Publications by authors named "Evan D Bander"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Durable 5-year local control for resected brain metastases with early adjuvant SRS: the effect of timing on intended-field control.

Neurooncol Pract 2021 Jun 21;8(3):278-289. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Metastasis Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: Adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) improves the local control of resected brain metastases (BrM). However, the dependency of long-term outcomes on SRS timing relative to surgery remains unclear.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients treated with metastasectomy-plus-adjuvant SRS at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) between 2013 and 2016 was conducted. Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to describe overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence rates were estimated by type of recurrence, accounting for death as a competing event. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and competing risks regression modeling assessed prognostic variables and associated events of interest.

Results: Two hundred and eighty-two patients with BrM had a median OS of 1.5 years (95% CI: 1.2-2.1) from adjuvant SRS with median follow-up of 49.8 months for survivors. Local surgical recurrence, other simultaneously SRS-irradiated site recurrence, and distant central nervous system (CNS) progression rates were 14.3% (95% CI: 10.1-18.5), 4.9% (95% CI: 2.3-7.5), and 47.5% (95% CI: 41.4-53.6) at 5 years, respectively. Median time-to-adjuvant SRS (TT-SRS) was 34 days (IQR: 27-39). TT-SRS was significantly associated with surgical site recurrence rate ( = 0.0008). SRS delivered within 1 month resulted in surgical site recurrence rate of 6.1% (95% CI: 1.3-10.9) at 1-year, compared to 9.2% (95% CI: 4.9-13.6) if delivered between 1 and 2 months, or 27.3% (95% CI: 0.0-55.5) if delivered >2 months after surgery. OS was significantly lower for patients with TT-SRS >~2 months. Postoperative length of stay, discharge to a rehabilitation facility, urgent care visits, and/or disease recurrence between surgery and adjuvant SRS associated with increased TT-SRS.

Conclusions: Adjuvant SRS provides durable local control. However, delays in initiation of postoperative SRS can decrease its efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nop/npab005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153823PMC
June 2021

Evaluation of a patient-specific algorithm for predicting distribution for convection-enhanced drug delivery into the brainstem of patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 May 14:1-9. Epub 2021 May 14.

2Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York.

Objective: With increasing use of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of drugs, the need for software that can predict infusion distribution has grown. In the context of a phase I clinical trial for pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), CED was used to administer an anti-B7H3 radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, iodine-124-labeled omburtamab. In this study, the authors retrospectively evaluated a software algorithm (iPlan Flow) for the estimation of infusate distribution based on the planned catheter trajectory, infusion parameters, and patient-specific MRI. The actual infusate distribution, as determined on MRI and PET imaging, was compared to the distribution estimated by the software algorithm. Similarity metrics were used to quantify the agreement between predicted and actual distributions.

Methods: Ten pediatric patients treated at the same dose level in the NCT01502917 trial conducted at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were considered for this retrospective analysis. T2-weighted MRI in combination with PET imaging was used to determine the distribution of infusate in this study. The software algorithm was applied for the generation of estimated fluid distribution maps. Similarity measures included object volumes, intersection volume, union volume, Dice coefficient, volume difference, and the center and average surface distances. Acceptable similarity was defined as a simulated distribution volume (Vd Sim) object that had a Dice coefficient higher than or equal to 0.7, a false-negative rate (FNR) lower than 50%, and a positive predictive value (PPV) higher than 50% compared to the actual Vd (Vd PET).

Results: Data for 10 patients with a mean infusion volume of 4.29 ml (range 3.84-4.48 ml) were available for software evaluation. The mean Vd Sim found to be covered by the actual PET distribution (PPV) was 77% ± 8%. The mean percentage of PET volume found to be outside the simulated volume (FNR) was 34% ± 10%. The mean Dice coefficient was 0.7 ± 0.05. In 8 out of 10 patients, the simulation algorithm fulfilled the combined acceptance criteria for similarity.

Conclusions: iPlan Flow software can be useful to support planning of trajectories that produce intraparenchymal convection. The simulation algorithm is able to model the likely infusate distribution for a CED treatment in DIPG patients. The combination of trajectory planning guidelines and infusion simulation in the software can be used prospectively to optimize personalized CED treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.11.PEDS20571DOI Listing
May 2021

Melanoma brain metastasis presentation, treatment, and outcomes in the age of targeted and immunotherapies.

Cancer 2021 Jun 2;127(12):2062-2073. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Metastasis Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: Historically, the prognosis for patients who have melanoma brain metastasis (MBM) has been dismal. However, breakthroughs in targeted and immunotherapies have improved long-term survival in those with advanced melanoma. Therefore, MBM presentation, prognosis, and the use of multimodality central nervous system (CNS)-directed treatment were reassessed.

