Publications by authors named "Eva Faure"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characterization of New Molecular Markers of Three Botflies Parasitizing Cervid Hosts.

J Med Entomol 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Departamento de Biología Experimental, Universidad de Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas, s.n., Jaén, Spain.

Specific identification of oestrid larvae is usually problematic not only when using morphobiometric features, but also when applying molecular criteria, since very few molecular markers have been described for this group of flies. New molecular markers for oestrid are needed for more reliable species identification, diagnostic purposes, and epidemiological surveys; moreover, they can help in phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we report the characterization of COI, 28S rDNA, ITS1, and ITS2 in Cephenemyia stimulator from roe deer and in Cephenemyia auribarbis and Pharyngomyia picta from red deer. The COI and 28S rDNA are very uniform in length, while the ITSs sequences are highly variable at both intraspecific and interspecific levels. The described ITSs sequences were longer than those described for other dipteran species by the presence of simple repeats and tandem repeat sequences. In C. auribarbis both ITS1 and ITS2 appeared as two variants, one short and the other long. In general, the analyzed markers present low intraspecific genetic variation and high interspecific variation. ITSs showed the greatest amount of intraspecific and interspecific variation. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the characterized sequences differentiate the species and genera of Oestridae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjab006DOI Listing
February 2021

Monitoring hepatitis C virus treatment rates in an Opioid Treatment Program: A longitudinal study.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Oct;26(38):5874-5883

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona 08916, Spain.

Background: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are recommended for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine.

Aim: To assess HCV treatment rates in an Opioid Treatment Program (OTP).

Methods: This longitudinal study included 501 patients (81.4% men, median age: 45 years; interquartile range: 39-50 years) enrolled in an OTP between October 2015 and September 2017. Patients were followed until September 2019. Data on socio-demographics, substance use, HCV infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory parameters were collected at entry. We analyzed medical records to evaluate HCV treatment. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression models were used to analyze the DAA treatment uptake and to identify treatment predictors.

Results: Prevalence of HCV and HIV infection was 70% and 34%, respectively. Among anti-HCV-positive ( = 336) patients, 47.2%, 41.3%, and 31.9% used alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine, respectively. HCV-RNA tests were positive in 233 (69.3%) patients. Twentyeight patients (8.3%) cleared the infection, and 59/308 (19.1%) had received interferon-based treatment regimens before 2015. Among 249 patients eligible, 111 (44.6%) received DAAs. Treatment rates significantly increased over time from 7.8/100 person-years (p-y) (95%CI: 5.0-12.3) in 2015 to 18.9/100 p-y (95%CI: 11.7-30.3) in 2019. In a multivariate analysis, patients with HIV co-infection were twice as likely to receive DAAs (HR = 1.94, 95%CI: 1.21-3.12) than patients with HCV mono-infection. Current drug use was an independent risk factor for not receiving treatment against infection (HR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.29-0.80).

Conclusion: HCV treatment is evolving in patients with HCV-HIV co-infection. Ongoing drug use while in an OTP might negatively impact the readiness to treat infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i38.5874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579757PMC
October 2020

Exposure of Wild Ungulates to the Usutu and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in France in 2009-2014: Evidence of Undetected Flavivirus Circulation a Decade Ago.

Viruses 2019 12 19;12(1). Epub 2019 Dec 19.

UMR (Unité mixte de recherche) Virologie, INRAE, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Flaviviruses have become increasingly important pathogens in Europe over the past few decades. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of flaviviruses in France is needed to better define risk areas and to gain knowledge of the dynamics of virus transmission cycles. Serum samples from 1014 wild boar and 758 roe deer from 16 departments (administrative units) in France collected from 2009 to 2014 were screened for flavivirus antibodies using a competitive ELISA (cELISA) technique. Serum samples found to be positive or doubtful by cELISA were then tested for antibodies directed against West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Bagaza virus (BAGV), and tick-borne encephalitis/Louping ill viruses (TBEV/LIV) by microsphere immunoassays (except BAGV) and micro-neutralization tests. USUV antibodies were detected only in southeastern and southwestern areas. TBEV/LIV antibodies were detected in serum samples from eastern, southwestern and northern departments. The results indicate continuous circulation of USUV in southern France from 2009 to 2014, which was unnoticed by the French monitoring system for bird mortality. The findings also confirm wider distribution of TBEV in the eastern part of the country than of human clinical cases. However, further studies are needed to determine the tick-borne flavivirus responsible for the seroconversion in southwestern and northern France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019733PMC
December 2019

Red deer () Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Snapshots.

Viruses 2019 09 27;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 27.

