Publications by authors named "Evald Hoej Christiansen"

10 Publications

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Outcome of hybrid compared to conventional revascularization in multivessel coronary artery disease.

Scand Cardiovasc J 2020 Dec 30;54(6):376-382. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objectives: Evaluation of 3-year clinical outcome of hybrid myocardial revascularization (HMR) compared to conventional revascularization strategies in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease involving the proximal left anterior descending artery. Retrospective matched cohort study based on a prospective feasibility study including 103 elective patients undergoing staged HMR from October 2010 until February 2012. The Western Denmark Heart Registry was used to identify patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by matching on number of diseased vessels, age and comorbidity score. Primary endpoint was the composite rate of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 3-year follow-up. Secondary endpoints included individual MACCE components, acute kidney injury, and cardiovascular readmissions. There was no difference between MACCE in the three groups (HMR 31.1%; CABG 20.4%; PCI 20.4%,  = .11). Estimates of repeat revascularization were significantly increased with HMR versus CABG. In the CABG group, fewest patients required cardiovascular readmissions though with the highest incidence of acute kidney injury. HMR was not superior with respect to MACCE compared with CABG and PCI. It may, however, represent a safe alternative to conventional revascularization treatment considering the specific procedure-associated morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14017431.2020.1821910DOI Listing
December 2020

The risk and prognostic impact of definite stent thrombosis or in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation.

EuroIntervention 2012 Sep;8(5):591-8

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Aims: Data are limited on the prognostic impact of stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis in patients treated with coronary stents. We examined the prognostic impact of stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods And Results: All patients who underwent stent implantation from 2002 to 2005 were identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. The hazard ratio (HR) for death associated with stent thrombosis or in-stent restenosis was estimated with a Cox regression analysis with stent thrombosis or in-stent restenosis as time-dependent variables. A total of 12,277 patients were treated with stent implantation. Stent thrombosis was observed in 111 (0.9%) patients and in-stent restenosis in 503 (4.1%) patients within 12 months after the index PCI. Occurrence of stent thrombosis was associated with an increased risk of death (HR=2.71 [95% CI: 1.72-4.27]) compared to cases without stent thrombosis. In-stent restenosis had no substantial impact (HR=1.17 [95% CI: 0.79-1.75]). However, in-stent restenosis presenting as non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) was associated with a greater mortality risk compared with presentation of in-stent restenosis without myocardial infarction (HR=3.11 [95% CI: 1.08-8.69]; p=0.036).

Conclusions: The occurrence of stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis presenting with NSTEMI increased the mortality risk threefold whereas in-stent restenosis without myocardial infarction was not associated with an increased mortality risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV8I5A91DOI Listing
September 2012

Late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES III) angiography and intravascular ultrasound trial.

EuroIntervention 2011 Jul;7(3):323-31

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Aims: Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation due to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of this study was to use quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to evaluate the effects of the sirolimus-eluting Cypher® stent (SES) and the zotarolimus-eluting Endeavor® stent (ZES) on angiographic late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia in diabetic patients.

Methods And Results: In the DiabeDES III trial, 127 patients were randomised to SES or ZES stent implantation. Angiographic 10-month follow-up data were available in 105 patients, including 48 SES and 57 ZES treated patients. Angiographic endpoints were in-stent late lumen loss and minimal lumen diameter. IVUS endpoints included NIH volume and in-stent percent volume obstruction. Baseline clinical characteristics and lesion parameters were similar in the two groups. At 10-month follow-up, angiographic in-stent late lumen loss (0.14±0.37 mm vs. 0.74±0.45 mm, p<0.001) was reduced and minimum lumen diameter was higher (2.36±0.53 mm vs. 1.96±0.65, p<0.001) in the SES group as compared to the ZES group. As compared to the ZES group, NIH volume was significantly reduced in the SES group (median [interquartile range]: 0.0 mm3 [0.0 to 1.2] vs. 16.5 mm3 [6.2 to 31.1], p<0.001). In-stent% volume obstruction was significantly reduced in SES as compared to ZES (median [interquartile range]: 0.0% [0.0-0.7] vs. 13.0% [6.7-20.8], p<0.001).

