Publications by authors named "Eunjoo Kim"

152 Publications

Moderate dietary boron supplementation improved growth performance, crude protein digestibility and diarrhea index in weaner pigs regardless to the sanitary condition.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the impact of boron supplementation on nutrient digestibility, inflammatory responses, blood metabolites and diarrhea index, and their relevance to growth performance in weaned pigs housed in good and poor sanitary environments for 14 days after weaning.

Methods: A total of 108 male pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] weaned at 21 days of age were used in a randomized complete block design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Pigs were assigned to three boron treatments (0, 5, and 10 mg/kg) under two environments (good and poor sanitary) to give six replicates per treatment (3 pigs per replicate). On 0, 7 and 14 days, one pig per replicate was euthanized to collect, ileum tissue samples, and rectal fecal samples.

Results: Boron supplementation quadratically influenced (p<0.001) feed intake and weight gain in pigs housed in good sanitary conditions from 1 to 14 days post-weaning where pigs offered 5 mg/kg boron optimized weight gain and feed intake. There is a quadratic interaction (p=0.019) on feed intake for 1-14 days post-weaning where 5 mg/kg boron increased feed intake in good sanitary conditions. Pigs housed in the poor sanitary environment decreased (p<0.001) villus height and crypt depth in ileum at days 7 and 14. On day 7 and 14, crude protein digestibility was quadratically influenced (p<0.05) by boron supplementation. Boron supplementation linearly increased (p<0.05) plasma calcium and cholesterol levels whilst linearly (p=0.005) reducing plasma triglyceride concentrations. Diarrhea index was quadratically influenced (p<0.05) by boron supplementations regardless to sanitary conditions where 5 mg/kg boron inclusion achieved the lowest diarrhea index.

Conclusion: Pigs offered 5 mg/kg of boron increased weight gain which may be deduced by improved dry matter, crude protein, and energy digestibility regardless of the sanitary conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0110DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-term reliable physical health monitoring by sweat pore-inspired perforated electronic skins.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 30;7(27). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Electronic skins (e-skins)-electronic sensors mechanically compliant to human skin-have long been developed as an ideal electronic platform for noninvasive human health monitoring. For reliable physical health monitoring, the interface between the e-skin and human skin must be conformal and intact consistently. However, conventional e-skins cannot perfectly permeate sweat in normal day-to-day activities, resulting in degradation of the intimate interface over time and impeding stable physical sensing. Here, we present a sweat pore-inspired perforated e-skin that can effectively suppress sweat accumulation and allow inorganic sensors to obtain physical health information without malfunctioning. The auxetic dumbbell through-hole patterns in perforated e-skins lead to synergistic effects on physical properties including mechanical reliability, conformability, areal mass density, and adhesion to the skin. The perforated e-skin allows one to laminate onto the skin with consistent homeostasis, enabling multiple inorganic sensors on the skin to reliably monitor the wearer's health over a period of weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg8459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245037PMC
June 2021

Exosome-based hybrid nanostructures for enhanced tumor targeting and hyperthermia therapy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Sep 8;205:111915. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, 42988, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Recently, natural exosomes have attracted attention as an ideal drug carrier to overcome the limitations of existing drug delivery systems which are toxicity induction and low cancer-targeting performance. In this study, we propose an exosome-based hybrid nanostructure (EHN) with improved targeting ability and therapeutic efficacy against colorectal cancer by using exosomes isolated from the tumor cell line as a drug carrier. The proposed EHN can have high biocompatibility by using exosomes, a biologically derived material, and show improved targeting performance by adding a tumor-targeting ligand (folic acid). In addition, the proposed EHN is capable of chemotherapy because doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, is encapsulated by the exosome with high efficiency, and it can induce hyperthermia therapy because of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) attached to the surface of exosomes. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments using a xenograft tumor mouse model, it was confirmed that the proposed EHN could exhibit increased apoptosis and excellent tumor growth inhibition ability. Therefore, the proposed EHN is expected to overcome the limitations of existing drug delivery systems and be utilized as an effective drug delivery system in cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111915DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation of changes in skin characteristics due to the poor quality of sleep caused by smartphone usage.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

AMOREPACIFIC Research and Development Center, Yongin, Korea.

Background: Blue wavelengths are thought to have an effect on circadian rhythms. Using a smartphone, which emits a 453 nm blue light, can worsen the quality of sleep.

Aims: To study the skin changes caused by poor sleep quality induced by smartphone usage.

Methods: The participants were 22 Korean women aged 20-39 years, with no sleep problems and a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score of <5. The participants used a smartphone for 2 h before normal sleep hours. The measurement points were as follows: after a good sleep (D0), after bad sleep day 1 (D1), after bad sleep day 3 (D3), and after bad sleep day 7 (D7). The sleep time, wake-up time, shallow sleep rate, and sleeping time duration were recorded using a smartwatch.

Results: The quality of their sleep deteriorated. The average time of falling asleep extended to 2 a.m., which was about 34 min later. Additionally, their skin moisture content decreased, and sebum content increased. Skin desquamation was increased, and skin gloss, transparency, and elasticity decreased mainly on the skin surface.

Conclusions: Sleep quality decreases with smartphone usage among people who do not usually use their smartphones before going to sleep and do not have any sleep problems. The results showed significant changes in skin optics and surface properties when the quality of sleep was degraded for 7 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14265DOI Listing
June 2021

Estimation of the Early Cs-137 Intake of Evacuees from Areas Affected by the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Based on Personal Behavioral Data and the Latest Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model Simulation.

Health Phys 2021 Aug;121(2):133-149

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, Japan.