Methods: In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated patients with MBM who received treatment at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 2010 and 2019. Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to describe overall survival (OS). Recursive partitioning analysis and time-dependent multivariable Cox modeling were used to assess prognostic variables and to associate CNS-directed treatments with OS.

Results: Four hundred twenty-five patients with 2488 brain metastases were included. The median OS after an MBM diagnosis was 8.9 months (95% CI, 7.9-11.3 months). Patients who were diagnosed with MBM between 2015 and 2019 experienced longer OS compared to those who were diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 (OS, 13.0 months [95% CI, 10.47-17.06 months] vs 7.0 months [95% CI, 6.1-8.3 months]; P = .0003). Prognostic multivariable modeling significantly associated shortened OS independently with leptomeningeal dissemination (P < .0001), increasing numbers of brain metastases at diagnosis (P < .0001), earlier MBM diagnosis year (P = .0008), higher serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (P < .0001), receipt of immunotherapy before MBM diagnosis (P = .003), and the presence of extracranial disease (P = .02). The use of different CNS-directed treatment modalities was associated with presenting symptoms, diagnosis year, number and size of brain metastases, and the presence of extracranial disease. Multivariable analysis demonstrated improved survival for patients who underwent craniotomy (P = .01).

Conclusions: The prognosis for patients with MBM has improved within the last 5 years, coinciding with the approval of PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade and combined BRAF/MEK targeting. Improving survival reflects and may influence the willingness to use aggressive multimodality treatment for MBM.

Lay Summary: Historically, melanoma brain metastases (MBM) have carried a poor survival prognosis of 4 to 6 months; however, the introduction of immunotherapy and targeted precision medicines has altered the survival curve for advanced melanoma. In this large, single-institution, contemporary cohort, the authors demonstrate a significant increase in survival of patients with MBM to 13 months within the last 5 years of the study. A worse prognosis for patients with MBM was significantly associated with the number of metastases at diagnosis, previous exposure to immunotherapy, spread of disease to the leptomeningeal compartment, serum lactate dehydrogenase elevation, and the presence of extracranial disease. The current age of systemic treatments has also been accompanied by shifts in the use of central nervous system-directed therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33459DOI Listing
June 2021

Beyond guidelines: analysis of current practice patterns of AANS/CNS tumor neurosurgeons.

J Neurooncol 2021 Feb 21;151(3):361-366. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 525 E. 68th St, Box 99, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine guidelines are increasingly published and sanctioned by organized neurosurgery. However, implementation, interpretation, and use of clinical guidelines may vary substantially on a regional, national and international basis. Survey research can help bridge the gap by providing a snapshot of neurosurgeon attitudes, knowledge, and practices. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (AANS/CNS) Section on Tumors formed a Survey Committee to formalize the process by which surveys are submitted and reviewed before distribution to our membership. The goal of this committee is to provide peer-review so that collected information will be scientifically robust and useful to the neurosurgical community.

Methods: Surveys submitted to the AANS/CNS tumor section between 2015 and 2019 were reviewed and metrics such as response rate and publication status assessed.

Results: Six surveys were submitted to the Survey Committee of the AANS/CNS section on tumors between 2015 and 2019. Four have been circulated to section members, of which three have been published. Response rate has averaged 19% (range 16-23%), a majority of respondents (mean 70%) practice in academic settings.

Conclusions: The AANS/CNS Section on Tumors Survey Committee has and continues to help promote and improve the practice of surveying our community to answer important questions that can advance future training, research, and practice. There remains significant room for improvement in response rates, but ongoing tumor section efforts to increase member engagement will likely improve these numbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03389-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Repeat convection-enhanced delivery for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Sep 25:1-6. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York.

Objective: While the safety and efficacy of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) have been studied in patients receiving single-dose drug infusions, agents for oncological therapy may require repeated or chronic infusions to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. Repeat and chronic CED infusions have rarely been described for oncological purposes. Currently available CED devices are not approved for extended indwelling use, and the only potential at this time is for sequential treatments through multiple procedures. The authors report on the safety and experience in a group of pediatric patients who received sequential CED into the brainstem for the treatment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

Methods: Patients in this study were enrolled in a phase I single-center clinical trial using 124I-8H9 monoclonal antibody (124I-omburtamab) administered by CED (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01502917). A retrospective chart and imaging review were used to assess demographic data, CED infusion data, and postoperative neurological and surgical outcomes. MRI scans were analyzed using iPlan Flow software for volumetric measurements. Target and catheter coordinates as well as radial, depth, and absolute error in MRI space were calculated with the ClearPoint imaging software.

