Publications by authors named "Eunji Choi"

55 Publications

Barley Sprout Water Extract and Saponarin Mitigate Triacylglycerol Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

J Med Food 2022 Jan;25(1):79-88

Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju-gun, Korea.

The mechanisms of action responsible for the reported hypolipidemic activity of barley sprouts have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the content of saponarin (the sole flavonoid present in barley sprout leaves), hypolipidemic activity between barley sprout water extract (BSW) and barley sprout ethanol extract (BSE), and the associated relevance to hypolipidemic activity in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. BSW elicited superior antiadipogenic effects when compared with BSE in MDI mixture [IBMX 0.5 mM + dexamethasone 1 M + insulin 1 g/mL]-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. BSW attenuated MDI-mediated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthase (FAS). FAS protein expression was markedly and dose dependently attenuated by BSW, with higher doses suppressing expression to a level equivalent to the controls. BSW also significantly attenuated MDI-mediated increases in the expression of genes involved in TAG synthesis as well as in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that BSW contains more than four times more saponarin than BSE. Further investigation of saponarin-mediated hypotriacylglycerolemic activity and related gene expression revealed that saponarin significantly inhibited TAG accumulation, which was attributed to reductions in TAG synthesis-related gene expression. Taken together, these findings provide a basis for further development of barley sprout extract for functional health food purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2021.K.0092DOI Listing
January 2022

High-aspect ratio zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) nanoplates for hydrocarbon separation membranes.

Sci Adv 2022 Jan 5;8(1):eabl6841. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abl6841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8730619PMC
January 2022

The Survival Impact of Second Primary Lung Cancer in Patients with Lung Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Dec 10. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Quantitative Sciences Unit, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Lung cancer survivors have a high risk of developing second primary lung cancer (SPLC), but little is known about the survival impact of SPLC diagnosis.

Methods: We analyzed data from 138,969 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER), who were surgically treated for initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) in 1988-2013. Each patient was followed from the date of IPLC diagnosis to SPLC diagnosis (for those with SPLC) and last vital status through 2016. We performed multivariable Cox regression to evaluate the association between overall survival and SPLC diagnosis as a time-varying predictor. To investigate potential effect modification, we tested interaction between SPLC and IPLC stage. Using data from the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC) (N = 1,540 IPLC patients with surgery), we evaluated the survival impact of SPLC by smoking status. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: A total of 12,115 (8.7%) patients developed SPLC in SEER over 700,421 person-years of follow up. Compared to patients with single primary lung cancer, those with SPLC had statistically significantly reduced overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]=2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.06-2.17; P < .001). The effect of SPLC on reduced survival was more pronounced among patients with early-stage IPLC vs. advanced-stage IPLC (HR = 2.14 [95% CI = 2.08-2.20] vs. 1.43 [95% CI = 1.21-1.70], respectively; Pinteraction <0.001). Analysis using MEC data showed that the effect of SPLC on reduced survival was statistically significantly larger among persons who actively smoked at initial diagnosis vs. those who formerly or never smoked (HR = 2.31 [95% CI = 1.48-3.61] vs. 1.41 [95% CI = 0.98-2.03], respectively; Pinteraction=0.04).

Conclusions: SPLC diagnosis is statistically significantly associated with decreased survival in SEER and MEC. Intensive surveillance targeting patients with early-stage IPLC and active smoking at IPLC diagnosis may lead to a larger survival benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab224DOI Listing
December 2021

Distinguishing Korean and Chinese red pepper powder using inductively coupled plasma and X-ray fluorescence-based analysis.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Nov 18;30(12):1497-1507. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, 04310 Korea.

This study aimed to distinguish between Korean and Chinese red pepper powder (RPP) using inorganic elemental analysis data combined with orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Elemental concentrations were obtained for 31 Korean and 31 Chinese RPP samples that were collected in Korea. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy detected 11 elements in these samples. Rb and Cl concentrations were selected as the variables which best allowed distinguishing between Korean and Chinese RPP using an S-plot from OPLS-DA. Rb and Cl concentrations in the Korean RPP samples were ≤ 1.6 mg/100 g (measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy) and ≤ 215 mg/100 g, respectively. A blind trial demonstrated that Korean RPP containing ≥ 50 g/100 g of Chinese RPP could be identified by applying predetermined ranges of Rb and Cl concentrations, suggesting that analysis of these two elements is a possible approach to distinguish between Korean and Chinese RPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00980-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595447PMC
November 2021

Smoking Cessation After Lung Cancer Diagnosis and the Risk of Second Primary Lung Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Oct 23;5(5):pkab076. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Quantitative Sciences Unit, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Smoking cessation reduces lung cancer mortality. However, little is known about whether diagnosis of lung cancer impacts changes in smoking behaviors. Furthermore, the effects of smoking cessation on the risk of second primary lung cancer (SPLC) have not been established yet. This study aims to examine smoking behavior changes after initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) diagnosis and estimate the effect of smoking cessation on SPLC risk following IPLC diagnosis.