Abstract: More than 9 y have passed since the 2011 nuclear disaster in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. During this period, much effort has been spent on the dose reconstruction for Fukushima residents; however, the estimation of the internal dose due to the potential intake of the short-lived radionuclides (mainly iodine-131) has been challenging because of the lack of direct human measurements at the early phase of the accident. Our previous study revealed that the residual cesium body contents observed in delayed whole-body counter (WBC) measurements of residents from Namie-town, one of the most affected municipalities, varied greatly with the timepoint of their evacuations on 12 March 2011 when the first explosive event occurred at the accident site; i.e., the late evacuees had much higher residual cesium body contents compared to the prompt evacuees. The present study thus aimed to clarify this finding by reproducing the exposure situation based on the evacuees' personal behavioral data in combination with the latest atmospheric transport and dispersion model (ATDM) simulation for 356 selected subjects in adult and 15-y (13-17 y) age groups. The results demonstrated that the ATDM simulation-based method could reasonably reproduce the subjects' exposure situation, supporting the previous finding. However, the residual cesium-137 body contents calculated by this method were only 10%-20% of those in the subjects' WBC measurements. This large discrepancy was considered to be caused by both the present method's underestimation and the overestimation of the subjects' early intake in the WBC measurements due to a conservative intake scenario not assuming potential additional intake. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the reasons for the discrepancy and to evaluate the magnitude of the inhalation dose in the accident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001429DOI Listing
August 2021

PROBABILISTIC ANALYSES OF 131I THYROID ACTIVITY IN PERSONS WITH SURFACE CONTAMINATION IN DIRECT MEASUREMENT WITH A STANDING-TYPE WHOLE-BODY COUNTER AS AN EMERGENCY RESPONSE IN A RADIOLOGICAL INCIDENT.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 Jul;194(2-3):65-75

Department of Radiation Measurement and Dose Assessment, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan.

The authors' previous study suggested that a simple standing-type whole-body counter called FASTSCAN (Canberra, Meriden, CT, USA), widely installed throughout Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011, could be used for thyroid measurements in internal dose assessment after a future radiological incident accompanied by the release of 131I into the environment. The present study performed Monte-Carlo simulations using a computational human phantom with several patterns of body surface contamination and used the results to formulate a method for probabilistic analyses of 131I thyroid activity in persons with surface contamination. The major advantage of this method is that the upper limit of the thyroid activity can be determined from the relative frequency distribution without identifying where body surface contamination remains. Therefore, this method is especially effective for use in the early phase of a radiological incident when time and resources are limited, making it difficult to physically remove all body surface contamination for the purpose of gaining more accurate population-wide thyroid screening measurements. As a case study of the FDNPP accident, the proposed method was applied to the results of in vivo measurements for a male subject with body surface contamination. In comparing the probabilistic analyses before and after removal of the subject's contaminated work clothes, the uncertainty of the relative frequency distribution of 131I thyroid activity was reduced by their removal. Therefore, in terms of accurate estimates and avoidance of radiation exposure from their contaminated clothes, efforts to remove body surface contamination still should be made as much as possible in the chaotic situation of the early phase of a radiological incident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncab074DOI Listing
July 2021

Screening of important metabolites and KRAS genotypes in colon cancer using secondary ion mass spectrometry.

Bioeng Transl Med 2021 May 17;6(2):e10200. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Division of Electronic Information System Research Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) Daegu Republic of Korea.

Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is an imaging-based analytical technique that can characterize the surfaces of biomaterials. We used TOF-SIMS to identify important metabolites and oncogenic KRAS mutation expressed in human colorectal cancer (CRC). We obtained 540 TOF-SIMS spectra from 180 tissue samples by scanning cryo-sections and selected discriminatory molecules using the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Each TOF-SIMS spectrum contained nearly 860,000 ion profiles and hundreds of spectra were analyzed; therefore, reducing the dimensionality of the original data was necessary. We performed principal component analysis after preprocessing the spectral data, and the principal components (20) of each spectrum were used as the inputs of the SVM algorithm using the R package. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) (0.9297). Spectral peaks () corresponding to discriminatory molecules used to classify normal and tumor samples were selected according to -value and were assigned to arginine, α-tocopherol, and fragments of glycerophosphocholine. Pathway analysis using these discriminatory molecules showed that they were involved in gastrointestinal disease and organismal abnormalities. In addition, spectra were classified according to the expression of KRAS somatic mutation, with 0.9921 AUC. Taken together, TOF-SIMS efficiently and simultaneously screened metabolite biomarkers and performed KRAS genotyping. In addition, a machine learning algorithm was provided as a diagnostic tool applied to spectral data acquired from clinical samples prepared as frozen tissue slides, which are commonly used in a variety of biomedical tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btm2.10200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126813PMC
May 2021

Efficacy of ethyl ascorbyl ether-containing cosmetic cream on blue light-induced skin changes.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

AMOREPACIFIC, Research and Development Center, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Background: Office workers are consistently exposed to blue light, mainly from sunlight and digital device. Recent studies report that blue light has various harmful effects, including cellular changes via reactive oxygen species. Studies on blue light-induced skin changes have only been conducted in vitro and have not been clinically confirmed.

Objective: We provide novel methods to evaluate the effect of the product on the recovery of skin changed by blue light.

Methods: Internet surveys were conducted for workers in their 20s and 40s regarding exposure time to blue light in various environments. To study the effects of long-term exposure to blue light (456 nm) on the skin, we designed three light intensity conditions, and various skin characteristics were observed. After blue light irradiation, various skin characteristics were analyzed before and after applying ethyl ascorbyl ether (EAE)-containing cosmetic cream for 2 weeks.

Results: When exposed to strong blue light for approximately 16 days, the L value, skin hydration, transparency, and elasticity decreased, and the melanin index, erythema index, a value, and b value increased. Furthermore, after short-term blue light irradiation (dose, 269 J/cm , the equivalent of blue light exposure for approximately 38 days in daily life), the L value and elasticity decreased, and the melanin index and erythema index increased. However, when EAE cream was applied on skin for 1-2 weeks, the skin recovered.