Results: Seven patients underwent 2 or more sequential CED infusions. No patients experienced Clinical Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3 or greater deficits. One patient had a persistent grade 2 cranial nerve deficit after a second infusion. No patient experienced hemorrhage or stroke postoperatively. There was a statistically significant decrease in radial error (p = 0.005) and absolute tip error (p = 0.008) for the second infusion compared with the initial infusion. Sequential infusions did not result in significantly different distribution capacities between the first and second infusions (volume of distribution determined by the PET signal/volume of infusion ratio [mean ± SD]: 2.66 ± 0.35 vs 2.42 ± 0.75; p = 0.45).

Conclusions: This series demonstrates the ability to safely perform sequential CED infusions into the pediatric brainstem. Past treatments did not negatively influence the procedural workflow, technical application of the targeting interface, or distribution capacity. This limited experience provides a foundation for using repeat CED for oncological purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.PEDS20280DOI Listing
September 2020

Use of the train-of-five bipolar technique to provide reliable, spatially accurate motor cortex identification in asleep patients.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 02;48(2):E4

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Objective: Intraoperative cortical and subcortical mapping techniques have become integral for achieving a maximal safe resection of tumors that are in or near regions of eloquent brain. The recent literature has demonstrated successful motor/language mapping with lower rates of stimulation-induced seizures when using monopolar high-frequency stimulation compared to traditional low-frequency bipolar stimulation mapping. However, monopolar stimulation carries with it disadvantages that include more radiant spread of electrical stimulation and a theoretically higher potential for tissue damage. The authors report on the successful use of bipolar stimulation with a high-frequency train-of-five (TOF) pulse physiology for motor mapping.

Methods: Between 2018 and 2019, 13 patients underwent motor mapping with phase-reversal and both low-frequency and high-frequency bipolar stimulation. A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the success rate of motor mapping and to acquire intraoperative details.

Results: Thirteen patients underwent both high- and low-frequency bipolar motor mapping to aid in tumor resection. Of the lesions treated, 69% were gliomas, and the remainder were metastases. The motor cortex was identified at a significantly greater rate when using high-frequency TOF bipolar stimulation (n = 13) compared to the low-frequency bipolar stimulation (n = 4) (100% vs 31%, respectively; p = 0.0005). Intraoperative seizures and afterdischarges occurred only in the group of patients who underwent low-frequency bipolar stimulation, and none occurred in the TOF group (31% vs 0%, respectively; p = 0.09).

Conclusions: Using a bipolar wand with high-frequency TOF stimulation, the authors achieved a significantly higher rate of successful motor mapping and a low rate of intraoperative seizure compared to traditional low-frequency bipolar stimulation. This preliminary study suggests that high-frequency TOF stimulation provides a reliable additional tool for motor cortex identification in asleep patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.11.FOCUS19776DOI Listing
February 2020

Response to: Letter to the Editor regarding: "Spontaneous regression of a clival chordoma. Case report".

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 02 2;162(2):441. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th St., Box #99, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-04193-9DOI Listing
February 2020

Deformational changes after convection-enhanced delivery in the pediatric brainstem.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 01;48(1):E3

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York.

Objective: In the brainstem, there are concerns regarding volumetric alterations following convection-enhanced delivery (CED). The relationship between distribution volume and infusion volume is predictably greater than one. Whether this translates into deformational changes and influences clinical management is unknown. As part of a trial using CED for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), the authors measured treatment-related volumetric alterations in the brainstem and ventricles.

Methods: Enrolled patients underwent a single infusion of radioimmunotherapy. Between 2012 and 2019, 23 patients with volumetric pre- and postoperative day 1 (POD1) and day 30 (POD30) MRI scans were analyzed using iPlan® Flow software for semiautomated volumetric measurements of the ventricles and pontine segment of the brainstem.

Results: Children in the study had a mean age of 7.7 years (range 2-18 years). The mean infusion volume was 3.9 ± 1.7 ml (range 0.8-8.8 ml). Paired t-tests demonstrated a significant increase in pontine volume immediately following infusion (p < 0.0001), which trended back toward baseline by POD30 (p = 0.046; preoperative 27.6 ± 8.4 ml, POD1 30.2 ± 9.0 ml, POD30 29.5 ± 9.4 ml). Lateral ventricle volume increased (p = 0.02) and remained elevated on POD30 (p = 0.04; preoperative 23.5 ± 15.4 ml, POD1 26.3 ± 16.0, POD30 28.6 ± 21.2). Infusion volume had a weak, positive correlation with pontine and lateral ventricle volume change (r2 = 0.22 and 0.27, respectively). Four of the 23 patients had an increase in preoperative neurological deficits at POD30. No patients required shunt placement within 90 days.

