Publications by authors named "Eva-Maria Messner"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Quality of Physical Activity Apps: Systematic Search in App Stores and Content Analysis.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Jun 9;9(6):e22587. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Physical inactivity is a major contributor to the development and persistence of chronic diseases. Mobile health apps that foster physical activity have the potential to assist in behavior change. However, the quality of the mobile health apps available in app stores is hard to assess for making informed decisions by end users and health care providers.

Objective: This study aimed at systematically reviewing and analyzing the content and quality of physical activity apps available in the 2 major app stores (Google Play and App Store) by using the German version of the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS-G). Moreover, the privacy and security measures were assessed.

Methods: A web crawler was used to systematically search for apps promoting physical activity in the Google Play store and App Store. Two independent raters used the MARS-G to assess app quality. Further, app characteristics, content and functions, and privacy and security measures were assessed. The correlation between user star ratings and MARS was calculated. Exploratory regression analysis was conducted to determine relevant predictors for the overall quality of physical activity apps.

Results: Of the 2231 identified apps, 312 met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that the overall quality was moderate (mean 3.60 [SD 0.59], range 1-4.75). The scores of the subscales, that is, information (mean 3.24 [SD 0.56], range 1.17-4.4), engagement (mean 3.19 [SD 0.82], range 1.2-5), aesthetics (mean 3.65 [SD 0.79], range 1-5), and functionality (mean 4.35 [SD 0.58], range 1.88-5) were obtained. An efficacy study could not be identified for any of the included apps. The features of data security and privacy were mainly not applied. Average user ratings showed significant small correlations with the MARS ratings (r=0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.35; P<.001). The amount of content and number of functions were predictive of the overall quality of these physical activity apps, whereas app store and price were not.

Conclusions: Apps for physical activity showed a broad range of quality ratings, with moderate overall quality ratings. Given the present privacy, security, and evidence concerns inherent to most rated apps, their medical use is questionable. There is a need for open-source databases of expert quality ratings to foster informed health care decisions by users and health care providers.
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June 2021

Sample size, sample size planning, and the impact of study context: systematic review and recommendations by the example of psychological depression treatment.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 21;51(6):902-908. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Sample size planning (SSP) is vital for efficient studies that yield reliable outcomes. Hence, guidelines, emphasize the importance of SSP. The present study investigates the practice of SSP in current trials for depression.

Methods: Seventy-eight randomized controlled trials published between 2013 and 2017 were examined. Impact of study design (e.g. number of randomized conditions) and study context (e.g. funding) on sample size was analyzed using multiple regression.

Results: Overall, sample size during pre-registration, during SSP, and in published articles was highly correlated (r's ≥ 0.887). Simultaneously, only 7-18% of explained variance related to study design (p = 0.055-0.155). This proportion increased to 30-42% by adding study context (p = 0.002-0.005). The median sample size was N = 106, with higher numbers for internet interventions (N = 181; p = 0.021) compared to face-to-face therapy. In total, 59% of studies included SSP, with 28% providing basic determinants and 8-10% providing information for comprehensible SSP. Expected effect sizes exhibited a sharp peak at d = 0.5. Depending on the definition, 10.2-20.4% implemented intense assessment to improve statistical power.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that investigators achieve their determined sample size and pre-registration rates are increasing. During study planning, however, study context appears more important than study design. Study context, therefore, needs to be emphasized in the present discussion, as it can help understand the relatively stable trial numbers of the past decades. Acknowledging this situation, indications exist that digital psychiatry (e.g. Internet interventions or intense assessment) can help to mitigate the challenge of underpowered studies. The article includes a short guide for efficient study planning.
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April 2021

Systematic evaluation of content and quality of English and German pain apps in European app stores.