Conclusion: This study clinically confirms the skin changes caused by blue light and the effect of EAE in relieving such changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14232DOI Listing
May 2021

Chronological Skin Changes Through Postmastectomy Radiotherapy Based on Radiotherapy Techniques: Using Quantitative Dermatological Measurements.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 7;34(4):229-238. Epub 2021 May 7.

Skin Research Institute, AMOREPACIFIC Corporation R&D Center, Youngin, Republic of Korea.

Background: There has been few research on how to measure skin status quantitatively throughout the course of radiotherapy (RT). We evaluated the changes in the skin induced by 2 different RT techniques using objective measurements in breast cancer patients.

Methods: In this prospective study, between August 2015 and March 2019, serial measurements of the dermatological factors during and after postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) were made in 40 breast cancer patients. PMRT was performed using the conventional photon tangential technique (PTT) or patient-tailored bolus technique (PTB). We analyzed these measurements using a mixed effect model and compared the clinically evaluated radiation dermatitis and patient-reported outcomes (PROs).

Results: The trend of changes in melanin and erythema was significantly different between the PTB and PTT groups (p = 0.045 and 0.016, respectively). At the 3-month follow-up erythema intensity and melanin were higher in the PTB group than in PTT group (both p < 0.001). Eight patients (40% in the PTB group) reported grade 2 radiation dermatitis and 1 patient (5% in the PTB group) reported grade 3 radiation dermatitis. No grade 2 or higher radiation dermatitis was found in the PTT group. Ten patients (50%) in the PTB group and 3 patients (15%) in the PTT group reported severe erythema likely due to questionable clinical evaluation, but hyperpigmentation was rarely reported at the follow-up visits.

Conclusion: The PTB group showed higher intensity of erythema at the end of RT than the PTT group and the increase in melanin lasted until the 3-month follow-up visits in the PTB group. Moreover, patients subjectively appealed more severe symptoms following PTB in PROs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515962DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of Breast Reconstruction on Biophysical Parameters of Mammary Skin in Patients Receiving Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer.

J Breast Cancer 2021 Apr;24(2):206-217

Department of Plastic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: In this study, we examined the impact of reconstruction using tissue expander insertion (TEI) on the risk of radiation dermatitis in patients undergoing postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT).

Methods: Between August 2015 and March 2019, patients with breast cancer who had received systemic chemotherapy and PMRT were prospectively included. Skin parameters, including melanin, erythema, hydration, sebum, and elasticity, were measured using a multi-probe instrument at 6 time points: before the initiation of radiotherapy (pre-RT), at weeks 1, 3, and 5 during radiotherapy (weeks 1-5), and 1 and 3-month after radiotherapy (post-RT-1m and post-RT-3m). Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed at each time point. Changes in biophysical parameters and PRO were compared between patients with and without TEI (TEI+ vs. TEI-).

Results: Thirty-eight patients, including 18 with TEI+ and 20 with TEI-, were analyzed. The pattern of time-course changes in biophysical parameters and PRO did not differ between TEI+ and TEI- patients. The melanin index was highest at post-RT-1m, while the erythema index was highest at week 5. At post-RT-3m, TEI+ patients presented higher melanin values than TEI- patients, with no statistical significance (coefficient, 47.9 vs. 14.2%; = 0.07). In all patients, water content decreased throughout the measurement period. At post-RT-3m, TEI+ patients demonstrated a further decrease in water content, while the TEI- group nearly recovered the water content to pre-RT status (coefficient, -17.1, -2.5; = 0.11). The sebum and elasticity levels were not altered by TEI.

Conclusion: In patients undergoing PMRT, TEI did not significantly affect the changing patterns of skin biophysical parameters and PRO during radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4048/jbc.2021.24.e23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8090804PMC
April 2021

Rapid analysis of Np and Pu isotopes in small volume urine by SF-ICP-MS and ICP-MS/MS.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 May 20;1158:338431. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555, Japan.

Internal contamination with alpha-particle emitting actinides, such as Np, Pu, Pu, is likely to bring a large amount of dose to the tissues of persons even if the intake amount is small. To provide timely information for prompt decision-making in radiation emergency therapy, we developed a simple and rapid method for urinary bioassay to determine ultra-trace Np and Pu isotopes using SF-ICP-MS and ICP-MS/MS. To avoid polyatomic interferences and tailing effects from U, Np and Pu isotopes were collected after removing U effectively using a simple single chromatographic column packed with 2 mL AG MP-1M anion exchange resin, exhibiting a high decontamination factor of 10 for U. The overall chemical fractionation between Np and Pu for the whole analytical procedure was 0.974 ± 0.064 (k = 2), allowing us to measure Np and Pu isotopes using Pu as a yield tracer with yields of 76 ± 5%. Using ICP-MS/MS with low background provided the method detection limits for Np, Pu, Pu, and Pu of 0.025, 0.025, 0.015, and 0.020 fg mL, respectively, for 20 mL of urine sample. Those were comparable to detection limits of SF-ICP-MS with high sensitivity. Subsequently, three urine reference materials with Pu spike, provided by the Association for the PROmotion of Quality COntrol in RADiotoxicological Analysis (PROCORAD), France, were analyzed by the developed method and the conventional alpha spectrometry technique for validation. Finally, the developed method was successfully employed to measure the contamination level of Np, Pu, Pu, and Pu in urine samples collected during decorporation therapy using DTPA, after a Pu inhalation exposure accident in Japan. The high throughput (9 h for 12 samples), simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity of the method will allow greater numbers of related laboratories to be involved in screening activities for unexpected actinide exposure, such as in the case of a large scale radiological disaster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338431DOI Listing
May 2021

CD5L as an Extracellular Vesicle-Derived Biomarker for Liquid Biopsy of Lung Cancer.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Electronic Information System Research, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Techno-Jungangdaero 333, Dague 42988, Korea.