Conclusions: In diabetic patients, the SES reduced angiographic late lumen loss and inhibited NIH more effectively than ZES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV7I3A56DOI Listing
July 2011

Outcome in high risk patients with unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2010 Jan;75(1):101-8

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Objective: We examined mortality, risk of myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) in high-risk patients with unprotected left main (LM) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Western Denmark.

Background: PCI of left main coronary artery lesions may be an alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting in high-risk surgical patients.

Methods: From January 2005 to May 2007, all patients who had unprotected LM PCI with stent implantation were identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. The indications for PCI were: (1) ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), (2) non-STEMI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina, and (3) stable angina. All patients were followed up for 18 months.

Results: A total of 344 patients were treated with LM PCI (STEMI: 71, NSTEMI/unstable angina: 157, and stable angina: 116). In STEMI patients, the median logistic EuroSCORE was 22.5 (interquartile range 12.5-39.5), in non-STEMI (NSTEMI)/unstable angina patients 13.8 (4.8-23.9), and in stable angina patients 4.8 (2.2-10.4). Mortality after 18 months 38.0, 18.5, and 11.2% (P < 0.001) in patients with STEMI, NSTEMI/unstable angina, and stable angina, respectively. MI after 18 months was 9.9, 6.4, and 6.0% (P = ns), respectively. Four subacute and one late definite stent thrombosis were seen. TLR occurred in 5.6, 4.5, and 6.9% (P = ns) of patients, respectively.

Conclusion: After PCI, patients with STEMI and LM culprit lesion have a high-mortality risk, whereas long-term outcome for patients with NSTEMI and stable angina pectoris is comparable with other high surgical risk patients with unprotected left main lesion. Further, TLR rates and risk of stent thrombosis were low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.22205DOI Listing
January 2010

Serial intravascular ultrasound analysis of peri-stent remodeling and proximal and distal edge effects after sirolimus-eluting or paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Am J Cardiol 2009 Apr 4;103(8):1083-8. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, USA.

Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation. Serial intravascular ultrasound was used to study chronic arterial responses and edge effects after implantation of Cypher (Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, Florida) or Taxus (Boston Scientific, Maple Grove, Minnesota) stents in diabetic patients. Seventy-four diabetic patients were randomly assigned to Cypher or Taxus stent implantation. Intravascular ultrasound of 5-mm long segments immediately proximal and distal to the stent was performed after the procedure and at the 8-month follow-up. The increase in peri-stent external elastic membrane (EEM) volume was more pronounced in the Taxus group (292.4 +/- 132.6 to 309.5 +/- 146.8 mm(3)) than in the Cypher group (274.4 +/- 137.2 to 275.4 +/- 140.1 mm(3); p = 0.005). Peri-stent plaque volume increased in the Taxus group (152.5 +/- 73.7 to 166.1 +/- 85.1 mm(3)), but was unchanged in the Cypher group (153.5 +/- 75.5 to 151.5 +/- 75.8 mm(3); p = 0.002). In proximal and distal reference segments, mean lumen area decreased within the entire 5-mm edge segment (proximal and distal) because of plaque progression (distal, 5.5 +/- 3.6 to 5.8 +/- 3.7 mm(2); p = 0.097; proximal, 8.1 +/- 2.7 to 8.7 +/- 2.9 mm(2); p = 0.006) without remodeling (change in EEM) in the Taxus group. Conversely, there were no significant changes in reference-segment EEM or plaque areas in the Cypher group. In conclusion, in diabetic patients, Taxus stent implantation was associated with increased (1) peri-stent EEM volume and peri-stent plaque, and (2) stent edge plaque progression accompanied by lumen reduction without remodeling. These findings were not seen in Cypher stents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.12.035DOI Listing
April 2009

Comparison of the sirolimus-eluting versus paclitaxel-eluting coronary stent in patients with diabetes mellitus: the diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES) randomized angiography trial.