Internet Interv 2021 Apr 24;24:100376. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Engelberger Str. 41, 79106 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

Background And Objective: Pain spans a broad spectrum of diseases and types that are highly prevalent and cause substantial disease burden for individuals and society. Up to 40% of people affected by pain receive no or inadequate treatment. Providing a scalable, time-, and location-independent way for pain diagnostic, management, prevention and treatment mobile health applications (MHA) might be a promising approach to improve health care for pain. However, the commercial app market is rapidly growing and unregulated, resulting in an opaque market. Studies investigating the content, privacy and security features, quality and scientific evidence of the available apps are highly needed, to guide patients and clinicians to high quality MHA.Contributing to this challenge, the present study investigates the content, quality, and privacy features of pain apps available in the European app stores.

Methods: An automated search engine was used to identify pain apps in the European Google Play and Apple App store. Pain apps were screened and checked for systematic criteria (pain-relatedness, functionality, availability, independent usability, English or German). Content, quality and privacy features were assessed by two independent reviewers using the German Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS-G). The MARS-G assesses quality on four objectives (engagement, functionality, aesthetics, information quality) and two subjective scales (perceived impact, subjective quality).

Results: Out of 1034 identified pain apps 218 were included. Pain apps covered eight different pain types. Content included basic information, advice, assessment and tracking, and stand-alone interventions. The overall quality of the pain apps was average M = 3.13 (SD = 0.56, min = 1, max = 4.69). The effectiveness of less than 1% of the included pain apps was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Major problems with data privacy were present: 59% provided no imprint, 70% had no visible privacy policy.

Conclusion: A multitude of pain apps is available. Most MHA lack scientific evaluation and have serious privacy issues, posing a potential threat to users. Further research on evidence and improvements privacy and security are needed. Overall, the potential of pain apps is not exploited.
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April 2021

Mobile Apps for Older Adults: Systematic Search and Evaluation Within Online Stores.

JMIR Aging 2021 Feb 19;4(1):e23313. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Through the increasingly aging population, the health care system is confronted with various challenges such as expanding health care costs. To manage these challenges, mobile apps may represent a cost-effective and low-threshold approach to support older adults.

Objective: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the quality, characteristics, as well as privacy and security measures of mobile apps for older adults in the European commercial app stores.

Methods: In the European Google Play and App Store, a web crawler systematically searched for mobile apps for older adults. The identified mobile apps were evaluated by two independent reviewers using the German version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale. A correlation between the user star rating and overall rating was calculated. An exploratory regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the obligation to pay fees predicted overall quality.

Results: In total, 83 of 1217 identified mobile apps were included in the analysis. Generally, the mobile apps for older adults were of moderate quality (mean 3.22 [SD 0.68]). Four mobile apps (5%) were evidence-based; 49% (41/83) had no security measures. The user star rating correlated significantly positively with the overall rating (r=.30, P=.01). Obligation to pay fees could not predict overall quality.

Conclusions: There is an extensive quality range within mobile apps for older adults, indicating deficits in terms of information quality, data protection, and security precautions, as well as a lack of evidence-based approaches. Central databases are needed to identify high-quality mobile apps.
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February 2021

Stay Present with Your Phone: A Systematic Review and Standardized Rating of Mindfulness Apps in European App Stores.

Int J Behav Med 2020 Nov 20. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Institute of Psychology, Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Engelbersger Str. 41, 79085, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Mindfulness-based interventions show positive effects on physical and mental health. For a better integration of mindfulness techniques in daily life, the use of apps may be promising. However, only a few studies have examined the quality of mindfulness apps using a validated standardized instrument. This review aims to evaluate the content, quality, and privacy features of mindfulness-focused apps from European commercial app stores.

Methods: An automated search engine (webcrawler) was used to identify mindfulness-focused apps in the European Apple App- and Google Play store. Content, quality, and privacy features were evaluated by two independent reviewers using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). The MARS assesses the subscales engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality.