Cancer screening and diagnosis can be achieved by analyzing specific molecules within serum-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). This study sought to profile EV-derived proteins to identify potential lung cancer biomarkers. EVs were isolated from 80 serum samples from healthy individuals and cancer patients via polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based precipitation and immunoaffinity separation using antibodies against CD9, CD63, CD81, and EpCAM. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The expression of proteins that were differentially upregulated in the EVs or tissue of lung cancer samples was validated by Western blotting. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the predictability of each differentially expressed protein (DEP) for lung cancer. A total of 55 upregulated protein spots were selected, seven of which (CD5L, CLEC3B, ITIH4, SERFINF1, SAA4, SERFINC1, and C20ORF3) were found to be expressed at high levels in patient-derived EVs by Western blotting. Meanwhile, only the expression of EV CD5L correlated with that in cancer tissues. CD5L also demonstrated the highest AUC value (0.943) and was found to be the core regulator in a pathway related to cell dysfunction. Cumulatively, these results show that EV-derived CD5L may represent a potential biomarker-detected via a liquid biopsy-for the noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11040620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067192PMC
March 2021

Mobile app-based chatbot to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit: A development and feasibility/usability study.

Int J Med Inform 2021 06 23;150:104440. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Behavioral Sciences in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Attention deficit is a growing problem in adults, and early diagnosis and treatment are needed. Previous studies have shown that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in improving attention deficit symptoms. However, many patients are not receiving adequate treatment due to time, space, and cost constraints. Recently, in other mental illnesses, mobile-based chatbots delivering CBT and psychoeducation have been used for symptom mitigation and treatment.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and usability of a short-term intervention, specifically a mobile-based interactive chatbot application, in alleviating attention deficit symptoms.

Methods: This was a randomized, non-blind parallel-group pilot study conducted from September 2019 to March 2020. Forty-six individuals with attention deficit aged 19-60 were randomly allocated to the chatbot (n = 23) and information-only control groups (n = 23) for 4 weeks. The former group was instructed to use the chatbot application "Todaki," while the latter group was provided with a book on managing attention deficit symptoms. Participants were administered questionnaires to assess their symptoms of attention deficit, depression, and anxiety and evaluated at baseline and 4 weeks after the intervention. The post-intervention survey assessed the chatbot's usability, acceptability, and side effects.

Results: The average age of the participants was 25.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 7.5 years), and 56.5 % (26/46) participants were female. Intention-to-treat analysis (chatbot, n = 23; control, n = 23) revealed a significant reduction of attention deficit symptoms only in the chatbot group, which is represented by group-by-time interaction in Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scale subscales of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Hyperactive-Impulsive symptoms (F = 4.39; p = .04) and ADHD symptoms total (F = 6.74, p = .01). Further, the results of the paired t-test were significant only in the chatbot group. The average number of times the chatbots were used in 4 weeks was 20.32 (SD 12.89). The total average usage time was 1 h 15 min (SD 1 h 20 min). The degree of improvement in the ADHD symptoms total score was correlated with the number of times the psychoeducation program was used. According to the participants, the empathic/friendly character and unnatural flow of conversation were the best and worst features of the chatbot, respectively.

Conclusions: This study identified the feasibility and usability of using the mobile-based chatbot to improve attention deficit and its associated psychiatric symptoms. Using this novel intervention to conduct CBT would provide a useful digital therapeutic tool that allows easy accessibility and self-guided management for people with attention deficit, which should be verified through the large scale randomized controlled trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104440DOI Listing
June 2021

Skin characteristics following repeated exposure to simulated outdoor and indoor summer temperatures in South Korea and Southeast Asia.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 Jun 24;43(3):352-358. Epub 2021 May 24.

AMOREPACIFIC Research and Development Center, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Background: Although changes in skin depend on the external environment, researchers have performed only a few studies on effect of the actual environment. Most studies have researched skin characterization based on changes in the humidity or temperature.

Aim/objective: This study aimed to evaluate changes in the skin based on the difference in indoor and outdoor temperatures and humidity during summer in South Korea and Southeast Asia.

Methods: Twenty-two female participants aged 25-39 years were included. Skin hydration, sebum (cheek, forehead), colour, transparency and pores of the participants were measured after a 30-min exposure to high temperature and high humidity (HTHH) environment and a 30-min exposure to low temperature and low humidity (LTLH) environment. Subsequently, exposure to HTHH environment for 30 min +LTLH environment for 30 min was performed after a total of 1 h and repeated.

Results: Repeated exposure to HTHH and LTLH environments increased the skin's sebum content and haemoglobin index. Additionally, skin elasticity was significantly reduced, with patients in their 30 s showing greater changes than those in their 20 s.

Conclusion: Repeated differences in temperature and humidity cause skin ageing, loosen skin vessels and reduce skin elasticity, thereby leading to skin ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12702DOI Listing
June 2021

Layering sunscreen with facial makeup enhances its sun protection factor under real-use conditions.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

AMOREPACIFIC Research and Development Center, Yongin, Korea.

Background: The proper application of sunscreen is important to ensure protection of the skin against ultraviolet (UV) damage. Sunscreens are used in various ways in real world situations, which alters their UV protection efficacy. In this study, we simulated typical consumer use of sunscreen, which is often sequentially covered with facial makeup, in a laboratory study.

Methods: We compared the sun protection factors (SPF) of sunscreen and makeup products after consecutive layering of the products.

Results: The SPF of each sunscreen and makeup product was dramatically lower than stated on the label upon application of a typical amount used by a consumer, which is lower than recommended. For high-SPF products, the drop in effective protection was proportionally greater than those for the low-SPF products upon application of lower doses. However, layering sunscreen and makeup products greatly increased the effective SPF compared with that achieved by single application of each product, even when the amount of each product used was below the recommended level.

