Publications by authors named "Eva Knuplez"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Role of Short Chain Fatty Acids and Apolipoproteins in the Regulation of Eosinophilia-Associated Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 22;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Otto Loewi Research Center, Division of Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Eosinophils are key components of our host defense and potent effectors in allergic and inflammatory diseases. Once recruited to the inflammatory site, eosinophils release their cytotoxic granule proteins as well as cytokines and lipid mediators, contributing to parasite clearance but also to exacerbation of inflammation and tissue damage. However, eosinophils have recently been shown to play an important homeostatic role in different tissues under steady state. Despite the tremendous progress in the treatment of eosinophilic disorders with the implementation of biologics, there is an unmet need for novel therapies that specifically target the cytotoxic effector functions of eosinophils without completely depleting this multifunctional immune cell type. Recent studies have uncovered several endogenous molecules that decrease eosinophil migration and activation. These include short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate, which are produced in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract by commensal bacteria and enter the systemic circulation. In addition, high-density lipoprotein-associated anti-inflammatory apolipoproteins have recently been shown to attenuate eosinophil migration and activation. Here, we focus on the anti-pathogenic properties of SCFAs and apolipoproteins on eosinophil effector function and provide insights into the potential use of SCFAs and apolipoproteins (and their mimetics) as effective agents to combat eosinophilic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094377DOI Listing
April 2021

Emerging Role of Phospholipase-Derived Cleavage Products in Regulating Eosinophil Activity: Focus on Lysophospholipids, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Otto Loewi Research Center, Division of Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Eosinophils are important effector cells involved in allergic inflammation. When stimulated, eosinophils release a variety of mediators initiating, propagating, and maintaining local inflammation. Both, the activity and concentration of secreted and cytosolic phospholipases (PLAs) are increased in allergic inflammation, promoting the cleavage of phospholipids and thus the production of reactive lipid mediators. Eosinophils express high levels of secreted phospholipase A2 compared to other leukocytes, indicating their direct involvement in the production of lipid mediators during allergic inflammation. On the other side, eosinophils have also been recognized as crucial mediators with regulatory and homeostatic roles in local immunity and repair. Thus, targeting the complex network of lipid mediators offer a unique opportunity to target the over-activation and 'pro-inflammatory' phenotype of eosinophils without compromising the survival and functions of tissue-resident and homeostatic eosinophils. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the critical role of phospholipase-derived lipid mediators in modulating eosinophil activity in health and disease. We focus on lysophospholipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and eicosanoids with exciting new perspectives for future drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094356DOI Listing
April 2021

Biological anti-psoriatic therapy profoundly affects high-density lipoprotein function.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Jul 13;1866(7):158943. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center for Vascular Biology, Immunology and Inflammation, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria; BioTechMed Graz, Mozartgasse 12/II, 8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Functional impairment of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may contribute to excessive cardiovascular mortality in psoriasis patients. Anti-cytokine therapies with biologics have been efficiently used for the management of psoriasis, however little data is available on the effects of biologic anti-psoriatic therapies on the composition and functionality of HDL. Blood samples were taken from 17 healthy volunteers and from 27 real-world psoriasis patients at baseline (no therapy with biologics) and after short-term (3 to 6 months) and intermediate-term (1 to 2 years) therapy. The biologics used included anti-interleukin (IL)-12/23p40 (ustekinumab), anti-IL17A (secukinumab) or anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (etanercept or adalimumab) antibodies. We observed that in psoriasis patients at baseline, metrics of HDL function including cholesterol efflux capacity of apolipoprotein B-depleted serum (p = 0.021), paraoxonase (p < 0.001) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (p < 0.001) activities were impaired, when compared to controls. Unexpectedly, we observed that short- and especially intermediate-term therapy with biologics markedly reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (p < 0.001) and rendered HDL pro-inflammatory (p < 0.001), but increased paraoxonase (p = 0.009) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (p = 0.019) activities. All biologics caused similar changes in HDL composition, subclass distribution and cholesterol efflux capacity. Our results provide evidence that anti-psoriatic therapy with biologic agents is associated with changes in HDL functionality, particle composition and subclass distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2021.158943DOI Listing
July 2021

The anti-parasitic drug miltefosine suppresses human eosinophil activation and ameliorates murine allergic inflammation in vivo.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Mar 2;178(5):1234-1248. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Background And Purpose: Miltefosine is an alkylphosphocholine drug with proven effectiveness against various types of parasites and cancer cells. Miltefosine is not only able to induce direct parasite killing but also modulates host immunity, for example by reducing the severity of allergies in patients. To date, there are no reports on the effect of miltefosine on eosinophils, central effector cells involved in allergic inflammation.