Methods: The study cohort consisted of 986 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study who were free of lung cancer and active smokers at baseline (1993-1996), provided 10-year follow-up smoking data (2003-2008), and were diagnosed with IPLC in 1993-2017. The primary outcome was a change in smoking status from "current" at baseline to "former" at 10-year follow-up (ie, smoking cessation), analyzed using logistic regression. The second outcome was SPLC incidence after smoking cessation, estimated using cause-specific Cox regression. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Among 986 current smokers at baseline, 51.1% reported smoking cessation at 10-year follow-up. The smoking cessation rate was statistically significantly higher (80.6%) for those diagnosed with IPLC between baseline and 10-year follow-up vs those without IPLC diagnosis (45.4%) during the 10-year period (adjusted odds ratio = 5.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.38 to 7.98; <.001). Incidence of SPLC was statistically significantly lower among the 504 participants who reported smoking cessation at follow-up compared with those without smoking cessation (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.67; =.003).

Conclusion: Lung cancer diagnosis has a statistically significant impact on smoking cessation. Quitting smoking after IPLC diagnosis may reduce the risk of developing a subsequent malignancy in the lungs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487318PMC
October 2021

Trends in the Performance of the Korean National Cancer Screening Program for Gastric Cancer from 2007 to 2016.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: The Korean National Cancer Screening Program (KNCSP) has implemented two screening methods for gastric cancer-upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) and endoscopy-for Koreans aged ≥40 years. We aimed to assess performance trends for both screening methods.

Materials And Methods: The KNCSP database was used to evaluate individuals who underwent screening from 2007 to 2016. The final gastric cancer diagnosis was ascertained by linking with the Korean Central Cancer Registry. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional analysis to estimate performance indicators of gastric cancer screening by UGIS and endoscopy, stratified by sociodemographic factors.

Results: We found that screening rates for gastric cancer increased from 28% to 51.7% between 2007 and 2016, and that the rate of endoscopy use for gastric cancer screening increased sharply. Cancer detection rates (CDR) of UGIS and endoscopy were 0.41 and 2.25 per 1,000 screens in 2007-2008 and 0.26 and 1.99 in 2015-2016, respectively. Interval cancer rates (ICR) per 1,000 negative screenings were 1.33 (2007-2008) and 1.21 (2015-2016) for UGIS and 1.14 (2007-2008) and 0.88 (2015-2016) for endoscopy. The sensitivity of UGIS decreased from 23.6% (2007-2008) to 17.6% (2015-2016), whereas that of endoscopy increased from 66.4% (2007-2008) to 69.3% (2015-2016). Specificity was maintained at >99% for both methods over the study period.

Conclusion: The use of endoscopy for gastric cancer screening within the KNCSP has increased. Endoscopy has higher CDR, sensitivity, and specificity, and lower ICR estimates than does UGIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2021.482DOI Listing
September 2021

Ultrafast H-selective nanoporous multilayer graphene membrane prepared by confined thermal annealing.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 9;57(70):8730-8733. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea.

H selective dense pores are generated in a graphene oxide (GO) layer by thermal-decomposition of oxygen-functional groups under high pressure. The nanoporous GO membrane shows H/CO selectivity of 12.1 and H permeability of 10360 Barrer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02946kDOI Listing
September 2021

Sleep Quality and Associated Factors in Premenopausal, Perimenopausal, and Postmenopausal Women in Korea: Findings from the K-Stori 2016.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 14;13:1137-1145. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Poor sleep quality is a common problem among middle-aged women. Few studies, however, have assessed differences in sleep quality among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women and related risk factors in Korea women. The aim of this study was to assess sleep quality and factors associated therewith according to menopausal status in Korean women.

Patients And Methods: This study was based on the 2016 Korean Study of Women's Health Related Issues (K-Stori), a cross-sectional survey employing nationally representative random sampling. In total, 3000 Korean women aged 45 to 64 years completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Comparison of demographic characteristics and sleep quality among pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women was conducted.

Results: Among the participants, 26% suffered from poor sleep quality based on the PSQI. The prevalence of poor sleep quality increased with later menopausal stage (from 18.8% in the premenopausal stage to 29.5% in the postmenopausal stage <0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that peri- and postmenopausal women were 1.50 and 1.73 times more likely to have poor sleep quality in comparison to premenopausal women, respectively. Chronic disease, depression, at-risk drinking, taking dietary supplements, and single women were associated with a higher likelihood of having poor sleep quality. Health status, at-risk drinking, chronic illness, dietary supplementation, and depression were significantly associated with poor sleep quality.

