compound gene expression data and drug activity data from the Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS, = 66,512 compounds) CCLE (71 glioma cell lines), and Chemical European Molecular Biology Laboratory (ChEMBL) platforms, we employed a summarized reversal gene expression metric (sRGES) to "reverse" the resultant disease signature for GBM and its subtypes. A multiparametric strategy was employed to stratify compounds capable of blood-brain barrier penetrance with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile (CNS-MPO).

Results: Significant correlations were identified between sRGES and drug efficacy in GBM cell lines in both ChEMBL(r = 0.37, < .001) and Cancer Therapeutic Response Portal (CTRP) databases ( = 0.35, < 0.001). Our multiparametric algorithm identified two classes of drugs with highest sRGES and CNS-MPO: HDAC inhibitors (vorinostat and entinostat) and topoisomerase inhibitors suitable for drug repurposing.

Conclusions: Our studies suggest that reversal of glioblastoma disease signature correlates with drug potency for various GBM subtypes. This multiparametric approach may set the foundation for an early-phase personalized -omics clinical trial for glioblastoma by effectively identifying drugs that are capable of reversing the disease signature and have favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdab192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8807341PMC
December 2021

Radial Long Sheath Angioplasty for Proximal Severe Flow-Limiting Radial Artery Spasm Using the Dotter Technique.

World Neurosurg 2022 Apr 12;160:16-21. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: Although studies have continued to demonstrate the advantages of transradial access (TRA) for neurointervention, radial artery spasm (RAS) has remained a frequent cause of TRA failure. Dotter and Judkins initially described a technique to dilate areas of peripheral vascular stenosis by advancing sequentially larger catheters across the lesion over a guidewire. We have presented our institutional experience with the use of a modified Dotter technique with long radial sheaths to dilate areas of proximal flow-limiting RAS. In the present study, we reviewed the use of the Dotter technique for alleviating RAS in patients undergoing TRA for neurointervention.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing TRA for neurointervention at our institution from 2018 to 2020 to identify patients with proximal flow-limiting RAS. For the identified patients, a modified Dotter technique had been used to dilate the stenosis. The demographic and periprocedural data were assessed to identify any adverse outcomes.

Results: Four patients with severe proximal flow-limiting RAS were identified. In each case, a hydrophilic long radial sheath and vascular dilator were sequentially advanced through the stenosis. In all cases, repeat angiography demonstrated improvement of the spasm, and the final radial angiograms demonstrated persistent improvement in caliber and regularity of the vessel. Each procedure was also completed via TRA with no periprocedural complications.

Conclusions: Our modified Dotter technique was effective in bypassing areas of severe proximal flow-limiting RAS, obviating the need for access site conversion. Additional studies are warranted to understand the implication of the angioplasty-like effects seen within the radial artery after removal of the long radial sheaths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2022.01.025DOI Listing
April 2022

Augmented Reality for Enhancing Image-Guided Neurosurgery: Superimposing the Future onto the Present.

World Neurosurg 2022 01;157:235-236

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.09.126DOI Listing
January 2022

Rupture of a de novo dural AV fistula following adult cerebral AVM resection.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Dec 8;14(12). Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Neurological Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Acquired unruptured dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) have been described; however, ruptured de novo DAVFs remain exceedingly rare. We describe the case of a man in his 40s who presented with a recurrent intraparenchymal haemorrhage several years after angiographic cure of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Repeat angiography identified a new Cognard type IV DAVF anterior to the prior craniotomy. He underwent preoperative embolisation followed by craniotomy to completely obliterate the fistulous point. This case illustrates the need for close monitoring of AVM patients, even after complete obliteration, as local recrudescence of arteriovenous shunting can occur even in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-246758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8655596PMC
December 2021

Interplay between vascular hemodynamics and the glymphatic system in the pathogenesis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, exploring novel neuroimaging diagnostics.

Neurosurg Rev 2022 Apr 13;45(2):1255-1261. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

As the aging population continues to grow, so will the incidence of age-related conditions, including idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The pathogenesis of iNPH remains elusive, and this is due in part to the poor characterization of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) dynamics within the brain. Advancements in technology and imaging techniques have enabled new breakthroughs in understanding CSF physiology, and therefore iNPH pathogenesis. This includes understanding the hemodynamic and microvascular components involved in CSF influx and flow. Namely, the glymphatic system appears to be the great mediator, facilitating perivascular CSF flow via astrocytic aquaporin channels located along the endothelium of the pial vasculature. The interplay between glymphatics and both arterial pulsatilty and venous compliance has also been recently demonstrated. It appears then that CSF flow, and therefore glymphatic function, are highly dependent on cardiocirculatory and vascular factors. Impairment in any one component, whether it be related to arterial pulsatility, microvascular changes, reduced venous drainage, or astrogliosis, contributes greatly to iNPH, although it is likely a combination thereof. The strong interplay between vascular hemodynamics and CSF flow suggests perfusion imaging and cerebral blood flow quantification may be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing iNPH. In addition, studies detecting glymphatic flow with magnetic resonance imaging have also emerged. These imaging tools may serve to both diagnose iNPH and help delineate it from other similarly presenting disease processes. With a better understanding of the vascular and glymphatic factors related to iNPH pathogenesis, physicians are better able to select the best candidates for treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-021-01690-3DOI Listing
April 2022