Experimental Approach: We tested the effect of miltefosine on the activation of human eosinophils and their effector responses in vitro and in mouse models of eosinophilic migration and ovalbumin-induced allergic lung inflammation.

Key Results: The addition of miltefosine suppressed several eosinophilic effector reactions such as CD11b up-regulation, degranulation, chemotaxis and downstream signalling. Miltefosine significantly reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the respiratory tract of mice in an allergic cell recruitment model. Finally, in a model of allergic inflammation, treatment with miltefosine resulted in an improvement of lung function parameters.

Conclusion And Implications: Our observations suggest a strong modulatory activity of miltefosine in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Our data underline the potential efficacy of miltefosine in the treatment of allergic diseases and other eosinophil-associated disorders and may raise important questions regarding the immunomodulatory effect of miltefosine in patients treated for leishmania infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15368DOI Listing
March 2021

Prostaglandin D strengthens human endothelial barrier by activation of E-type receptor 4.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 12 8;182:114277. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Otto Loewi Research Center for Vascular Biology, Immunology and Inflammation, Division of Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; BioTechMed, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Life-threatening inflammatory conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome or sepsis often go hand in hand with severe vascular leakage. During inflammation, endothelial cell integrity and intact barrier function are crucial to limit leukocyte and plasma extravasation. Prostaglandin D (PGD) is a potent inflammatory lipid mediator with vasoactive properties. Previous studies suggest that PGD is involved in the regulation of endothelial barrier function; however, it is unclear whether this is also true for primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, as PGD is a highly promiscuous ligand, we set out to determine which receptors are important in human pulmonary endothelial cells. In the current study, we found that PGD and the DP1 agonist BW245c potently strengthened pulmonary and dermal microvascular endothelial cell barrier function and protected against thrombin-induced barrier disruption. Yet surprisingly, these effects were mediated only to a negligible extent via DP1 receptor activation. In contrast, we observed that the EP4 receptor was most important and mediated the barrier enhancement by PGD and BW245c. Stimulation with PGE or PGD reduced AKT phosphorylation which could be reversed by prior blockade of EP4 receptors. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which PGD may modulate inflammation and emphasizes the role of EP4 receptors in human endothelial cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114277DOI Listing
December 2020

An Updated Review of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Plasma Lysophosphatidylcholines in the Vascular System.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 24;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Lysophosphatidylcholines are a group of bioactive lipids heavily investigated in the context of inflammation and atherosclerosis development. While present in plasma during physiological conditions, their concentration can drastically increase in certain inflammatory states. Lysophosphatidylcholines are widely regarded as potent pro-inflammatory and deleterious mediators, but an increasing number of more recent studies show multiple beneficial properties under various pathological conditions. Many of the discrepancies in the published studies are due to the investigation of different species or mixtures of lysophatidylcholines and the use of supra-physiological concentrations in the absence of serum or other carrier proteins. Furthermore, interpretation of the results is complicated by the rapid metabolism of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in cells and tissues to pro-inflammatory lysophosphatidic acid. Interestingly, most of the recent studies, in contrast to older studies, found lower LPC plasma levels associated with unfavorable disease outcomes. Being the most abundant lysophospholipid in plasma, it is of utmost importance to understand its physiological functions and shed light on the discordant literature connected to its research. LPCs should be recognized as important homeostatic mediators involved in all stages of vascular inflammation. In this review, we want to point out potential pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of lysophospholipids in the vascular system and highlight recent discoveries about the effect of lysophosphatidylcholines on immune cells at the endothelial vascular interface. We will also look at their potential clinical application as biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350010PMC
June 2020