Conclusion: Poor sleep quality appears to be prevalent in peri- and postmenopausal women in Korea. The management of sleep quality during menopause transition is important, and further research on how sleep disturbances influence the health status of women in menopausal transition is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S298397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286781PMC
July 2021

Development and Validation of a Risk Prediction Model for Second Primary Lung Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2022 Jan;114(1):87-96

Quantitative Sciences Unit, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: With advancing therapeutics, lung cancer (LC) survivors are rapidly increasing in number. Although mounting evidence suggests LC survivors have high risk of second primary lung cancer (SPLC), there is no validated prediction model available for clinical use to identify high-risk LC survivors for SPLC.

Methods: Using data from 6325 ever-smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study diagnosed with initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) in 1993-2017, we developed a prediction model for 10-year SPLC risk after IPLC diagnosis using cause-specific Cox regression. We evaluated the model's clinical utility using decision curve analysis and externally validated it using 2 population-based data-Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) and National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)-that included 2963 and 2844 IPLC (101 and 93 SPLC cases), respectively.

Results: Over 14 063 person-years, 145 (2.3%) ever-smoking IPLC patients developed SPLC in MEC. Our prediction model demonstrated a high predictive accuracy (Brier score = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4 to 3.3) and discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristics [AUC] = 81.9%, 95% CI = 78.2% to 85.5%) based on bootstrap validation in MEC. Stratification by the estimated risk quartiles showed that the observed SPLC incidence was statistically significantly higher in the 4th vs 1st quartile (9.5% vs 0.2%; P < .001). Decision curve analysis indicated that in a wide range of 10-year risk thresholds from 1% to 20%, the model yielded a larger net-benefit vs hypothetical all-screening or no-screening scenarios. External validation using PLCO and NLST showed an AUC of 78.8% (95% CI = 74.6% to 82.9%) and 72.7% (95% CI = 67.7% to 77.7%), respectively.

Conclusions: We developed and validated a SPLC prediction model based on large population-based cohorts. The proposed prediction model can help identify high-risk LC patients for SPLC and can be incorporated into clinical decision making for SPLC surveillance and screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8755509PMC
January 2022

Effectiveness of the Korean National Cancer Screening Program in reducing breast cancer mortality.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Jun 28;7(1):83. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

High incidences of breast cancer (BC) are reported in Asian women in their forties, and it is not clear whether mammographic screening reduces mortality among them. This study evaluated the effect of BC screening on mortality in Korea. We conducted a nationwide prospective cohort study of women invited to the Korean National Cancer Screening Program (KNCSP) between 2002 and 2003 (N = 8,300,682), with data linkage to the Korea Central Cancer Registry and death certificates through 2014 and 2015, respectively. Exposure to mammographic screening was defined using a modified never/ever approach. The primary study outcome was adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for BC among screened and non-screened women estimated by Poisson regression. An adjusted MRR for all cause-death other than BC was examined to account for selection bias in the cohort. BC incidence rates for screened and non-screened women were 84.41 and 82.88 per 100,000 women-years, respectively. BC mortality rates for screened and non-screened women were 5.81 and 13.43 per 100,000 women-years, respectively, with an adjusted MRR for BC of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.41-0.44). The adjusted MRR for all-cause death excluding BC was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.52-0.52). The greatest reduction in BC mortality was noted for women aged 45-54 years, and there was no observable reduction in mortality after the age of 70 years. In conclusion, the KNCSP has been effective in reducing BC mortality among Korean women aged 40-69 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00295-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238931PMC
June 2021

Diamine vapor treatment of viscoelastic graphene oxide liquid crystal for gas barrier coating.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9518. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

A layered graphene oxide/ethylenediamine (GO/EDA) composite film was developed by exposing aqueous GO liquid crystal (GOLC) coating to EDA vapor and its effects on the gas barrier performance of GO film were systematically investigated. When a GO/EDA coating with a thickness of approximately 1 μm was applied to a neat polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film, the resultant film was highly impermeable to gas molecules, particularly reducing the gas permeance up to 99.6% for He and 98.5% for H in comparison to the neat PET film. The gas barrier properties can be attributed to the long diffusion length through stacked GO nanosheets. The EDA can crosslink oxygen-containing groups of GO, enhancing the mechanical properties of the GO/EDA coating with hardness and elastic modulus values up to 1.14 and 28.7 GPa, respectively. By the synergistic effect of the viscoelastic properties of GOLC and the volatility of EDA, this coating method can be applied to complex geometries and EDA intercalation can be spontaneously achieved through the scaffold of the GOLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88955-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096969PMC
May 2021

Large-Area TiCT-MXene Coating: Toward Industrial-Scale Fabrication and Molecular Separation.

