Publications by authors named "Evan C Lewis"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sex differences in the developing brain impact stress-induced epileptogenicity following hyperthermia-induced seizures.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 12 4;161:105546. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, Département de Pédiatrie, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada; Département de Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada; Neurosurgery Service, Department of Surgery, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Febrile seizures (FS) are common, affecting 2-5% of children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years. Complex FS occur in 10% of patients with FS and are strongly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Current research suggests that predisposing factors, such as genetic and anatomic abnormalities, may be necessary for complex FS to translate to mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Sex hormones are known to influence seizure susceptibility and epileptogenesis, but whether sex-specific effects of early life stress play a role in epileptogenesis is unclear. Here, we investigate sex differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following chronic stress and the underlying contributions of gonadal hormones to the susceptibility of hyperthermia-induced seizures (HS) in rat pups. Chronic stress consisted of daily injections of 40 mg/kg of corticosterone (CORT) subcutaneously from postnatal day (P) 1 to P9 in male and female rat pups followed by HS at P10. Body mass, plasma CORT levels, temperature threshold to HS, seizure characteristics, and electroencephalographic in vivo recordings were compared between CORT- and vehicle (VEH)-injected littermates during and after HS at P10. In juvenile rats (P18-P22), in vitro CA1 pyramidal cell recordings were recorded in males to investigate excitatory and inhibitory neuronal circuits. Results show that daily CORT injections increased basal plasma CORT levels before HS and significantly reduced weight gain and body temperature threshold of HS in both males and females. CORT also significantly lowered the generalized convulsions (GC) latency while increasing recovery time and the number of electrographic seizures (>10s), which had longer duration. Furthermore, sex-specific differences were found in response to chronic CORT injections. Compared to females, male pups had increased basal plasma CORT levels after HS, longer recovery time and a higher number of electrographic seizures (>10s), which also had longer duration. Sex-specific differences were also found at baseline conditions with lower latency to generalized convulsions and longer duration of electrographic seizures in males but not in females. In juvenile male rats, the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials, as well as the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents, were significantly greater in CORT rats when compared to VEH littermates. These findings not only validate CORT injections as a stress model, but also show a sex difference in baseline conditions as well as a response to chronic CORT and an impact on seizure susceptibility, supporting a potential link between sustained early-life stress and complex FS. Overall, these effects also indicate a putatively less severe phenotype in female than male pups. Ultimately, studies investigating the biological underpinnings of sex differences as a determining factor in mental and neurologic problems are necessary to develop better diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic approaches for all patients regardless of their sex.
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December 2021

Hemispherectomy Outcome Prediction Scale: Development and validation of a seizure freedom prediction tool.

Epilepsia 2021 05 13;62(5):1064-1073. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To develop and validate a model to predict seizure freedom in children undergoing cerebral hemispheric surgery for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy.

Methods: We analyzed 1267 hemispheric surgeries performed in pediatric participants across 32 centers and 12 countries to identify predictors of seizure freedom at 3 months after surgery. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed based on 70% of the dataset (training set) and validated on 30% of the dataset (validation set). Missing data were handled using multiple imputation techniques.

Results: Overall, 817 of 1237 (66%) hemispheric surgeries led to seizure freedom (median follow-up = 24 months), and 1050 of 1237 (85%) were seizure-free at 12 months after surgery. A simple regression model containing age at seizure onset, presence of generalized seizure semiology, presence of contralateral 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography hypometabolism, etiologic substrate, and previous nonhemispheric resective surgery is predictive of seizure freedom (area under the curve = .72). A Hemispheric Surgery Outcome Prediction Scale (HOPS) score was devised that can be used to predict seizure freedom.

Significance: Children most likely to benefit from hemispheric surgery can be selected and counseled through the implementation of a scale derived from a multiple regression model. Importantly, children who are unlikely to experience seizure control can be spared from the complications and deficits associated with this surgery. The HOPS score is likely to help physicians in clinical decision-making.
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May 2021

Presurgical hyperconnectivity of the ablation volume is associated with seizure-freedom after magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy.