Lysophosphatidylcholines inhibit human eosinophil activation and suppress eosinophil migration in vivo.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2020 07 11;1865(7):158686. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Eosinophils are important multifaceted effector cells involved in allergic inflammation. Following allergen challenge, eosinophils and other immune cells release secreted phospholipases, generating lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs). LPCs are potent lipid mediators, and serum levels of LPCs associate with asthma severity, suggesting a regulatory activity of LPCs in asthma development. As of yet, the direct effects of LPCs on eosinophils remain unclear. In the present study, we tested the effects of the major LPC species (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1) on eosinophils isolated from healthy human donors. Addition of saturated LPCs in the presence of albumin rapidly disrupted cholesterol-rich nanodomains on eosinophil cell membranes and suppressed multiple eosinophil effector responses, such as CD11b upregulation, degranulation, chemotaxis, and downstream signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrate in a mouse model of allergic cell recruitment, that LPC treatment markedly reduces immune cell infiltration into the lungs. Our observations suggest a strong modulatory activity of LPCs in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2020.158686DOI Listing
July 2020

Frontline Science: Superior mouse eosinophil depletion in vivo targeting transgenic Siglec-8 instead of endogenous Siglec-F: Mechanisms and pitfalls.

J Leukoc Biol 2020 07 5;108(1):43-58. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Eosinophils are important multifunctional granulocytes. When studying eosinophil function and its contribution to diseases, mouse models are often used. Mouse eosinophils selectively express sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-F. Its closest functional paralog on human eosinophils is Siglec-8. These Siglecs are being used to target eosinophils when exploring their mechanistic roles in disease and for potential therapeutic benefit. In order to facilitate preclinical studies of human Siglec-8, we developed transgenic mouse strains expressing human Siglec-8 only on the surface of eosinophils with or without endogenous Siglec-F and have begun characterizing various cellular functions in vitro and in vivo. Eosinophils from Siglec-8+ mice, with or without Siglec-F, responded to Siglec-8 antibody engagement in vitro by up-regulating surface CD11b, whereas Siglec-F antibody had no such effect. Engagement of Siglec-F or Siglec-8 with respective antibodies in vitro resulted in only modest increases in cell death. Administration of rat Siglec-F antibodies to mice led to a significant decrease in Siglec-F surface expression on eosinophils due to internalization, and thus appeared to decrease eosinophil numbers based on Siglec-F+ cells, but with proper gaiting strategies did not in fact result in significant eosinophil depletion. In marked contrast, administration of mouse Siglec-8 antibodies rapidly and effectively depleted eosinophils from blood and spleens of mice, but an F(ab') version did not, indicating an Fc-mediated mechanism for eosinophil depletion in vivo. Siglec-8 expressing mice with or without endogenous Siglec-F will be useful to study Siglec-8-based therapeutics, and may be a preferred approach when acute or chronic eosinophil depletion is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3HI0120-381RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585130PMC
July 2020

HDL-related biomarkers are robust predictors of survival in patients with chronic liver failure.

J Hepatol 2020 07 14;73(1):113-120. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are reduced in patients with chronic liver disease and inversely correlate with disease severity. During acute conditions such as sepsis, HDL-C levels decrease rapidly and HDL particles undergo profound changes in their composition and function. We aimed to determine whether indices of HDL quantity and quality associate with progression and survival in patients with advanced liver disease.

Methods: HDL-related biomarkers were studied in 508 patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis (including acute-on-chronic liver failure [ACLF]) and 40 age- and gender-matched controls. Specifically, we studied levels of HDL-C, its subclasses HDL2-C and HDL3-C, and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA-I), as well as HDL cholesterol efflux capacity as a metric of HDL functionality.

Results: Baseline levels of HDL-C and apoA-I were significantly lower in patients with stable cirrhosis compared to controls and were further decreased in patients with acute decompensation (AD) and ACLF. In stable cirrhosis (n = 228), both HDL-C and apoA-I predicted the development of liver-related complications independently of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. In patients with AD, with or without ACLF (n = 280), both HDL-C and apoA-I were MELD-independent predictors of 90-day mortality. On ROC analysis, both HDL-C and apoA-I had high diagnostic accuracy for 90-day mortality in patients with AD (AUROCs of 0.79 and 0.80, respectively, similar to that of MELD 0.81). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, HDL-C <17 mg/dl and apoA-I <50 mg/dl indicated poor short-term survival. The prognostic accuracy of HDL-C was validated in a large external validation cohort of 985 patients with portal hypertension due to advanced chronic liver disease (AUROCs HDL-C: 0.81 vs. MELD: 0.77).