UMR Virologie, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, laboratoire de santé animale d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France, (C.V.).

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a -borne pathogen infecting both domestic and wild ruminants. In Europe, the Red Deer () (RD) is considered a potential BTV reservoir, but persistent sylvatic cycle has not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, we explored the dynamics of BTV1 and BTV8 serotypes in the RD in France, and the potential role of that species in the re-emergence of BTV8 in livestock by 2015 (i.e., 5 years after the former last domestic cases). We performed 8 years of longitudinal monitoring (2008-2015) among 15 RD populations and 3065 individuals. We compared communities and feeding habits within domestic and wild animal environments (51,380 samples). diversity (>30 species) varied between them, but bridge-species able to feed on both wild and domestic hosts were abundant in both situations. Despite the presence of competent vectors in natural environments, BTV1 and BTV8 strains never spread in RD along the green corridors out of the domestic outbreak range. Decreasing antibody trends with no PCR results two years after the last domestic outbreak suggests that seropositive young RD were not recently infected but carried maternal antibodies. We conclude that RD did not play a role in spreading or maintaining BTV in France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11100903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832957PMC
September 2019

Infection of Wildlife by in France Assessment Through a National Surveillance System, Sylvatub.

Front Vet Sci 2018 30;5:262. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Anses, Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, Malzéville, France.

infection was first described in free-ranging wildlife in France in 2001, with subsequent detection in hunter-harvested ungulates and badgers in areas where outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis (TB) were also detected in cattle. Increasing concerns regarding TB in wildlife led the French General Directorate for Food (DGAL) and the main institutions involved in animal health and wildlife management, to establish a national surveillance system for TB in free-ranging wildlife. This surveillance system is known as "Sylvatub." The system coordinates the activities of various national and local partners. The main goal of Sylvatub is to detect and monitor infection in wildlife through a combination of passive and active surveillance protocols adapted to the estimated risk level in each area of the country. Event-base surveillance relies on identification (molecular detection) () in gross lesions detected in hunter-harvested ungulates, () in ungulates that are found dead or dying, and () in road-killed badgers. Additional targeted surveillance in badgers, wild boars and red deer is implemented on samples from trapped or hunted animals in at-risk areas. With the exception of one unexplained case in a wild boar, infection in free-living wildlife has always been detected in the vicinity of cattle TB outbreaks with the same genotype of the infectious strains. Since 2012, was actively monitored in these infected areas and detected mainly in badgers and wild boars with apparent infection rates of 4.57-5.14% and 2.37-3.04%, respectively depending of the diagnostic test used (culture or PCR), the period and according to areas. Sporadic infection has also been detected in red deer and roe deer. This surveillance has demonstrated that infection, in different areas of France, involves a multi-host system including cattle and wildlife. However, infection rates are lower than those observed in badgers in the United Kingdom or in wild boars in Spain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220493PMC
October 2018

Hedgehogs and Mustelid Species: Major Carriers of Pathogenic Leptospira, a Survey in 28 Animal Species in France (20122015).

PLoS One 2016;11(9):e0162549. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Entente for the Control of Zoonoses, Nancy, France.

Human leptospirosis is a zoonotic and potentially fatal disease that has increasingly been reported in both developing and developed countries, including France. However, our understanding of the basic aspects of the epidemiology of this disease, including the source of Leptospira serogroup Australis infections in humans and domestic animals, remains incomplete. We investigated the genetic diversity of Leptospira in 28 species of wildlife other than rats using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The DNA of pathogenic Leptospira was detected in the kidney tissues of 201 individuals out of 3,738 tested individuals. A wide diversity, including 50 VNTR profiles and 8 MST profiles, was observed. Hedgehogs and mustelid species had the highest risk of being infected (logistic regression, OR = 66.8, CI95% = 30.9-144 and OR = 16.7, CI95% = 8.7-31.8, respectively). Almost all genetic profiles obtained from the hedgehogs were related to Leptospira interrogans Australis, suggesting the latter as a host-adapted bacterium, whereas mustelid species were infected by various genotypes, suggesting their interaction with Leptospira was different. By providing an inventory of the circulating strains of Leptospira and by pointing to hedgehogs as a potential reservoir of L. interrogans Australis, our study advances current knowledge on Leptospira animal carriers, and this information could serve to enhance epidemiological investigations in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162549PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5040419PMC
September 2016

Spatio-temporal dynamics of tularemia in French wildlife: 2002-2013.

Prev Vet Med 2016 Aug 31;130:33-40. Epub 2016 May 31.