Am J Cardiol 2009 Feb 12;103(3):345-9. Epub 2008 Nov 12.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate angiographic late luminal loss after the implantation of sirolimus-eluting Cypher stents and paclitaxel-eluting Taxus stents in patients with diabetes. The study was a Danish multicenter, open-label, randomized trial. One hundred fifty-three patients with diabetes with coronary artery disease were randomized to Cypher (n = 76) or Taxus (n = 77) stent implantation. All patients were followed for 8 months. The primary end point was 8-month angiographic in-stent late luminal loss. This primary end point was reduced in the Cypher group compared with the Taxus group (0.23 +/- 0.54 vs 0.44 +/- 0.52 mm, p = 0.025). Angiographic in-segment restenosis at 8-month follow-up, a secondary end point, was present in 16 patients (Cypher, n = 6; Taxus, n = 10; p = 0.24). Target lesion revascularization was performed in 5 patients (6.5%) and 9 patients (11.8%) in the Cypher and Taxus groups, respectively (p = 0.25). Definite stent thrombosis was observed in 2 patients (in the Taxus group), no patients had probable stent thrombosis, and 1 patient in each group had possible stent thrombosis. Major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, or target lesion revascularization) were observed in 17 patients (Cypher, n = 6; Taxus, n = 11; p = 0.19). In conclusion, angiographic in-stent late luminal loss is significantly reduced in patients with diabetes by use of the sirolimus-eluting Cypher stent compared with the paclitaxel-eluting Taxus stent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.09.084DOI Listing
February 2009

Neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the Randomized Diabetes and Drug-Eluting Stent (DiabeDES) Intravascular Ultrasound Trial.

Eur Heart J 2008 Nov 2;29(22):2733-41. Epub 2008 Oct 2.

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Aims: Patients with diabetes have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation owing to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of the study was to evaluate the extent and distribution of NIH with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after coronary artery stenting with sirolimus-eluting (Cypher) or paclitaxel-eluting (Taxus) stents in diabetic patients.

Methods And Results: One hundred and thirty diabetic patients were randomized to Cypher or Taxus stent implantation. IVUS was performed at 8 month follow-up. NIH volume was significantly reduced in the Cypher group when compared with the Taxus group: median (inter-quartile range) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) vs. 8.0 mm(3) (0.1-33.0), P < 0.001. Per cent NIH volume was also significantly lower in Cypher stents compared with Taxus stents: median (inter-quartile range) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) vs. 7.5% (0.1-27.0), P < 0.001. NIH was covering 5.4% of the stent length in the Cypher stents compared with 46.1% in the Taxus stents (P < 0.001). The incidence of diffuse NIH was significantly higher for Taxus than for Cypher stents (42.9 vs. 3.5%, P < 0.001). Taxus stents had more often NIH at the proximal stent edge compared with Cypher stents (45.1 vs. 7%, P < 0.001) and no Cypher stents had NIH at the distal stent edge compared with 35.5% of the Taxus stents (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: In diabetic patients, the Cypher stent, compared with the Taxus stent, inhibited NIH more effectively and had a more focal NIH pattern including less involvement of the stent edges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn434DOI Listing
November 2008

Intravascular ultrasound assessment of expansion of the sirolimus-eluting (cypher select) and paclitaxel-eluting (Taxus Express-2) stent in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Am J Cardiol 2008 Jul 9;102(1):19-26. Epub 2008 May 9.