Conclusion: HDL-related biomarkers are robust predictors of disease progression and survival in chronic liver failure.

Lay Summary: People who suffer from cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) have low levels of cholesterol carried by high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C). These alterations are connected to inflammation, which is a problem in severe liver disease. Herein, we show that reduced levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, the main protein carried by HDL) are closely linked to the severity of liver failure, its complications and survival. Both HDL-C and apoA-I can be easily measured in clinical laboratories and are as good as currently used prognostic scores calculated from several laboratory values by complex formulas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.01.026DOI Listing
July 2020

A Sulfonamide Sialoside Analogue for Targeting Siglec-8 and -F on Immune Cells.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 09 30;141(36):14032-14037. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Molecular Medicine , The Scripps Research Institute , La Jolla , California 92037 , United States.

The Siglec family of cell surface receptors have emerged as attractive targets for cell-directed therapies due to their restricted expression on immune cells, endocytic properties, and ability to modulate receptor signaling. Human Siglec-8, for instance, has been identified as a therapeutic target for the treatment of eosinophil and mast cell disorders. A promising strategy to target Siglecs involves the use of liposomal nanoparticles with a multivalent display of Siglec ligands. A key challenge for this approach is the identification of a high affinity ligand for the target Siglec. Here, we report the development of a ligand of Siglec-8 and its closest murine functional orthologue Siglec-F that is capable of targeting liposomes to cells expressing Siglec-8 or -F. A glycan microarray library of synthetic 9--sulfonyl sialoside analogues was screened to identify potential lead compounds. The best ligand, 9--(2-naphthyl-sulfonyl)-Neu5Acα2-3-[6--sulfo]-Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6'--sulfo Neu5Ac) combined the lead 2-naphthyl sulfonyl C-9 substituent with the preferred sulfated scaffold. The ligand 6'--sulfo Neu5Ac was conjugated to lipids for display on liposomes to evaluate targeted delivery to cells. Targeted liposomes showed strong in vitro binding/uptake and selectivity to cells expressing Siglec-8 or -F and, when administered to mice, exhibit in vivo targeting to Siglec-F eosinophils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b05769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861165PMC
September 2019

Allergic rhinitis is associated with complex alterations in high-density lipoprotein composition and function.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019 10 8;1864(10):1280-1292. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center for Vascular Biology, Immunology and Inflammation, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria.; BioTechMed Graz, Mozartgasse 12/II, 8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Despite strong evidence that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) modulate the immune response, the role of HDL in allergies is still poorly understood. Many patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) develop a late-phase response, characterized by infiltration of monocytes and eosinophils into the nasal submucosa. Functional impairment of HDL in AR-patients may insufficiently suppress inflammation and cell infiltration, but the effect of AR on the composition and function of HDL is not understood. We used apolipoprotein (apo) B-depleted serum as well as isolated HDL from AR-patients (n = 43) and non-allergic healthy controls (n = 20) for detailed compositional and functional characterization of HDL. Both AR-HDL and apoB-depleted serum of AR-patients showed decreased anti-oxidative capacity and impaired ability to suppress monocyte nuclear factor-κB expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1 beta. Sera of AR-patients showed decreased paraoxonase and cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activities, increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, while lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity and cholesterol efflux capacity were not altered. Surprisingly, apoB-depleted serum and HDL from AR-patients showed an increased ability to suppress eosinophil effector responses upon eotaxin-2/CCL24 stimulation. Mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses showed reduced levels of apoA-I and phosphatidylcholine, but increased levels of apoA-II, triglycerides and lyso-phosphatidylcholine in AR-HDL. The changes in AR-HDL composition were associated with altered functional properties. In conclusion, AR alters HDL composition linked to decreased anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties but improves the ability of HDL to suppress eosinophil effector responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.06.007DOI Listing
October 2019

Atrial fibrillation is associated with alterations in HDL function, metabolism, and particle number.

Basic Res Cardiol 2019 05 8;114(4):27. Epub 2019 May 8.