University Paris Est, Anses, Laboratoire de Santé Animale, Unité Zoonoses Bactériennes, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Tularemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is endemic in France. The surveillance of this disease in wildlife is operated by the SAGIR Network and by the National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia. Wild animals found dead or dying collected by the SAGIR network are necropsied and when tularemia is suspected culture and/or PCR are performed to confirm the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to present the results of tularemia surveillance in wildlife and to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of tularemia observed between the 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 hunting seasons in French wildlife. Fourty-one to 121 cases were collected each hunting season for a total of 693 confirmed cases and 46 additional suspected cases. The main species affected was the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) but 4 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 2 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and one wild boar (Sus scrofa) were also found positive. The Standard Mortality Ratio was mapped and Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistic was implemented and allowed the detection of several clusters: the nationwide outbreak of 2007-2008; 2 clusters in northern and central-western France in high hare-abundance areas and another in North-eastern France where the abundance of hares is low. Our results confirm the usefulness of brown hare as a sentinel of environmental risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.05.015DOI Listing
August 2016

Sex-specific disease outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users admitted to an opioid substitution therapy program in Spain: a cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2014 Sep 17;14:504. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08916 Badalona, Spain.

Background: Opioid substitution therapy has improved the survival of heroin users with and without HIV infection. We aimed to analyze sex differences in mortality rates and predictors of death among those admitted to a methadone treatment program (MTP).

Methods: Longitudinal study of patients enrolled in a MTP from 1992 to 2010. Socio-demographic and drug use characteristics, and markers of viral infections were assessed at entry. Vital status was ascertained by clinical charts and the mortality register. Four calendar periods were defined according to the introduction of preventive and treatment interventions in Spain. Predictors of death were analyzed by Cox regression models.

Results: 1,678 patients (82.8% men) were included; age at first heroin use was 18.6 years (IQR: 16-23 years), and age at first entry into a MTP was 30.7 years (IQR: 26-36 years). A total of 441 (26.3%) deaths occurred during 15,124 person-years (p-y) of follow-up (median: 9.2 years, IQR: 4-13 years). HIV infection was the main predictor of death in men (HR = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1-5.7) and women (HR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.7 ) and main cause of death was HIV/AIDS. Overall mortality rate was 2.9 per 100 p-y (95% CI: 2.7-3.2 per 100 p-y) and death rates decreased over time: 7.4 per 100 p-y (95% CI: 6.3-8.8 per 100 p-y) for the 1992-1996 period to 1.9 per 100 p-y (95% CI: 1.6-2.4 per 100 p-y) for the 2007-2010 period. In women, a slightly increase in mortality was observed in recent periods specifically among HIV-positive women (3.7 per 100 p-y in period 2002-2006 and 4.5 per 100 p-y in 2007-2010).

Conclusions: Significant reductions in mortality of patients in MTP are observed after nineteen years of observation. However, HIV infection shows a great impact on survival, particularly among HIV-infected women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-14-504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4261781PMC
September 2014

[Characteristics of heroin dependent patients admitted to a methadone treatment program].

Med Clin (Barc) 2014 Jan 18;142(2):53-8. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Servei de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

Background And Objetive: Methadone is largely used as the primary opioid substitution therapy for the treatment of heroin addiction; the objective of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics of heroin abusers admitted into a methadone maintenance program (MMP) in metropolitan Barcelona.

Method: Cross-sectional study in patients enrolled in MMP since its introduction in 1992 through December 2010. Socio-demographic data, drug use characteristics, prevalence of blood-borne infections (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and hepatitis B [HBV] and C [HCV]) and psychiatric co-morbidity were assessed at entry.

Results: One thousand and six hundred seventy eight patients (82.8% male). A total of 608 (36.2%) patients were admitted during 1992-1996, 566 (33.7%) between 1997-2001, 305 (18.2%) between 2002-2006 and 199 (11.9%) in the last period. Age at admission to methadone increased significantly (28 years in period 1992-1996 vs. 37 years in the last period [P<.005]). The percentage of patients with a history of intravenous drug use decreased significantly (89.5% in first period vs. 56.4% in period 2007-2010 [P<.05]). Prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV (HBcAb+) was 53.7, 73.6 and 61.3%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV decreased over time from 66.2% in first period to 43.5% in 2007-2010 (P<.05); the prevalence of HCV decreased significantly from 82.8% in 1992-1996 to 69.8% in last period (P<.05). Twenty five percent of patients had psychiatric co-morbidity at admission and the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity increased over time (21% in 1992-1996 and 32% in 2007-2010; P<.05).

Conclusion: Age at first opioid substitution therapy is increasing over time, as well as the proportion of patients with psychiatric co-morbidity. There were significant reductions in blood-borne infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2012.10.023DOI Listing
January 2014