Publications by authors named "Evan J Raff"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Time to Cannulation after ICU Admission Increases Mortality for Patients Requiring Veno-Venous ECMO for COVID-19 Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Ann Surg 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

*University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chapel Hill, NC †University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine ‡University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC §University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of General Surgery, Chapel Hill, NC.

Objective: COVID-19 can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that is rapidly progressive, severe, and refractory to conventional therapies. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used as a supportive therapy to improve outcomes but evidence-based guidelines have not been defined.

Summary Background Data: Initial mortality rates associated with ECMO for ARDS in COVID-19 were high, leading some to believe that there was no role for ECMO in this viral illness. With more experience, outcomes have improved. The ideal candidate, timing of cannulation, and best post-cannulation management strategy, however, has not yet been defined.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review from April 1 to July 31 2020 of the first 25 patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS placed on V-V ECMO at our institution. We analyzed the differences between survivors to hospital discharge and those who died. Modified Poisson regression was used to model adjusted risk factors for mortality.

Results: 44% of patients (11/25) survived to hospital discharge. Survivors were significantly younger (40.5 years vs. 53.1 years; p < 0.001) with no differences between cohorts in mean body mass index, diabetes, or PaO2:FiO2 at cannulation. Survivors had shorter duration from symptom onset to cannulation (12.5 days vs. 19.9 days, p = 0.028) and shorter duration of intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) prior to cannulation (5.6 days vs. 11.7 days, p = 0.045). Each day from ICU admission to cannulation increased the adjusted risk of death by 4% and each year increase in age increased the adjusted risk 6%.

Conclusions: ECMO has a role in severe, refractory ARDS associated with COVID-19. Increasing age and time from ICU admission were risk factors for mortality and should be considered in patient selection. Further studies are needed to define best practices for V-V ECMO use in COVID-19.
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December 2020

Diabetes Mellitus Predicts Occurrence of Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Cancer in Alcoholic Liver and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases.

J Clin Transl Hepatol 2015 Mar 15;3(1):9-16. Epub 2015 Mar 15.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, UAB, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background And Aims: Alcohol abuse and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are common causes of liver disease. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common comorbidity among NAFLD patients. We performed this study with the specific aim to examine the impact of DM on progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) liver and NAFLD.

Methods: Medical charts of 480 patients with ALD or NAFLD (2004-2011) managed at a tertiary center were retrospectively reviewed. NAFLD was diagnosed based on exclusion of other causes of liver disease and alcohol use of <10 g/d. ALD was diagnosed based on alcohol use of >40 g/d in women or >60 g/d in men for >5 years.

Results: Of 480 patients (307 NAFLD), 200 diabetics differed from nondiabetics for: age (52±11 vs. 49±11 years; p=0.004); male gender (48% vs. 57%; p=0.03); metabolic syndrome (49% vs. 30%; p=0.0002); NAFLD (80% vs. 56%; p<0.0001); cirrhosis (70% vs. 59%; p=0.005); and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 8% vs. 3%; p=0.009). Over a 3 year median follow-up period, diabetics relative to nondiabetics had a higher probability to develop cirrhosis (60% vs. 41%; p=0.022) and HCC (27% vs. 10%; p=0.045). There was a trend for increased development of hepatic encephalopathy in diabetics compared to nondiabetics (55% vs. 39%; p=0.053), and there was no difference between the two groups in survival or other liver disease complications.

Conclusions: DM increased risk for cirrhosis and HCC among patients with ALD and NAFLD. Prospective studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to examine the impact of DM on survival and the role of aggressive HCC screening in diabetic cirrhotics.
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March 2015