Department of Electrophysiology, Heart Center Leipzig-University Hospital of Cardiology, Leipzig, Germany.

Increased morbidity and mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF) are related to the pro-fibrotic, pro-thrombotic, and pro-inflammatory processes that underpin the disease. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-thrombotic properties. Functional impairment of HDL may, therefore, associate with AF initiation or progression. We studied indices of HDL quality and quantity of AF patients and healthy controls, including HDL-particle number, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels, serum amyloid A (SAA) content and HDL-cholesterol efflux capacity, and paraoxonase activity of apoB-depleted serum. Serum samples were collected from AF patients (n = 91) before catheter ablation and from age- and sex-matched control subjects (n = 54). HDL-cholesterol efflux capacity was assessed in a validated assay using [H]-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and paraoxonase activities were assessed using fluorometric assays, SAA levels were determined by ELISA, and total and subclass HDL-particle number was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ApoA-I levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. HDL-cholesterol efflux capacity, HDL-particle number, apoA-I levels, and LCAT activity were markedly reduced in AF patients when compared to healthy individuals (all p < 0.001), whereas HDL-associated paraoxonase activity and SAA content were not altered (p = 0.578, p = 0.681). Notably, cholesterol efflux capacity, HDL-particle number, apoA-I levels as well as LCAT activity recovered following restoration of sinus rhythm (all p < 0.001). We identified marked alterations in HDL function, HDL maturation, and HDL-particle number in AF patients. Assessing HDL-particle number and function in AF may be used as a surrogate marker of AF onset and progression and may help identifying patients at high risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-019-0735-0DOI Listing
May 2019

HDL functionality and cardiovascular outcome among nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

J Lipid Res 2018 07 22;59(7):1256-1265. Epub 2018 May 22.

Otto Loewi Research Center, Division of Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

CVD remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD profoundly affects HDL composition and functionality, but whether abnormal HDL independently contributes to cardiovascular events in CKD patients remains elusive. In the present study, we assessed whether compositional and functional properties of HDL predict cardiovascular outcome among 526 nondialysis CKD patients who participate in the CARE FOR HOMe study. We measured HDL cholesterol, the content of HDL-associated proinflammatory serum amyloid A (SAA), and activities of the HDL enzymes paraoxonase and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA). In addition, we assessed the antioxidative activity of apoB-depleted serum. During a mean follow-up of 5.1 ± 2.1 years, 153 patients reached the predefined primary endpoint, a composite of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events including cardiovascular mortality and death of any cause. In univariate Cox regression analyses, lower HDL-cholesterol levels, higher HDL-associated SAA content, and lower paraoxonase activity predicted cardiovascular outcome, while Lp-PLA activity and antioxidative capacity did not. HDL-cholesterol and HDL-paraoxonase activity lost their association with cardiovascular outcome after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular and renal risk factors, while SAA lost its association after further adjustment for C-reactive protein. In conclusion, our data suggest that neither HDL quantity nor HDL composition or function independently predict cardiovascular outcome among nondialysis CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.P085076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027904PMC
July 2018

Secretory phospholipase A modified HDL rapidly and potently suppresses platelet activation.

Sci Rep 2017 08 14;7(1):8030. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Levels of secretory phospholipases A (sPLA) highly increase under acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. sPLA is mainly associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and generates bioactive lysophospholipids implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Unexpectedly, pharmacological inhibition of sPLA in patients with acute coronary syndrome was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Given that platelets are key players in thrombosis and inflammation, we hypothesized that sPLA-induced hydrolysis of HDL-associated phospholipids (sPLA-HDL) generates modified HDL particles that affect platelet function. We observed that sPLA-HDL potently and rapidly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by several agonists, P-selectin expression, GPIIb/IIIa activation and superoxide production, whereas native HDL showed little effects. sPLA-HDL suppressed the agonist-induced rise of intracellular Ca levels and phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, which trigger key steps in promoting platelet activation. Importantly, sPLA in the absence of HDL showed no effects, whereas enrichment of HDL with lysophosphatidylcholines containing saturated fatty acids (the main sPLA products) mimicked sPLA-HDL activities. Our findings suggest that sPLA generates lysophosphatidylcholine-enriched HDL particles that modulate platelet function under inflammatory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08136-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556053PMC
August 2017