Conclusion: Layering sunscreen with makeup may compensate for insufficient sunscreen application in real-life conditions by providing an additional source of UV protection and improving the homogeneity of coverage. Our results suggest that recommending consecutive application of sunscreen and makeup products may be a practical and useful approach to improving UV protection that would not require additional steps in the facial care routines of many individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.13010DOI Listing
March 2021

Growth and gut performance of young pigs in response to different dietary cellulose concentration and rearing condition.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jan 1. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of insoluble cellulose supplementation to diets on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, the incidence of diarrhea, nutrients digestibility, and inflammatory responses in altering environmental conditions of animals housing.

Methods: A total of 108 male pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (cellulose 0, 1, 2%) and two environmental conditions (good sanitary condition vs. poor sanitary condition) to give 6 replicate pens per treatment with three pigs per each pen at 14 days post-weaning.

Results: Pigs were in good sanitary condition had higher average daily gain (p<0.01) and improved feed efficiency (p<0.05) from day 1 to 14 after weaning compared to their counterparts. The interactions were found between environmental conditions and dietary treatments [day 7: crypt depth (p<0.01), villous height to crypt depth (p<0.001); day 14: crypt depth (p<0.001), villous to crypt ratio (p<0.01)] in ileum morphology. Crypt depth was decreased (p<0.05), and villous to crypt ratio was increased (p<0.05) only in poor sanitary conditions. Pigs exposed to the good sanitary condition had higher (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (day 7: gross energy; day 14: dry matter), apparent total tract digestibility (day 14: dry matter and crude protein) compared to pigs housed in the poor sanitary condition. Meanwhile, pigs fed a diet supplemented with 2% cellulose had decreased (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (day 7: dry matter; day 14: crude protein), apparent total tract digestibility (day 7: dry matter; day 14: crude protein, gross energy) compared to pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0 or 1% cellulose.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that a diet supplemented with 1% cellulose increased villous to crypt ratio, however feeding a diet containing cellulose (1 or 2%) impaired nutrient digestibility for 14 day after weaning in both good sanitary and poor sanitary conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0721DOI Listing
January 2021

Use of Virtual Reality Working Memory Task and Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Assess Brain Hemodynamic Responses to Methylphenidate in ADHD Children.

Front Psychiatry 2020 21;11:564618. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Virtual reality (VR) neuropsychological tests have emerged as a method to explore drug effects in real-life contexts in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a useful tool to measure brain activity during VR tasks in ADHD children with motor restlessness. The present study aimed to explore the acute effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on behavioral performance and brain activity during a VR-based working memory task simulating real-life classroom settings in ADHD children. In total, 23 children with ADHD performed a VR n-back task before and 2 h after MPH administration concurrent with measurements of oxygenated hemoglobin signal changes with fNIRS. Altogether, 12 healthy control (HC) subjects participated in the same task but did not receive MPH treatment. Reaction time (RT) was shortened after MPH treatment in the 1-back condition, but changes in brain activation were not observed. In the 2-back condition, activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was decreased alongside behavioral changes such as shorter RT, lower RT variability, and higher accuracy after MPH administration. Bilateral mPFC activation in the 2-back condition inversely correlated with task accuracy in the pre-MPH condition; this inverse correlation was not observed after MPH administration. In ADHD children, deactivation of the default mode network mediated by mPFC reduced during high working memory load, which was restored through MPH treatment. Our results suggest that the combination of VR classroom tasks and fNIRS examination makes it easy to assess drug effects on brain activity in ADHD children in settings simulating real-life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.564618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859615PMC
January 2021

Antisense oligonucleotide and adjuvant exercise therapy reverse fatigue in old mice with myotonic dystrophy.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Mar 26;23:393-405. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA.

Patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) identify chronic fatigue as the most debilitating symptom, which manifests in part as prolonged recovery after exercise. Clinical features of DM1 result from pathogenic gain-of-function activity of transcripts containing an expanded microsatellite CUG repeat (CUG). In DM1 mice, therapies targeting the CUG transcripts correct the molecular phenotype, reverse myotonia, and improve muscle pathology. However, the effect of targeted molecular therapies on fatigue in DM1 is unknown. Here, we use two mouse models of DM1, age-matched wild-type controls, an exercise-activity assay, electrical impedance myography, and therapeutic antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to show that exaggerated exercise-induced fatigue progresses with age, is unrelated to muscle fiber size, and persists despite correction of the molecular phenotype for 3 months. In old DM1 mice, ASO treatment combined with an exercise training regimen consisting of treadmill walking 30 min per day 6 days per week for 3 months reverse all measures of fatigue. Exercise training without ASO therapy improves some measures of fatigue without correction of the molecular pathology. Our results highlight a key limitation of ASO monotherapy for this clinically important feature and support the development of moderate-intensity exercise as an adjuvant for targeted molecular therapies of DM1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2020.11.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787993PMC
March 2021

Managing Game-Related Conflict With Parents of Young Adults With Internet Gaming Disorder: Development and Feasibility Study of a Virtual Reality App.

JMIR Serious Games 2021 Jan 18;9(1):e22494. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD) report facing family conflicts repeatedly because of their excessive internet gaming. With recent advancements in virtual reality (VR) technology, VR therapy has emerged as a promising method for the management of various psychiatric disorders, including IGD. Given that several risk and protective factors for young people with addiction can be influenced by their interpersonal context, the potential utility of VR-based apps for managing family conflicts needs to be examined with reference to IGD management. However, few studies have evaluated potential treatment modules related to interpersonal conflict management, such as emotion regulation and taking the perspective of others.

Objective: This preliminary study aims to examine the potential use of a VR-based app in the management of game-related conflicts with parents of young adults with IGD and matched controls.