Seizure 2018 Oct 9;61:89-93. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Radiology/Diagnostic Imaging, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: Magnetic Resonance-guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (MRgLITT) is an emerging minimally-invasive alternative to resective surgery for medically-intractable epilepsy. The precise lesioning effect produced by MRgLITT supplies opportunities to glean insights into epileptogenic regions and their interactions with functional brain networks. In this exploratory analysis, we sought to characterize associations between MRgLITT ablation zones and large-scale brain networks that portended seizure outcome using resting-state fMRI.

Methods: Presurgical fMRI and intraoperatively volumetric structural imaging were obtained, from which the ablation volume was segmented. The network properties of the ablation volume within the brain's large-scale brain networks were characterized using graph theory and compared between children who were and were not rendered seizure-free.

Results: Of the seventeen included children, five achieved seizure freedom following MRgLITT. Greater functional connectivity of the ablation volume to canonical resting-state networks was associated with seizure-freedom (p < 0.05, FDR-corrected). The ablated volume in children who subsequently became seizure-free following MRgLITT had significantly greater strength, and eigenvector centrality within the large-scale brain network.

Conclusions: These findings provide novel insights into the interaction between epileptogenic cortex and large-scale brain networks. The association between ablation volume and resting-state networks may supply novel avenues for presurgical planning and patient stratification.
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October 2018

Medically resistant pediatric insular-opercular/perisylvian epilepsy. Part 1: invasive monitoring using the parasagittal transinsular apex depth electrode.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2016 Nov 29;18(5):511-522. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Divisions of 1 Pediatric Neurosurgery and.

OBJECTIVE Insular lobe epilepsy (ILE) is an under-recognized cause of extratemporal epilepsy and explains some epilepsy surgery failures in children with drug-resistant epilepsy. The diagnosis of ILE usually requires invasive investigation with insular sampling; however, the location of the insula below the opercula and the dense middle cerebral artery vasculature renders its sampling challenging. Several techniques have been described, ranging from open direct placement of orthogonal subpial depth and strip electrodes through a craniotomy to frame-based stereotactic placement of orthogonal or oblique electrodes using stereo-electroencephalography principles. The authors describe an alternative method for sampling the insula, which involves placing insular depth electrodes along the long axis of the insula through the insular apex following dissection of the sylvian fissure in conjunction with subdural electrodes over the lateral hemispheric/opercular region. The authors report the feasibility, advantages, disadvantages, and role of this approach in investigating pediatric insular-opercular refractory epilepsy. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of all children (< 18 years old) who underwent invasive intracranial studies involving the insula between 2002 and 2015. RESULTS Eleven patients were included in the study (5 boys). The mean age at surgery was 7.6 years (range 0.5-16 years). All patients had drug-resistant epilepsy as defined by the International League Against Epilepsy and underwent comprehensive noninvasive epilepsy surgery workup. Intracranial monitoring was performed in all patients using 1 parasagittal insular electrode (1 patient had 2 electrodes) in addition to subdural grids and strips tailored to the suspected epileptogenic zone. In 10 patients, extraoperative monitoring was used; in 1 patient, intraoperative electrocorticography was used alone without extraoperative monitoring. The mean number of insular contacts was 6.8 (range 4-8), and the mean number of fronto-parieto-temporal hemispheric contacts was 61.7 (range 40-92). There were no complications related to placement of these depth electrodes. All 11 patients underwent subsequent resective surgery involving the insula. CONCLUSIONS Parasagittal transinsular apex depth electrode placement is a feasible alternative to orthogonally placed open or oblique-placed stereotactic methodologies. This method is safe and best suited for suspected unilateral cases with a possible extensive insular-opercular epileptogenic zone.
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November 2016

Central nervous system vasculitis with positive antithyroid antibodies in an adolescent boy.

Pediatr Neurol 2011 Sep;45(3):189-92

Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Hashimoto's encephalopathy is diagnosed when patients exhibit features of corticosteroid-responsive encephalopathy and positive antithyroid antibodies. The relationship between antithyroid antibodies and encephalopathy is subject to considerable debate. We describe corticosteroid-responsive encephalopathy in a 14-year-old boy with positive antimicrosomal antibodies. His history included subtle neurocognitive decline. He presented with seizures. He underwent a brain biopsy before initiating treatment after his third episode. That biopsy was consistent with central nervous system vasculitis. This report is unique because, to our knowledge, it describes the first pretreatment brain biopsy of a pediatric patient who fits the criteria for Hashimoto's encephalopathy.
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September 2011