Conclusions: CED infusion into the brainstem correlates with immediate but self-limited deformation changes in the pons. The persistence of increased ventricular volume and no need for CSF diversion post-CED are inconsistent with obstructive hydrocephalus. Defining the degree and time course of these deformational changes can assist in the interpretation of neuroimaging along the DIPG disease continuum when CED is incorporated into the treatment algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.10.FOCUS19679DOI Listing
January 2020

Microvessel occlusions alter amyloid-beta plaque morphology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2020 10 19;40(10):2115-2131. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Vascular dysfunction is correlated to the incidence and severity of Alzheimer's disease. In a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (APP/PS1) using in vivo, time-lapse, multiphoton microscopy, we found that occlusions of the microvasculature alter amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques. We used several models of vascular injury that varied in severity. Femtosecond laser-induced occlusions in single capillaries generated a transient increase in small, cell-sized, Aβ deposits visualized with methoxy-X04, a label of fibrillar Aβ. After occlusions of penetrating arterioles, some plaques changed morphology, while others disappeared, and some new plaques appeared within a week after the lesion. Antibody labeling of Aβ revealed a transient increase in non-fibrillar Aβ one day after the occlusion that coincided with the disappearance of methoxy-X04-labeled plaques. Four days after the lesion, anti-Aβ labeling decreased and only remained in patches unlabeled by methoxy-X04 near microglia. Histology in two additional models, sparse embolic occlusions from intracarotid injections of beads and infarction from photothrombosis, demonstrated increased labeling intensity in plaques after injury. These results suggest that microvascular lesions can alter the deposition and clearance of Aβ and confirm that Aβ plaques are dynamic structures, complicating the interpretation of plaque burden as a marker of Alzheimer's disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X19889092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786844PMC
October 2020

Spontaneous regression of a clival chordoma. Case report.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 02 12;162(2):433-436. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th St., Box 99, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

In this case report, we present a rare and previously unreported case of spontaneous regression of a histologically consistent clival chordoma. At the time of diagnosis, imaging demonstrated a T2 hyperintense and T1 isointense midline skull base mass, centered in the nasopharynx, with scalloping of the ventral clivus consistent with a chordoma measuring 3.1 × 1.9 × 3.0 cm (8.84 cm). On pre-operative imaging 2 months later, with no intervening therapy, the mass had regressed by 61.7% to a size of 2.3 × 2.1 × 1.4 cm (3.38 cm). The patient self-administered several herbal supplements and animal oils which may have contributed to tumor regression. The purpose of this report is to document this rare occurrence and provide a comprehensive description of the case details and list of the various medications, herbs, and supplements used prior to this rare event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-04107-9DOI Listing
February 2020

Tubular brain tumor biopsy improves diagnostic yield for subcortical lesions.

J Neurooncol 2019 Jan 16;141(1):121-129. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, USA.

Purpose: Molecular data has become an essential part of the updated World Health Organization (WHO) grading of central nervous system tumors. However, stereotactic needle biopsies provide only small volume specimens and limit the extent of histologic and molecular testing that can be performed. We assessed the use of a tubular retractor-based minimally invasive biopsy technique to provide improved tissue yield and diagnostic data compared to needle biopsy.

Methods: Eighteen patients underwent an open transtubular biopsy compared to 146 stereotactic biopsies during the years of 2010-2018.

Results: Tubular biopsies resulted in a higher volume of tissue provided to the pathologist than needle biopsies (1.26 cm vs. 0.3 cm; p < 0.0001). There was a higher rate of non-diagnostic sample with stereotactic compared to transtubular biopsy (13% vs. 0%; p = 0.13). Six patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy required reoperation for diagnosis, while no transtubular biopsy patient required reoperation in order to obtain a diagnostic specimen. Postoperative hematoma was the most common post-operative complication in both groups.

Conclusions: Stereotactic transtubular biopsies are a viable alternative to stereotactic needle biopsies with excellent rates of diagnostic success and acceptable morbidity relative to the needle biopsy technique. As molecular data begins to increasingly drive treatment decisions, additional biopsy techniques that afford large tissue volumes may be necessary to adapt to the new needs of pathologists and treating oncologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-018-03014-wDOI Listing
January 2019

Advances in Glioblastoma Operative Techniques.