Methods: In total, 50 young male adults (24 with IGD and 26 controls) were recruited to participate in the study. We developed a virtual room where game-related family conflicts arise. Using this room, participants completed 2 VR tasks that required them to express anger and then implement coping skills (ie, risk/benefit assessment of stopping a game and taking parents' perspective) to deal with negative emotions in interpersonal conflict situations and to decrease one's gaming behavior.

Results: The results showed that immersion in our VR app tended to provoke negative emotions in individuals with IGD. In addition, after a risk/benefit assessment of stopping a game, the response of stopping a game immediately increased significantly in the IGD group, suggesting that patients' gaming behavior could be changed using our VR program. Furthermore, in individuals with IGD, longer gaming hours were associated with a lower level of perceived usefulness of the coping skills training.

Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that our VR app may be useful for implementing more desirable behaviors and managing gaming-related family conflicts in individuals with IGD. Our VR app may offer an alternative for individuals with IGD to learn how a vicious cycle of conflicts is developed and to easily and safely assess their dysfunctional thoughts behind the conflicts (ie, perceived unreasonable risks of stopping a game and thoughts acting as a barrier to taking the perspective of others).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850909PMC
January 2021

Effect of Distractors on Sustained Attention and Hyperactivity in Youth With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using a Mobile Virtual Reality School Program.

J Atten Disord 2021 Jan 11:1087054720986229. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: This study examined whether distractors in virtual reality (VR) environment affected the attention and hyperactivity in children and adolescents with ADHD.

Method: A total of 40 students (21 ADHD, 19 controls) aged between 9 and 17 years participated in this study. A rapid visual information processing task utilizing VR (VR-RVP) was performed under two conditions (no-distractor and distractor condition). Task performance and head movement during each condition were compared, and additional analyses were conducted after grouping participants into two developmental stages.

Results: Children with ADHD performed comparably to the controls under the distractor condition, but had poorer performance under the no-distractor condition. They displayed more head movement under the distractor condition than in the no-distractor condition.

Conclusion: VR is possibly a useful tool for investigating the effect of distractors on individuals with ADHD, and children with ADHD are more vulnerable to a low-level stimulation situation than normal children in VR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054720986229DOI Listing
January 2021

Quantitative evaluation of facial sagging in different body postures using a three-dimensional imaging technique.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

AMOREPACIFIC Research and Development Center, Yongin-si, Republic of Korea.

Background: The possible contribution of head flexion posture while using a smartphone to the formation of "smartphone face," is an increasing concern. Smartphone face describes the facial changes in a stooped posture receiving more gravitational pull on the jowl area.

Aims: In this study, we quantified facial sagging in different postural changes using a three-dimensional imaging technique.

Methods: Faces of 21 young (30.45 ± 2.81 yo, n = 11) and old (59.50 ± 3.37 yo, n = 10) Korean female subjects were scanned in different body postures including standing, supine, and head flexion (30°, 45°). The landmark displacements and volumetric changes in facial areas were assessed and correlated with skin elasticity. In addition, 22 Korean female subjects (45.45 ± 3.81 yo) were recruited to test the anti-gravity effect of facial cream A, which was formulated with Stem III complex™, for 8 weeks.

Results: The landmarks shifted inferior-laterally with the supine posture, while the upper face shifted more laterally and the lower face shifted more inferiorly. With a head flexion posture, facial sagging occurred mainly toward the anterior direction with more prominent changes in the lower face. The changes were greater in the older group, and skin elasticity exhibited negative correlation with the shifting distances. A significant decrease in facial sagging was noted after an 8-week treatment of facial cream A.

Conclusion: The use of a three-dimensional imaging technique could accurately assess the gravity-induced facial changes in different postures. The head flexion posture particularly gives more gravitational pull to the lower face, which could contribute to the drooping jawline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13880DOI Listing
December 2020

Choice of Leisure Activities by Adolescents and Adults With Internet Gaming Disorder: Development and Feasibility Study of a Virtual Reality Program.

JMIR Serious Games 2020 Dec 11;8(4):e18473. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Psychiatry & Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Excessive internet game use frequently leads to various physical, psychological, and social problems, and internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a serious public health issue worldwide. Recently, virtual reality (VR) therapy has emerged as a promising method to increase psychological treatment motivation and accessibility. However, few studies have examined the potential of VR technology for the management of IGD, and VR content tailored to IGD characteristics remains scarce.

Objective: This preliminary study aimed to examine the potential of a VR-based program that was designed to help users identify their leisure time use patterns, especially those related to gaming, and to modify their gaming overuse by alternative activities provided in the VR content. Moreover, to investigate whether users' VR activities reflect various clinical variables of IGD in youth, we examined the relationships among the leisure time activity selection pattern, built-in response, and speech data obtained from the VR program, as well as symptom severity of internet gaming, psychiatric comorbidities, and motivation of participants reported through relevant questionnaire data.

Methods: Three types of VR content (understanding my daily activities at home, finding an alternative activity to internet gaming at home, expressing contradictory opinions toward a friend's gaming beliefs) were developed by simulating the daily situations in which patients with IGD can select alternative free-time leisure activities. We examined internet addiction, mental health problems, and motivation for 23 IGD and 29 control participants. Behavioral and self-rated responses from VR, such as alternative activity selection data and speech patterns (speech time, speech satisfaction, and speech accordance), and results from various questionnaires were compared between groups. The correlations between IGD behaviors in VR and real-life behaviors assessed by questionnaire measures were analyzed.

Results: Significant correlations were found between internet gaming behavior and user activity data, such as speech and activity selection pattern, in our VR program. Our results showed that the IGD group had fewer leisure activities and preferred game or digital activities to other types of activities compared to controls, even in VR. There was a positive relationship between the viability of alternative leisure activities the participants selected in VR and the amount of perceived satisfaction from that activity (r=.748, P<.001). Speech accordance in the IGD group was lower than in the control group and was correlated negatively with Internet Addiction Test and Internet Addiction Test-gaming scores (r=.300, P=.03) but positively with users' motivation (r=.312, P=.02).