Staged embolisation of a giant torcular dural sinus malformation in a neonate.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Nov 11;14(11). Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Neurological Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Torcular dural sinus malformations (tDSMs) represent a rare subset of paediatric cerebrovascular malformations and are often diagnosed antenatally via ultrasound. The management of these in utero lesions remains controversial as previous studies suggested elective termination of the pregnancy because of their presumably high mortality and severe long-term morbidity. However, more recent evaluations have suggested that the overall prognosis for infants harbouring these lesions may be much better than previously believed. As such, we present the case of a neonate with a giant tDSM, diagnosed in utero, who was treated postnatally via staged transarterial and transvenous embolisation to alleviate worsening obstructive hydrocephalus and brainstem compression. We provide details regarding the surgical approach and long-term neurological outcomes for this patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the largest reported tDSM presented in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-244216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8586880PMC
November 2021

Republished: Manual reduction of a radial artery loop under direct fluoroscopic visualization.

J Neurointerv Surg 2022 Jan 14;14(1). Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Transradial access has become increasingly used in neurointerventions because it reduces access site complications. However, radial artery anomalies can be difficult to navigate, often necessitating conversion to femoral access. We describe the case of a female patient in her early 70 s who underwent preoperative embolization of a carotid body tumor via right transradial access. Her radial angiogram demonstrated the presence of a radial artery loop which was successfully navigated with a triaxial system but would not spontaneously reduce even after the guide catheter was advanced into the subclavian artery. However, manual manipulation of the catheters in the antecubital fossa under direct fluoroscopic visualization reduced the loop allowing the procedure to continue transradially. Although a majority of radial loops can be traversed and reduced using standard techniques, this case demonstrates that manual reduction can be successful when other measures fail. We recommend attempting this method before converting the access site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017665.repDOI Listing
January 2022

Distinct survival and clinical profile of infantile glioblastoma: insights from a national database.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 01 13;38(1):85-94. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1095 NW 14th Terrace, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Background: The diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM) in infants aged ≤ 1 year is extremely rare, and its comparability to the more common adult diagnosis is underexplored. Correspondingly, the objective of this study was to interrogate a national cancer database to elucidate the typical survival and clinical profile of this demographic.

Methods: All GBM patients aged ≤ 1 year in the U.S. National Cancer Database (NCDB) between 2005 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were summarized, and overall survival (OS) was modeled using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses.

Results: A total of 86 patients satisfied criteria for entry into study, making up 0.08% of all GBM diagnoses in the database. There were 32 (37%) females and 54 (63%) males. Irrespective of treatment, median OS was 67.3 months (95% CI, 46-91), which was distinct from all other ages and pediatric age groups. There were 74 (86%) treated by surgery, 51 (59%) treated by chemotherapy, and 17 (20%) treated by radiation therapy. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that Hispanic status (HR = 3.41, P = 0.02) and the presence of comorbidity (HR = 3.24, P = 0.01) independently predicted shorter OS, whereas treatment with chemotherapy (HR = 0.18, P < 0.01) independently predicted longer OS. Neither extent of surgery nor radiation therapy demonstrated independent statistical significance.

Conclusion: Infantile GBM should be viewed as a distinct GBM entity with a longer OS than other pediatric and adult patients. Chemotherapy is a statistically significant component in the treatment of this demographic, and the value of surgical treatment is likely universal. Future studies into understanding the biological and genetic profile of infantile GBM are needed to advance both pediatric and adult fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05386-3DOI Listing
January 2022

Using smartphone-based accelerometers to gauge postoperative outcomes in patients with NPH: Implications for ambulatory monitoring.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 13;12:464. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States.

Background: The surgical treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) with shunting remains controversial due to the difficulty in distinguishing such pathology from other neurological conditions that can present similarly. Thus, patients with suspected NPH should be carefully selected for surgical intervention. Historically, clinical improvement has been measured by the use of functional grades, alleviation of symptoms, and/or patient/family-member reported surveys. Such outcome analysis can be subjective, and there is difficulty in quantifying cognition. Thus, a push for a more quantifiable and objective investigation is warranted, especially for patients with idiopathic NPH (INPH), for which the final diagnosis is confirmed with postoperative clinical improvement. We aimed to use Apple Health (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) data to approximate physical activity levels before and after shunt placement for NPH as an objective outcome measurement. The patients were contacted and verbally consented to export Apple Health activity data. The patient's physical activity data were then analyzed. A chart review from the patient's EMR was performed to understand and better correlate recovery.