Results: Out of 605 identified apps, 192 met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality was moderate (M = 3.66, SD = 0.48). Seven apps were tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Most of the apps showed a lack of data security and no privacy policy. The five apps with the highest ratings are from a credible source, include a privacy policy, and are also based on standardized mindfulness and behavior change techniques.

Conclusions: The plethora of often low-quality apps in commercial app stores makes it difficult for users to identify a suitable app. Above that, the lack of scientific verification of effectiveness and shortcomings in privacy protection and security poses potential risks. So far, the potential of mindfulness-focused apps is not exploited in commercial app stores.
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November 2020

Validation of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS).

PLoS One 2020 2;15(11):e0241480. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, University Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Mobile health apps (MHA) have the potential to improve health care. The commercial MHA market is rapidly growing, but the content and quality of available MHA are unknown. Instruments for the assessment of the quality and content of MHA are highly needed. The Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) is one of the most widely used tools to evaluate the quality of MHA. Only few validation studies investigated its metric quality. No study has evaluated the construct validity and concurrent validity.

Objective: This study evaluates the construct validity, concurrent validity, reliability, and objectivity, of the MARS.

Methods: Data was pooled from 15 international app quality reviews to evaluate the metric properties of the MARS. The MARS measures app quality across four dimensions: engagement, functionality, aesthetics and information quality. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing related competing confirmatory models by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Non-centrality (RMSEA), incremental (CFI, TLI) and residual (SRMR) fit indices were used to evaluate the goodness of fit. As a measure of concurrent validity, the correlations to another quality assessment tool (ENLIGHT) were investigated. Reliability was determined using Omega. Objectivity was assessed by intra-class correlation.

Results: In total, MARS ratings from 1,299 MHA covering 15 different health domains were included. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a bifactor model with a general factor and a factor for each dimension (RMSEA = 0.074, TLI = 0.922, CFI = 0.940, SRMR = 0.059). Reliability was good to excellent (Omega 0.79 to 0.93). Objectivity was high (ICC = 0.82). MARS correlated with ENLIGHT (ps<.05).

Conclusion: The metric evaluation of the MARS demonstrated its suitability for the quality assessment. As such, the MARS could be used to make the quality of MHA transparent to health care stakeholders and patients. Future studies could extend the present findings by investigating the re-test reliability and predictive validity of the MARS.
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December 2020

The German Version of the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS-G): Development and Validation Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 03 27;8(3):e14479. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department for Psychotherapy and Biopsychosocial Health, Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria.

Background: The number of mobile health apps (MHAs), which are developed to promote healthy behaviors, prevent disease onset, manage and cure diseases, or assist with rehabilitation measures, has exploded. App store star ratings and descriptions usually provide insufficient or even false information about app quality, although they are popular among end users. A rigorous systematic approach to establish and evaluate the quality of MHAs is urgently needed. The Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) is an assessment tool that facilitates the objective and systematic evaluation of the quality of MHAs. However, a German MARS is currently not available.

Objective: The aim of this study was to translate and validate a German version of the MARS (MARS-G).

Methods: The original 19-item MARS was forward and backward translated twice, and the MARS-G was created. App description items were extended, and 104 MHAs were rated twice by eight independent bilingual researchers, using the MARS-G and MARS. The internal consistency, validity, and reliability of both scales were assessed. Mokken scale analysis was used to investigate the scalability of the overall scores.

Results: The retranslated scale showed excellent alignment with the original MARS. Additionally, the properties of the MARS-G were comparable to those of the original MARS. The internal consistency was good for all subscales (ie, omega ranged from 0.72 to 0.91). The correlation coefficients (r) between the dimensions of the MARS-G and MARS ranged from 0.93 to 0.98. The scalability of the MARS (H=0.50) and MARS-G (H=0.48) were good.

Conclusions: The MARS-G is a reliable and valid tool for experts and stakeholders to assess the quality of health apps in German-speaking populations. The overall score is a reliable quality indicator. However, further studies are needed to assess the factorial structure of the MARS and MARS-G.
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March 2020

Scared to Trust? - Predicting Trust in Highly Automated Driving by Depressiveness, Negative Self-Evaluations and State Anxiety.