Conclusions: The results from our VR program can provide information about daily activity patterns of youths with IGD and the relationship between user VR activities and IGD symptoms, which can be useful in applying VR technology to IGD management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762687PMC
December 2020

Development and Validation of a Virtual Reality-Based Training Program for Promoting Subjective Well-Being.

Psychiatry Investig 2020 Dec 11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Enhancing subjective well-being is an effective way to improve mental health. This study aimed to validate a virtual realitybased interactive feedback program as an intervention tool for promoting subjective well-being.

Methods: Thirty-six males participated in this program, consisting of three tasks constructed based on the theories of positive psychology: 'Experience-based problem recognition task', 'Future self-based success story expression task', and 'Strength expression task'. Participants rated visual analog scores associated with each of the tasks' contents. The concurrent validity of task scores was evaluated by correlations with the psychological scale scores.

Results: The total task score was positively correlated with scores of Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) emotional wellbeing and psychological well-being, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Dispositional Hope Scale agency dimension and pathways dimension, and Life Orientation Test Revised, but not with MHC-SF social well-being scores. After controlling for the effects of the other task scores, the task scores had linear relationships with certain psychological assessments.

Conclusion: Since the task scores are closely related to indicators of well-being, self-esteem, hope, and optimism, the program contents are well associated with certain aspects of subjective well-being and thus may be available for training that improves subjective well-being through interactive feedback.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0311DOI Listing
December 2020

Platform- and label-free detection of lead ions in environmental and laboratory samples using G-quadraplex probes by circular dichroism spectroscopy.

Sci Rep 2020 11 24;10(1):20461. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Division of Electronic Information System Research, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Techno-jungangdaero 333, Daegu, 42988, Republic of Korea.

Guanine-rich quadruplex (G-QD) are formed by conversion of nucleotides with specific sequences by stabilization of positively charged K or Na. These G-QD structures differentially absorb two-directional (right- and left-handed) circularly polarized light, which can discriminate the parallel or anti-parallel structures of G-QDs. In this study, G-QDs stabilized by Pb were analyzed by a circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to determine Pb concentration in water samples. Thrombin aptamer (TBA), PS2.M, human telomeric DNA (HTG), AGRO 100, and telomeric related sequence (T2) were studied to verify their applicability as probes for platform- and label-free detection of Pb in environmental as well as laboratory samples. Among these nucleotides, TBA and PS2.M exhibited higher binding constants for Pb, 1.20-2.04 × 10/M at and 4.58 × 10-1.09 × 10/M at 100 micromolar and 100 mM K concentration, respectively. They also exhibited excellent selectivity for Pb than for Al, Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, and Cr. When Pb was spiked into an effluent sample from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), its existence was detected by CD spectroscopy following a simple addition of TBA or PS2.M. By the addition of TBA and PS2.M, the Pb signals were observed in effluent samples over 0.5 micromolar (100 ppb) concentration. Furthermore, PS2.M caused a Pb-specific absorption band in the effluent sample without spiking of Pb, and could be induced to G-QD structure by the background Pb concentration in the effluent, 0.159 micromolar concentration (3.30 ppb). Taken together, we propose that TBA and PS2.M are applicable as platform- and label-free detection probes for monitoring Pb in environmental samples such as discharged effluent from local WWTPs, using CD spectroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77449-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686487PMC
November 2020

Intake Ratio of 131I to 137CS Derived from Thyroid and Whole-body Doses to Residents of Iwaki City in Japan's Fukushima Prefecture.

Health Phys 2021 Apr;120(4):387-399

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba 263-8555, Japan.

Abstract: It is very important to determine the precise internal thyroid doses of Fukushima residents involved in the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, particularly for small children. This has been challenging due to the lack of direct human measurements to identify 131I, the biggest contributor to the thyroid doses. We previously used a dataset of late whole-body counter (WBC) measurements targeting 134Cs and 137Cs for the thyroid dose estimation in comparison with the intake ratios of 131I to 137Cs (or 134Cs) derived from thyroid and whole-body doses individually obtained from different subject groups, assuming simultaneous acute intake via inhalation. Herein, we applied the same method to the doses of residents in Iwaki city (located south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant) with a relatively high activity ratio (131I/137Cs) for the ground deposition density. Our analyses revealed that the intake ratio (131I/137Cs) for the Iwaki residents was 4.2-4.3, which is relatively consistent with the values obtained in other studies (average 3.0-5.0). No regional difference in the intake ratios from other areas was observed, but further studies are required to determine the accurate intake ratio in the early phase of the accident, in particular focusing on the reasonable interpretation of results of the late WBC measurements to evaluate the actual Cs intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001345DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of face mask on skin characteristics changes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Jul 20;27(4):554-559. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

AMOREPACIFIC Corporation/R&D CENTER, Yongin-si, South Korea.

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility of adverse effects of prolonged wearing of personal protective equipment in healthcare workers. However, there are a few studies about the effects on skin characteristics after wearing a mask for non-healthcare workers. In this study, we evaluated the dermatologic effects of wearing a mask on the skin over time.

Materials And Method: Twenty-one healthy men and women participated in the study. All participants wore masks for 6 hours consecutively. Three measurements were taken (a) before wearing the mask, (b) after wearing the mask for 1 hour, and (c) after wearing the mask for 6 hours. Skin temperature, skin redness, sebum secretion, skin hydration, trans-epidermal water loss, and skin elasticity were measured.

Results: The skin temperature, redness, hydration, and sebum secretion were changed significantly after 1 and 6 hours of wearing a mask. Skin temperature, redness, and hydration showed significant differences between the mask-wearing area and the non-mask-wearing area.