World Neurosurg 2018 Aug;116:529-538

Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of gross total resection in improving patient survival in glioblastoma (GBM). Advances in surgical tools and techniques such as intra-operative imaging, fluorescent agents, and functional imaging sequences are allowing for better identification of tumor borders and vital eloquent cortex in order to safely achieve higher rates of complete resections. Furthermore, due to the limits of surgical resection alone, new minimally invasive techniques for treatment of GBM are under development. These advances are crucial for improving neurosurgical care and outcomes in this difficult patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.04.023DOI Listing
August 2018

The Role of Extent of Resection in IDH1 Wild-Type or Mutant Low-Grade Gliomas.

Neurosurgery 2018 06;82(6):808-814

Depart-ment of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: Maximizing extent of resection (EOR) improves outcomes in adults with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II low-grade gliomas (LGG). However, recent studies demonstrate that LGGs bearing a mutation in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene are a distinct molecular and clinical entity. It remains unclear whether maximizing EOR confers an equivalent clinical benefit in IDH mutated (mtIDH) and IDH wild-type (wtIDH) LGGs.

Objective: To assess the impact of EOR on malignant progression-free survival (MPFS) and overall survival (OS) in mtIDH and wtIDH LGGs.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 74 patients with WHO grade II gliomas and known IDH mutational status undergoing resection at a single institution. EOR was assessed with quantitative 3-dimensional volumetric analysis. The effect of predictor variables on MPFS and OS was analyzed with Cox regression models and the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Fifty-two (70%) mtIDH patients and 22 (30%) wtIDH patients were included. Median preoperative tumor volume was 37.4 cm3; median EOR of 57.6% was achieved. Univariate Cox regression analysis confirmed EOR as a prognostic factor for the entire cohort. However, stratifying by IDH status demonstrates that greater EOR independently prolonged MPFS and OS for wtIDH patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.002 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.000-0.074] and HR = 0.001 [95% CI 0.00-0.108], respectively), but not for mtIDH patients (HR = 0.84 [95% CI 0.17-4.13] and HR = 2.99 [95% CI 0.15-61.66], respectively).

Conclusion: Increasing EOR confers oncologic and survival benefits in IDH1 wtLGGs, but the impact on IDH1 mtLGGs requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyx265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571505PMC
June 2018

Managing Arterial Injury in Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2017 02;13(1):138-149

Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

Background: The most feared complications following endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery are arterial vascular injuries. Previously published literature is restricted to internal carotid artery injuries. The ideal method for controlling arterial bleeding during this kind of procedure is debated, and a variety of techniques have been advocated.

Objective: To evaluate the management and outcome following intraoperative arterial injury during endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively acquired database of consecutive endonasal endoscopic surgeries at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center from December 2003 to June 2015 and identified all cases of arterial injury.

Results: Of 800 cases, there were 4 arterial injuries (0.5%), of which only one involved the internal carotid artery (ICA), for a risk of 0.125%. The other 3 involved the ophthalmic artery, anterior communicating artery, and A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. In all cases, definitive treatment involved occlusion of the artery either through endovascular means (3 cases) or direct surgical ligation (1 case). Neurological examinations were unchanged after arterial repair with only 1 small asymptomatic stroke. Literature review identified 7336 patients, of which there were 25 arterial injuries, of which 19 were of the ICA. Hence, the total rate of arterial injury was 0.34% and the rate of ICA injury was 0.26%. Arterial sacrifice was the only reliable method for managing arterial injury.

Conclusion: Arterial injury is an uncommon event after endoscopic endonasal surgery. Attempts at arterial repair are rarely successful, and vessel sacrifice is the most reliable technique at this point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0000000000001180DOI Listing
February 2017

Endoscopic endonasal odontoid resection with real-time intraoperative image-guided computed tomography: report of 4 cases.

J Neurosurg 2018 05 16;128(5):1486-1491. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Departments of2Neurosurgery and.