Front Psychol 2019 23;10:2917. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Human Factors, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

The advantages of automated driving can only come fully into play if these systems are used in an appropriate way, which means that they are neither used in situations they are not designed for (misuse) nor used in a too restricted manner (disuse). Trust in automation has been found to be an essential psychological basis for appropriate interaction with automated systems. Well-balanced system use requires a calibrated level of trust in correspondence with the actual ability of an automated system. As for these far-reaching implications of trust for safe and efficient system use, the psychological processes, in which trust is dynamically calibrated prior and during the use of automated technology, need to be understood. At this point, only a restricted body of research investigated the role of personality and emotional states for the formation of trust in automated systems. In this research, the role of the personality variables depressiveness, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and locus of control for the experience of anxiety before the first experience with a highly automated driving system were investigated. Additionally, the relationship of the investigated personality variables and anxiety to subsequent formation of trust in automation was investigated. In a driving simulator study, personality variables and anxiety were measured before the interaction with an automated system. Trust in the system was measured after participants drove with the system for a while. Trust in the system was significantly predicted by state anxiety and the personality characteristics self-esteem and self-efficacy. The relationships of self-esteem and self-efficacy were mediated by state anxiety as supported by significant specific indirect effects. While for depression the direct relationship with trust in automation was not found to be significant, an indirect effect through the experience of anxiety was supported. Locus of control did not show a significant association to trust in automation. The reported findings support the importance of considering individual differences in negative self-evaluations and anxiety when being introduced to a new automated system for individual differences in trust in automation. Implications for future research as well as implications for the design of automated technology in general and automated driving systems are discussed.
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January 2020

'Help for trauma from the app stores?' A systematic review and standardised rating of apps for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2020 9;11(1):1701788. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Institute of Psychology and Education, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

: Mobile health applications (apps) are considered to complement traditional psychological treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, the use for clinical practice and quality of available apps is unknown. : To assess the general characteristics, therapeutic background, content, and quality of apps for PTSD and to examine their concordance with established PTSD treatment and self-help methods. : A web crawler systematically searched for apps targeting PTSD in the British Google Play and Apple iTunes stores. Two independent researchers rated the apps using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). The content of high-quality apps was checked for concordance with psychological treatment and self-help methods extracted from current literature on PTSD treatment. : Out of 555 identified apps, 69 met the inclusion criteria. The overall app quality based on the MARS was medium (M = 3.36, SD = 0.65). Most apps (50.7%) were based on cognitive behavioural therapy and offered a wide range of content, including established psychological PTSD treatment methods such as processing of trauma-related emotions and beliefs, relaxation exercises, and psychoeducation. Notably, data protection and privacy standards were poor in most apps and only one app (1.4%) was scientifically evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. : High-quality apps based on established psychological treatment techniques for PTSD are available in commercial app stores. However, users are confronted with great difficulties in identifying useful high-quality apps and most apps lack an evidence-base. Commercial distribution channels do not exploit the potential of apps to complement the psychological treatment of PTSD.
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January 2020

Prevention of eating disorders at universities: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 06 14;53(6):813-833. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Clinical, Neuro, and Developmental Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Eating problems are highly prevalent among young adults. Universities could be an optimal setting to prevent the onset of eating disorders through psychological intervention. As part of the World Mental Health-International College Student initiative, this systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizes data on the efficacy of eating disorder prevention programs targeting university students.

Method: A systematic literature search of bibliographical databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO) for randomized trials comparing psychological preventive interventions for eating disorders targeting university students with psychoeducation or inactive controls was performed on October 22, 2019.