Conclusion: Mask-wearing conditions and time can change several skin characteristics. In particular, it is revealed that the perioral area could be most affected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753630PMC
July 2021

Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms among Multicultural Adolescents in Korea: Longitudinal Analysis Using Latent Class Growth Model.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 6;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the trajectory of depressive symptoms in multicultural adolescents using longitudinal data, and to identify predictive factors related to depressive symptoms of multicultural adolescents using latent class analysis. We used six time-point data derived from the 2012 to 2017 Multicultural Adolescents Panel Study (MAPS). Latent growth curve modeling was used to assess the overall features of depressive symptom trajectories in multicultural adolescents, and latent class growth modeling was used to determine the number and shape of trajectories. We applied multinomial logistic regression analysis to each class to explore predictive factors. We found that the overall slope of depressive symptoms in multicultural adolescents increased. Latent class analysis demonstrated three classes: (1) high-increasing class (i.e., high intercept, significantly increasing slope), (2) moderate-increasing class (i.e., moderate intercept, significantly increasing slope), and (3) low-stable class (i.e., low intercept, no significant slope). In particular, we found that the difference in the initial intercept of depressive symptoms determined the subsequent trajectory. There is a need for early screening for depressive symptoms in multicultural adolescents and preparing individual mental health care plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664400PMC
November 2020

Forward-Looking Multimodal Endoscopic System Based on Optical Multispectral and High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging Techniques for Tumor Detection.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 02 2;40(2):594-606. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

We developed a forward-looking (FL) multimodal endoscopic system that offers color, spectral classified, high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) B-mode, and integrated backscattering coefficient (IBC) images for tumor detection in situ. Examination of tumor distributions from the surface of the colon to deeper inside is essential for determining a treatment plan of cancer. For example, the submucosal invasion depth of tumors in addition to the tumor distributions on the colon surface is used as an indicator of whether the endoscopic dissection would be operated. Thus, we devised the FL multimodal endoscopic system to offer information on the tumor distribution from the surface to deep tissue with high accuracy. This system was evaluated with bilayer gelatin phantoms which have different properties at each layer of the phantom in a lateral direction. After evaluating the system with phantoms, it was employed to characterize forty human colon tissues excised from cancer patients. The proposed system could allow us to obtain highly resolved chemical, anatomical, and macro-molecular information on excised colon tissues including tumors, thus enhancing the detection of tumor distributions from the surface to deep tissue. These results suggest that the FL multimodal endoscopic system could be an innovative screening instrument for quantitative tumor characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2020.3032275DOI Listing
February 2021

Estimating total lysine requirement for optimised egg production of broiler breeder hens during the early-laying period.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Jul 31;62(4):521-532. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The production performance of broiler breeder hens in response to different levels of total lysine during the early laying period was investigated. A total of 126 Ross 308 parent stock hens were offered one of seven dietary treatments formulating elevated contents of total lysine ranging from 0.55% to 0.79% (0.04 scale; 133 g of feed) from 23 to 29 weeks of age. Each treatment had six replicates with three birds per pen. Body weight was recorded triweekly and eggs were collected and weighted at 9:00 am daily. One hen from each pen was euthanized to collect blood samples and visceral organs were harvested and weighed. Egg production, egg weight and egg mass were lower ( < 0.05) in hens offered a diet containing 0.55% total lysine compared to those fed the diet containing higher total lysine. Hens offered a diet containing 0.71%, 0.75%, and 0.79% total lysine had greater ( = 0.008) egg production rate compared to those offered a diet containing lysine less than 0.71%. The number of total eggs produced tended to be greater ( = 0.083) in hens offered a diet containing 0.71 and 0.75% total lysine compared to the other treatments. The number of settable egg production was higher ( < 0.001) in hens offered a diet contacting 0.79% total lysine compared to those fed the diet containing lower levels of total lysine. The relative weights of oviduct and ovary were lower ( < 0.05) in hens offered a diet containing 0.59% total lysine compared to the other treatments. No difference found in body weight, the number of total eggs, double-yolk eggs and abnormal shell eggs among the treatments. The urea nitrogen, estradiol-17 beta and progesterone in plasma were not affected by treatments. Based on linear- and quadratic-plateau models, total lysine requirements for egg production, settable egg production and egg mass at the early laying period were to be 0.73%, 0.77%, and 0.71%, respectively. Modern broiler breeder hens likely require higher total lysine than NRC recommendation in a diet for enhancing productivity during the early-laying period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.4.521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416165PMC
July 2020

Feasibility of a Virtual Reality Program in Managing Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2020 Oct 14;23(10):715-720. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Test anxiety has been a growing problem in school-aged children, especially for students in East-Asian countries where the pressure for academic achievement is high. These students are more vulnerable to academic stress, which could further lead to anxiety disorders. For this reason, this study examined the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) test anxiety program in managing anxiety in students. A total of 22 typically developing children with varying levels of test anxiety and no history of psychiatric illnesses participated in the study (mean age = 11.6 and standard deviation [] = 1.84). A self-reported questionnaire measuring test anxiety, state-trait anxiety, and depression was administered. Heart rate (HR) variability and subjective anxiety were also measured to examine the changes during each of the anxiety-inducing (Exam 1 and Exam 2) and meditation (Med 1 and Med 2) sessions in the program. There was a significant difference in self-perceived anxiety during the program ( < 0.001), as well as a significant main effect of time on the standard deviation of R-R interval ( = 0.002). In addition, a significant relationship between changes in HR and perceived anxiety during Exam 1 ( = 0.003), Med 1 ( < 0.001), and Med 2 ( = 0.011) was found. In conclusion, this work demonstrates the feasibility of the virtual environment to induce different levels of anxiety and explores the potential use of VR program as a viable method to manage the negative emotion in students. This work shows the potential of technology-enhanced tools in addressing psychological problems in school-aged children. Further study is needed to validate the use of the program in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2019.0651DOI Listing
October 2020
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