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Patients with diabetes have a higher risk for in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation. Drug-eluting stents (DES) are highly effective in reducing in-stent restenosis. Once neointimal hyperplasia is suppressed with DES, the impact of stent underexpansion becomes magnified. The aim of this study was to evaluate DES expansion in patients with diabetes. Ninety-five patients with diabetes were randomized to Cypher Select (n = 48) or Taxus Express-2 (n = 47) stent implantation. Intravascular ultrasound was performed after stent implantation. Stent expansion was defined as the ratio of measured to predicted minimum stent diameter. There was a trend for lower stent expansion in the Cypher Select stent group (0.74 +/- 0.08 vs 0.78 +/- 0.11 in the Taxus Express-2 stent group, p = 0.061). Cypher Select stents achieved a final minimal stent cross-sectional area of 5.5 +/- 1. 8 mm2, compared with 6.4 +/- 1.9 mm2 for Taxus Express-2 stents (p = 0.015). For stents with nominal diameters > or =2.75 mm (Cypher Select n = 40, Taxus Express-2 n = 38), 42.5% of the Cypher Select stents and 10.5% of the Taxus Express-2 stents did not achieve a final minimum stent area of 5 mm2 (p = 0.002). Insulin treatment (relative risk 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.95, p = 0.041) and stent type (relative risk 0.15, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.53, p = 0.003) were independent predictors of not achieving a minimum stent area >5.0 mm2. In conclusion, an important percentage of DES in patients with diabetes fail to achieve the manufacturers' predicted final minimal stent diameter. Cypher Select stent and insulin treatment were independent predictors of not achieving a minimum stent area >5.0 mm2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.093DOI Listing
July 2008

Comparison of intravascular ultrasound and angiographic assessment of coronary reference segment size in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Am J Cardiol 2008 Mar 14;101(5):590-5. Epub 2008 Jan 14.

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

During percutaneous coronary intervention, the reference segment is assessed angiographically. This report described the discrepancy between angiographic and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assessment of reference segment size in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preintervention IVUS was used to study 62 de novo lesions in 41 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The lesion site was the image slice with the smallest lumen cross-sectional area (CSA). The proximal and distal reference segments were the most normal-looking segments within 5 mm proximal and distal to the lesion. Plaque burden was measured as plaque CSA/external elastic membrane (EEM) CSA. Using IVUS, the reference lumen diameter was 2.80 +/- 0.42 mm and the reference EEM diameter was 4.17 +/- 0.56 mm. The angiographic reference diameter was 2.63 +/- 0.36 mm. Mean difference between the IVUS EEM diameter and angiographic reference diameter was 1.56 +/- 0.55 mm. The mean difference between the IVUS reference lumen diameter and angiographic reference lumen diameter was 0.18 +/- 0.44 mm. Plaque burden in the reference segment correlated inversely with the difference between IVUS and quantitative coronary angiographic reference lumen diameter (slope = -0.12, 95% confidence interval -0.17 to -0.07, p <0.001), but it was not related to the absolute angiographic reference lumen diameter. Thus, reference segment diameters in type 2 diabetic patients were larger using IVUS than angiography, especially in the setting of larger plaque burden. In conclusion, these findings combined with inadequate remodeling may explain the angiographic appearance of small arteries in diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.10.020DOI Listing
March 2008

Intravascular ultrasound assessment of remodelling and reference segment plaque burden in type-2 diabetic patients.

Eur Heart J 2007 Jul 31;28(14):1759-64. Epub 2007 May 31.

Catheterization Laboratory, Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark.

Aims: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assesses arterial remodelling by comparing the lesion external elastic membrane (EEM) with the reference segments; however, reference segments are rarely disease-free. The aim was to assess lesion and reference segment remodelling and plaque burden in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods And Results: We used pre-intervention IVUS to study 62 de novo lesions in 43 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The lesion site was the image slice with the smallest lumen cross-sectional area (CSA). The proximal and distal reference segments were the most normal-looking segments within 5 mm proximal and distal to the lesion. Plaque burden was measured as plaque CSA/EEM CSA. The remodelling index was defined as lesion EEM CSA/mean reference EEM CSA. Reference segment plaque burden measured 0.54 +/- 0.09. The majority of lesions (83.9%) had negative remodelling (lesion EEM < reference). Similarly, the slope of the regression line relating EEM to plaque CSA within the lesion was less than the reference substantiating negative remodelling. The reference segment plaque burden correlated inversely with the difference between IVUS lumen and quantitative coronary angiographic artery size [slope = -0.12 (95% CI -0.17 to -0.07); P < 0.001] in all patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: Lesions in type-2 diabetic patients are different from previous reports in non-diabetics. Lesions in type-2 diabetics are characterized by a large reference segment plaque burden and negative lesion site remodelling. These IVUS findings may explain the angiographic appearance of small arteries in diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehm175DOI Listing
July 2007