Results: Twenty-seven studies were included. Thirteen (48.1%) were rated to have a low risk of bias. The relative risk of developing a subthreshold or full-blown eating disorder was incidence rate ratio = 0.62 (95% CI [0.44, 0.87], n = 8, numbers-needed-to-treat [NNT] = 26.08; standardized clinical interviews only), indicating a 38% decrease in incidence in the intervention groups compared to controls. Small to moderate between-group effects at posttest were found on eating disorder symptoms (g = 0.35, 95% CI [0.24, 0.46], NNT = 5.10, n = 26), dieting (g = 0.43, 95% CI [0.29, 0.57], NNT = 4.17, n = 21), body dissatisfaction (g = 0.40, 95% CI [0.27, 0.53], NNT = 4.48, n = 25), drive for thinness (g = 0.43, 95% CI [0.27, 0.59], NNT = 4.23, n = 12), weight concerns (g = 0.33, 95% CI [0.10, 0.57], NNT = 5.35, n = 13), and affective symptoms (g = 0.27, 95% CI [0.15, 0.38], NNT = 6.70, n = 18). The effects on bulimia nervosa symptoms were not significant. Heterogeneity was moderate across comparisons.

Discussion: Eating disorder prevention on campus can have significant, small-to-moderate effects on eating disorder symptoms and risk factors. Results also suggest that the prevention of subthreshold and full-syndrome eating disorders is feasible using such interventions. More research is needed to identify ways to motivate students to use preventive eating disorder interventions.

Antecedentes: Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son altamente prevalentes entre los adultos jóvenes. Las universidades podrían ser un entorno óptimo para prevenir la aparición de trastornos alimentarios a través de la intervención psicológica. Como parte de la iniciativa World Mental Health-International College Student, esta revisión sistemática y meta-análisis sintetiza datos sobre la eficacia de los programas de prevención de trastornos alimentarios dirigidos a estudiantes universitarios. MÉTODO: Una búsqueda bibliográfica sistemática de datos bibliográficas (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO) para ensayos aleatorios que comparaban intervenciones preventivas psicológicas para trastornos alimentarios dirigidos a estudiantes universitarios con psicoeducación o controles inactivos fue realizada hasta el 22 de octubre de 2019.

Resultados: Se incluyeron 27 estudios. Trece (48,1%) fueron calificados como de bajo riesgo de sesgo. El riesgo relativo de desarrollar un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria subclínico (parcial) o completo fue IRR = 0.62 (95% CI [0.44, 0.87], n = 8, NNT = 26.08; sólo entrevistas clínicas estandarizadas), lo que indica una disminución del 38% en la incidencia en los grupos de intervención en comparación con los controles. Se encontraron efectos pequeños a moderados entre los grupos en la post-prueba en los síntomas del trastorno alimentario (g = 0.35, 95% CI [0.24, 0.46], NNT = 5.10, n = 26), dieta (g = 0.43, 95% CI [0.29, 0.57], NNT = 4.17, n = 21), insatisfacción corporal (g = 0.40, 95% CI [0.27, 0.53], NNT = 4.48, n = 25), impulso por delgadez (g = 0.43, 95% CI [0.27, 0.59], NNT = 4.23, n = 12), problemas de peso (g = 0.33, 95% CI [0.10, 0.57], NNT = 5.35, n = 13) y síntomas afectivos (g = 0.27, 95% CI [0.15, 0.38], NNT = 6.70, n = 18). Los efectos sobre los síntomas de la bulimia nervosa no fueron significativos. La heterogeneidad fue moderada en las comparaciones. DISCUSIÓN: La prevención de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en el campus universitario puede tener efectos significativos, de pequeños a moderados, sobre los síntomas del trastorno alimentario y los factores de riesgo. Los resultados también sugieren que la prevención de los trastornos alimentarios subclínicos o parciales y síndromes completos es factible utilizando tales intervenciones. Se necesita más investigación para identificar formas de motivar a los estudiantes a usar intervenciones preventivas para los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria.
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June 2020

German Mobile Apps in Rheumatology: Review and Analysis Using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS).