The authors present 4 cases in which they used intraoperative CT (iCT) scanning to provide real-time image guidance during endonasal odontoid resection. While intraoperative CT has previously been used as a confirmatory test after resection, to the authors' knowledge this is the first time it has been used to provide real-time image guidance during endonasal odontoid resection. The operating room setup, as well as the advantages and pitfalls of this approach, are discussed. A mobile intraoperative CT scanner was used in conjunction with real-time craniospinal neuronavigation in 4 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy for basilar invagination. All patients underwent a successful decompression. In 3 of the 4 patients, real-time intraoperative CT image guidance was instrumental in achieving a comprehensive decompression. In 3 (75%) cases in which the right nostril was the predominant working channel, there was a tendency for asymmetrical decompression toward the right side, meaning that residual bone was seen on the left, which was subsequently removed prior to completion of the surgery. Endoscopic endonasal odontoid resection with real-time intraoperative image-guided CT scanning is feasible and provides accurate intraoperative localization of pathology, thereby increasing the chance of a complete odontoidectomy. For right-handed surgeons operating predominantly through the right nostril, special attention should be paid to the contralateral side of the resection, where there is often a tendency for residual pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.1.JNS162601DOI Listing
May 2018

Incidence and risk factors for preoperative deep venous thrombosis in 314 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for spinal metastasis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2017 Aug 2;27(2):189-197. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Departments of 1 Neurosurgery and.

OBJECTIVE The authors of this study aimed to identify the incidence of and risk factors for preoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing surgical treatment for spinal metastases. METHODS Univariate analysis of patient age, sex, ethnicity, laboratory values, comorbidities, preoperative ambulatory status, histopathological classification, spinal level, and surgical details was performed. Factors significantly associated with DVT univariately were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS The authors identified 314 patients, of whom 232 (73.9%) were screened preoperatively for a DVT. Of those screened, 22 (9.48%) were diagnosed with a DVT. The screened patients were older (median 62 vs 55 years, p = 0.0008), but otherwise similar in baseline characteristics. Nonambulatory status, previous history of DVT, lower partial thromboplastin time, and lower hemoglobin level were statistically significant and independent factors associated with positive results of screening for a DVT. Results of screening were positive in only 6.4% of ambulatory patients in contrast to 24.4% of nonambulatory patients, yielding an odds ratio of 4.73 (95% CI 1.88-11.90). All of the patients who had positive screening results underwent preoperative placement of an inferior vena cava filter. CONCLUSIONS Patients requiring surgery for spinal metastases represent a population with unique risks for venous thromboembolism. This study showed a 9.48% incidence of DVT in patients screened preoperatively. The highest rates of preoperative DVT were identified in nonambulatory patients, who were found to have a 4-fold increase in the likelihood of harboring a DVT. Understanding the preoperative thrombotic status may provide an opportunity for early intervention and risk stratification in this critically ill population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.2.SPINE16861DOI Listing
August 2017

Endoscopic endonasal versus transcranial approach to tuberculum sellae and planum sphenoidale meningiomas in a similar cohort of patients.

J Neurosurg 2018 01 27;128(1):40-48. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Departments of1Neurosurgery.

OBJECTIVE Planum sphenoidale (PS) and tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas cause visual symptoms due to compression of the optic chiasm. The treatment of choice is surgical removal with the goal of improving vision and achieving complete tumor removal. Two options exist to remove these tumors: the transcranial approach (TCA) and the endonasal endoscopic approach (EEA). Significant controversy exists regarding which approach provides the best results and whether there is a subset of patients for whom an EEA may be more suitable. Comparisons using a similar cohort of patients, namely, those suitable for gross-total resection with EEA, are lacking from the literature. METHODS The authors reviewed all cases of PS and TS meningiomas that were surgically removed at Weill Cornell Medical College between 2000 and 2015 (TCA) and 2008 and 2015 (EEA). All cases were shown to a panel of 3 neurosurgeons to find only those tumors that could be removed equally well either through an EEA or TCA to standardize both groups. Volumetric measurements of preoperative and postoperative tumor size, FLAIR images, and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were assessed by 2 independent reviewers and compared to assess extent of resection and trauma to the surrounding brain. Visual outcome and complications were also compared. RESULTS Thirty-two patients were identified who underwent either EEA (n = 17) or TCA (n = 15). The preoperative tumor size was comparable (mean 5.58 ± 3.42 vs 5.04 ± 3.38 cm [± SD], p = 0.661). The average extent of resection achieved was not significantly different between the 2 groups (98.80% ± 3.32% vs 95.13% ± 11.69%, p = 0.206). Postoperatively, the TCA group demonstrated a significant increase in the FLAIR/edema signal compared with EEA patients (4.15 ± 7.10 vs -0.69 ± 2.73 cm, p = 0.014). In addition, the postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging signal of cytotoxic ischemic damage was significantly higher in the TCA group than in the EEA group (1.88 ± 1.96 vs 0.40 ± 0.55 cm, p =0.008). Overall, significantly more EEA patients experienced improved or stable visual outcomes compared with TCA patients (93% vs 56%, p = 0.049). Visual deterioration was greater after TCA than EEA (44% vs 0%, p = 0.012). While more patients experienced postoperative seizures after TCA than after EEA (27% vs 0%, p = 0.038), there was a trend toward more CSF leakage and anosmia after EEA than after TCA (11.8% vs 0%, p = 0.486 and 11.8% vs 0%, p = 0.118, respectively). CONCLUSIONS In this small single-institution study of similarly sized and located PS and TS meningiomas, EEA provided equivalent rates of resection with better visual results, less trauma to the brain, and fewer seizures. These preliminary results merit further investigation in a larger multiinstitutional study and may support EEA resection by experienced surgeons in a subset of carefully selected PS and TS meningiomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.9.JNS16823DOI Listing
January 2018