Case Description: Our first patient had short-term improvements in activity levels when compared to his preoperative activity. The patient's activity level subsequently decreased at 6 months and onward. This decline was simultaneous to new-onset lumbar pain. Our second patient experienced sustained improvements in activity levels for 12 months after his operation. His mobility data were in congruence with his subjectively reported improvement in clinical symptoms. He subsequently experienced a late-decline that began at 48-months. His late deterioration was likely confounded by exogenous factors such as further neurodegenerative diseases coupled with old age.

Conclusion: The use of objective activity data offers a number of key benefits in the analysis of shunted patients with NPH/INPH. In this distinctive patient population, detailed functional outcome analysis is imperative because the long-term prognosis can be affected by comorbid factors or life expectancy. The benefits from using smartphone-based accelerometers for objective outcome metrics are abundant and such an application can serve as a clinical aid to better optimize surgical and recovery care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_112_2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492411PMC
September 2021

Treatment-Associated Stroke in Patients Undergoing Endovascular Therapy in the ARUBA Trial.

Stroke 2021 11 8;52(11):e710-e714. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Miami, FL.

Background And Purpose: Since the publication of ARUBA trial (A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations), outcomes in treated and untreated patients with unruptured arteriovenous malformation have been thoroughly compared. However, no prior analysis of ARUBA patients has sought to identify risk factors for perioperative stroke. Improved understanding of risks within the ARUBA cohort will help clinicians apply the study’s findings in a broader context.

Methods: The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke database was queried for all data relating to ARUBA patients, including demographics, interventions undertaken, and timing of stroke. Retrospective cohort analysis was performed with the primary outcome of perioperative stroke in patients who underwent endovascular intervention, and stroke risk was modeled with multivariate analysis.

Results: A total of 64 ARUBA patients were included in the analysis. One hundred and fifty-ninth interventions were performed, and 26 (16%) procedures resulted in stroke within 48 hours of treatment. Posterior cerebral artery supply (adjusted odds ratio, 4.42 [95% CI, 1.23–15.9], P=0.02) and Spetzler-Martin grades 2 and 3 arteriovenous malformation (adjusted odds ratio, 7.76 [95% CI, 1.20–50.3], P=0.03; 9.64 [95% CI, 1.36–68.4], P=0.04, respectively) were associated with increased perioperative stroke risk in patients who underwent endovascular intervention. Patients treated in the United States or Germany had a significantly lower stroke risk than patients treated in other countries (adjusted odds ratio, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.04–0.82], P=0.02).

Conclusions: Knowing patient and lesion characteristics that increase risk during endovascular treatment can better guide clinicians managing unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation. Our analysis suggests risk of perioperative stroke is dependent on Spetzler-Martin grade and posterior-circulation arterial supply. Differences in regional treatment paradigms may also affect stroke risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033743DOI Listing
November 2021

Prognosticating survival of pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) by grade.

J Neurooncol 2021 Nov 4;155(2):165-172. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1095 NW 14th Terrace, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Background: Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) are a rare group of pineal parenchymal tumors classified by histology as either World Health Organization (WHO) Grades 2 or 3. The rarity of these tumors in adults has left a number of clinical management questions open. Correspondingly, the aim of this study was to aggregate a large PPTID cohort with sufficient statistical power from a large national cancer database to analyze prognostic parameters.

Methods: All PPTID patients aged over 18 years in the U.S. National Cancer Database (NCDB) between 2005 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were summarized and survival was modeled using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses.

Results: A total of 103 adult PPTID patients were identified in the NCDB with 63 (61%) WHO Grade 2 and 40 (39%) WHO Grade 3 tumors. Overall, mean age was 53 ± 18 years with even gender distribution. A total of 75 (73%) patients underwent surgical resection for diagnosis, with gross total resection (GTR) was the most common resection outcome in 50/75 (67%). Chemotherapy was utilized in 18 (17%) patients, and radiation therapy in 37 (36%) patients. Overall, 5-year survival rate was estimated to be 54% (95% CI 42-64%), with mean survival was 84 (95% CI 69-99) months. Patients with Grade 2 tumors survived statistically longer than Grade 3 tumor counterparts (P < 0.01). Overall, older age (HR 1.09, P < 0.01) was associated with shorter survival, whereas GTR (HR 0.43, P = 0.02) was associated with longer survival. Both these parameters were significant within Grade 2 and Grade 3 subgroup analyses as well.

Conclusions: PPTID are rare tumors with expected mean survival more than 5 years, although Grade 2 tumors are expected to survive longer than Grade 3 tumors. Age and gross total resection are significant independent predictors of survival in PPTID overall, as well as within Grade 2 and Grade 3 subgroups separately. The prognostic role and benefit of adjuvant therapy is yet to be elucidated, mandating more molecular and biologic research be done to further optimize clinical management in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-021-03863-yDOI Listing
November 2021
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