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 08 5;7(8):e14991. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Working Group Young Rheumatology, German Society for Rheumatology, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Chronic rheumatic diseases need long-term treatment and professional supervision. Mobile apps promise to improve the lives of patients and physicians. In routine practice, however, rheumatology apps are largely unknown and little is known about their quality and safety.

Objective: The aim of this study was to provide an overview of mobile rheumatology apps currently available in German app stores, evaluate app quality using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS), and compile brief, ready-to-use descriptions for patients and rheumatologists.

Methods: The German App Store and Google Play store were systematically searched to identify German rheumatology mobile apps for patient and physician use. MARS was used to independently assess app quality by 8 physicians, 4 using Android and 4 using iOS smartphones. Apps were randomly assigned so that 4 apps were rated by all raters and the remaining apps were rated by two Android and two iOS users. Furthermore, brief app descriptions including app developers, app categories, and features were compiled to inform potential users and developers.

Results: In total, 128 and 63 apps were identified in the German Google Play and App Store, respectively. After removing duplicates and only including apps that were available in both stores, 28 apps remained. Sixteen apps met the inclusion criteria, which were (1) German language, (2) availability in both app stores, (3) targeting patients or physicians as users, and (4) clearly including rheumatology or rheumatic diseases as subject matter. Exclusion criteria were (1) congress apps and (2) company apps with advertisements. Nine apps addressed patients and 7 apps addressed physicians. No clinical studies to support the effectiveness and safety of apps could be found. Pharmaceutical companies were the main developers of two apps. Rheuma Auszeit was the only app mainly developed by a patient organization. This app had the highest overall MARS score (4.19/5). Three out of 9 patient apps featured validated questionnaires. The median overall MARS score was 3.85/5, ranging from 2.81/5 to 4.19/5. One patient-targeted and one physician-targeted app had MARS scores >4/5. No significant rater gender or platform (iOS/Android) differences could be observed. The overall correlation between app store ratings and MARS scores was low and inconsistent between platforms.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that systematically identified and evaluated mobile apps in rheumatology for patients and physicians available in German app stores. We found a lack of supporting clinical studies, use of validated questionnaires, and involvement of academic developers. Overall app quality was heterogeneous. To create high-quality apps, closer cooperation led by patients and physicians is vital.
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August 2019

Interoceptive awareness and perceived control moderate the relationship between cognitive reappraisal, self-esteem, and cardiac activity in daily life.

Int J Psychophysiol 2019 07 6;141:84-92. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Ulm, Germany.

Cognitive reappraisal has been discussed to dampen emotional experience and foster health and well-being. Recent theorizing suggests that the benefits of reappraisal might depend on the feasibility to exert control in a given situation and the ability of an individual to sensitively attend to organismic cues (interoception). This study examined the interplay of habitual reappraisal, interoceptive awareness and perceived control on psychological (self-esteem) and physiological (heart rate variability) adjustment in daily life. A sample of 111 participants was monitored throughout 12 h. Habitual reappraisal was assessed via the emotion regulation questionnaire and interoception via a heartbeat detection task (method of constant stimuli). An ecological momentary assessment protocol was used to record short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an indicator of cardiac vagal tone, self-esteem and perceived control in daily life. Higher use of reappraisal was associated with higher self-esteem particularly in good heartbeat detectors when perceived control in daily life was low. Conversely, habitual reappraisal was unrelated to momentary self-esteem in poor heartbeat detectors. Moreover, habitual reappraisal predicted higher HRV in daily life when perceived control was low, and reappraisal tended to be positively related with HRV in good, but not in poor heartbeat detectors. Together the findings suggest that the benefits of habitual reappraisal in daily life may depend on perceived control and interoceptive accuracy, thus supporting the assumption that the effects of reappraisal in daily life are more complex.
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July 2019