Endoscopic endonasal versus open transcranial resection of craniopharyngiomas: a case-matched single-institution analysis.

Neurosurg Focus 2016 Dec;41(6):E7

Departments of 1 Neurological Surgery.

OBJECTIVE The authors compared clinical and radiological outcomes after resection of midline craniopharyngiomas via an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) versus an open transcranial approach (TCA) at a single institution in a series in which the tumors were selected to be equally amenable to gross-total resection (GTR) with either approach. METHODS A single-institution retrospective review of previously untreated adult midline craniopharyngiomas was performed. Lesions were evaluated by 4 neurosurgeons blinded to the actual approach used to identify cases that were equally amenable to GTR using either an EEA or TCA. Radiological and clinical outcome data were assessed. RESULTS Twenty-six cases amenable to either approach were identified, 21 EEA and 5 TCA. Cases involving tumors that were resected via a TCA had a trend toward larger diameter (p = 0.10) but were otherwise equivalent in preoperative clinical and radiological characteristics. GTR was achieved in a greater proportion of cases removed with an EEA than a TCA (90% vs 40%, respectively; p = 0.009). Endoscopic resection was associated with superior visual restoration (63% vs 0%; p < 0.05), a decreased incidence of recurrence (p < 0.001), lower increase in FLAIR signal postoperatively (-0.16 ± 4.6 cm vs 14.4 ± 14.0 cm; p < 0.001), and fewer complications (20% vs 80% of patients; p < 0.001). Significantly more TCA patients suffered postoperative cognitive loss (80% vs 0; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS An EEA is a safe and effective approach to suprasellar craniopharyngiomas amenable to GTR. For this select group of cases, the EEA may provide higher rates of GTR and visual improvement with fewer complications compared with a TCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.9.FOCUS16299DOI Listing
December 2016

Endoscopic endonasal surgery for nonadenomatous, nonmeningeal pathology involving the cavernous sinus.

J Neurosurg 2017 Mar 29;126(3):880-888. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Departments of 2 Neurosurgery.

OBJECTIVE Surgery within the cavernous sinus (CS) remains a controversial topic because of the delicate and complex anatomy. The risk also varies with tumor consistency. Softer tumors such as pituitary adenomas are more likely to be surgically treated, while firm tumors such as meningiomas are often treated with radiosurgery. However, a wide range of pathologies that can involve the CS are amenable to surgery. The authors describe and analyze their results using endonasal endoscopic "medial-to-lateral" approaches for nonadenomatous, nonmeningeal tumors, in relation to the degree of invasion within the CS. METHODS A prospectively acquired database of consecutive endoscopic approaches for tumors with verified intraoperative CS invasion was reviewed. Pituitary adenomas and meningiomas were excluded. Degree of invasion of the CS was classified using the Knosp-Steiner (KS) grading system as well as the percentage of cavernous carotid artery (CCA) encasement. Extent of resection of the entire tumor and of the CS component was assessed by independent neuroradiologists using volumetric measurements of the pre- and postoperative MRI studies. Demographic data and complications were noted. RESULTS Fifteen patients (mean age 51.1 years who received endoscopic surgery between 2007 and 2013 met the selection criteria. There were 11 malignant tumors, including chordoma, chondrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, lymphoma, and metastatic cancer, and 4 benign tumors, including 3 cavernous hemangiomas and 1 dermoid. All cases were discussed before treatment in a tumor board. Adjuvant treatment options included chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The mean pre- and postoperative tumor volumes were 12.74 ml and 3.86 ml. Gross-total resection (GTR; ie, resection greater than 95%) was the goal in 13 cases and was achieved in 6 patients (46%) while in addition 5 patients had a greater than 80% resection. Gross-total resection in the CS was accomplished in 55% of the tumors with KS Grades 1-2 and in 16.6% of the tumors with KS grades 3-4, respectively. Likewise, GTR was accomplished in 55% of the tumors with CCA encasement under 75% and in 14.3% of the lesions with CCA encasement over 75%, irrespective of tumor volume and underlying pathology. There were 18 preexisting cranial neuropathies involving cranial nerves III-VI, of which 9 fully resolved, 4 improved, and 3 remained unchanged; 2 of these worsened with tumor recurrence. Surgical complications included 1 transient new cranial nerve VI palsy associated with Horner's syndrome and 1 case of panhypopituitarism. There were no postoperative CSF leaks and no infections. The mean extended follow-up was 34.4 months. CONCLUSIONS Endonasal endoscopic approaches can play a role in the management of nonmeningeal, nonadenomatous tumors invading the CS, either through biopsy, debulking, or GTR. An advantage of this method is the relief of preexisting cranial neuropathies with low risk for new neurological deficit. Extent of resection within the CS varies with KS grade and degree of carotid encasement irrespective of the underlying pathology. The goals of surgery should be clearly established preoperatively in consultation with radiation and medical oncologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2015.8.JNS15275DOI Listing
March 2017

Utility of tubular retractors to minimize surgical brain injury in the removal of deep intraparenchymal lesions: a quantitative analysis of FLAIR hyperintensity and apparent diffusion coefficient maps.

J Neurosurg 2016 Apr 2;124(4):1053-60. Epub 2015 Oct 2.

Departments of 1 Neurosurgery.

Objective: Brain retraction systems are frequently required to achieve surgical exposure of deep-seated brain lesions. Spatula-based systems can be associated with injury to the cortex and deep white matter, particularly adjacent to the sharp edges, which can result in uneven pressure on the parenchyma over the course of a long operation. The use of tubular retractor systems has been proposed as a method to overcome these limitations. There have been no studies assessing the degree of brain injury associated with the use of tubular retractors. METHODS :Twenty patients were retrospectively identified at Weill Cornell Medical College who underwent resection of deep-seated brain lesions between 2005 and 2014 with the aid of a METRx tubular retractor system. Using the Brainlab software, pre- and postoperative images were analyzed to assess volume, depth, extent of resection, and change in postoperative MR FLAIR hyperintensity and restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).

Results: The mean preoperative tumor volume was 16.25 ± 17.6 cm(3). Gross-total resection was achieved in 75%, near-total resection in 10%, and subtotal resection in 15% of patients. There was a small but not statistically significant increase in average FLAIR hyperintensity volume by 3.25 ± 10.51 cm(3) (p = 0.16). The average postoperative volume of DWI high signal area with restricted diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient maps was 8.35 ± 3.05 cm(3). Assuming that the volume of restricted diffusion on DWI around tumor was 0 preoperatively, this represented a statistically significant increase on DWI (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Although tubular retractors do not appear to significantly increase FLAIR signal in the brain, DWI intensity around the retractors can be identified. These data indicate that although tubular retractors may minimize damage to surrounding tissues, they still cause cytotoxic edema and cellular damage. Objective comparison against other retraction methods, as compared by 3D volumetric analysis or similar methods, will be important in determining the true advantage of tubular retractor systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2015.4.JNS142576DOI Listing
April 2016

Sex, Age, Anatomic Location, and Extent of Resection Influence Outcomes in Children With High-grade Glioma.

Neurosurgery 2015 Sep;77(3):443-52; discussion 452-3

*Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York; ‡Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; §Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; ¶Children's Brain Tumor Project, New York, New York.

Background: Survival duration and prognostic factors in adult high-grade glioma have been comprehensively analyzed, but less is known about factors contributing to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in pediatric patients.

Objective: To identify these factors in the pediatric population.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed institutional databases evaluating all patients ≤21 years with high-grade glioma treated between 1988 and 2010. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank statistics were used to compare groups univariately. Multivariate analyses were completed using Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: Ninety-seven patients were identified with a median age of 11 years. Median OS was 1.7 years, and median PFS was 272 days. Location was significant for OS (P < .001). Patients with gross total resection (GTR) had a median OS of 3.4 years vs 1.6 years for subtotal resection and 1.3 years for biopsy patients (P < .001). Female patients had improved OS (P = .01). Female patients with GTR had a mean OS of 8.1 years vs 2.4 years for male patients with GTR and 1.4 years for all other female patients and male patients (P = .001). PFS favored patients ≤3 and ≥13 years and females (P = .003 and .001).

Conclusion: OS was significantly correlated with the location of the tumor and the extent of resection. GTR significantly improved overall survival for both glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma patients, and female patients showed a much larger survival benefit from GTR than male patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0000000000000845DOI Listing
September 2015
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