ACS Nano 2021 May 23;15(5):8860-8869. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, YONSEI University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Large-scale fabrication of MXene films is in high demand for various applications, but it remains difficult to meet industrial requirements. In this study, we develop a slot-die coating method for the preparation of large-area MXene membranes. The technique allows the fabrication of continuous and scalable coatings with a rapid coating speed of 6 mm s. The thickness can be readily controlled from the nanometer scale to the micrometer scale, and the alignment of the nanosheet is enhanced by the shear force of the slot-die head. Molecular separation experiments employing a film with a thickness of approximately 100 nm are performed. A nanofiltration performance with water permeance of 190 LMH/bar and molecular weight cutoff of 269 Da is achieved, surpassing previously reported results obtained using MXene-based nanofiltration membranes. The stability of the membrane is highlighted by its nanofiltration performance of 30 days under harsh oxidizing conditions, which is the longest operation ever achieved for a 2D material-based membrane. The extraordinary stability of the film suggests its high potential for industrial and practical applications. The antioxidizing phenomena can be attributed to self-protection of the MXene surface by adsorbed organic molecules, which are particularly stabilized with positively charged molecules chemisorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01448DOI Listing
May 2021

Genome wide CRISPR screening reveals a role for sialylation in the tumorigenesis and chemoresistance of acute myeloid leukemia cells.

Cancer Lett 2021 07 16;510:37-47. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Convergence Medicine, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Aberrant activation of cytokine and growth factor signal transduction pathways confers enhanced survival and proliferation properties to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the deregulation of signaling pathways in leukemia cells are unclear. To identify genes capable of independently supporting cytokine-independent growth, we employed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function screen in GM-CSF-dependent human AML TF-1 cells. More than 182 genes (p < 0.01) were found to suppress the cytokine-independent growth of TF-1 cells. Among the top hits, genes encoding key factors involved in sialylation biosynthesis were identified; these included CMAS, SLC35A1, NANS, and GNE. Knockout of either CMAS or SLC35A1 enabled cytokine-independent proliferation and survival of AML cells. Furthermore, NSG (NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ) mice injected with CMAS or SLC35A1-knockout TF-1 cells exhibited a shorter survival than mice injected with wild-type cells. Mechanistically, abrogation of sialylation biosynthesis in TF-1 cells induced a strong activation of ERK signaling, which sensitized cells to MEK inhibitors but conferred resistance to JAK inhibitors. Further, the surface level of α2,3-linked sialic acids was negatively correlated with the sensitivity of AML cell lines to MEK/ERK inhibitors. We also found that sialylation modulated the expression and stability of the CSF2 receptor. Together, these results demonstrate a novel role of sialylation in regulating oncogenic transformation and drug resistance development in leukemia. We propose that altered sialylation could serve as a biomarker for targeted anti-leukemic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.04.006DOI Listing
July 2021

Fabrication Techniques for Graphene Oxide-Based Molecular Separation Membranes: Towards Industrial Application.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Graphene oxide (GO) has been a prized material for fabricating separation membranes due to its immense potential and unique chemistry. Despite the academic focus on GO, the adoption of GO membranes in industry remains elusive. One of the challenges at hand for commercializing GO membranes lies with large-scale production techniques. Fortunately, emerging studies have acknowledged this issue, where many have aimed to deliver insights into scalable approaches showing potential to be employed in the commercial domain. The current review highlights eight physical methods for GO membrane fabrication. Based on batch-unit or continuous fabrication, we have further classified the techniques into five small-scale (vacuum filtration, pressure-assisted filtration, spin coating, dip coating, drop-casting) and three large-scale (spray coating, bar/doctor blade coating, slot die coating) approaches. The continuous nature of the large-scale approach implies that the GO membranes prepared by this method are less restricted by the equipment's dimensions but rather the availability of the material, whereas membranes yielded by small-scale methods are predominately limited by the size of the fabrication device. The current review aims to serve as an initial reference to provide a technical overview of preparing GO membranes. We further aim to shift the focus of the audience towards scalable processes and their prospect, which will facilitate the commercialization of GO membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002682PMC
March 2021

Tobacco Smoking and Risk of Second Primary Lung Cancer.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 06 17;16(6):968-979. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Quantitative Sciences Unit, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Introduction: Lung cancer survivors are at high risk of developing a second primary lung cancer (SPLC). However, SPLC risk factors have not been established and the impact of tobacco smoking remains controversial. We examined the risk factors for SPLC across multiple epidemiologic cohorts and evaluated the impact of smoking cessation on reducing SPLC risk.

Methods: We analyzed data from 7059 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) diagnosed with an initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) between 1993 and 2017. Cause-specific proportional hazards models estimated SPLC risk. We conducted validation studies using the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (N = 3423 IPLC cases) and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (N = 4731 IPLC cases) cohorts and pooled the SPLC risk estimates using random effects meta-analysis.

Results: Overall, 163 MEC cases (2.3%) developed SPLC. Smoking pack-years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.18 per 10 pack-years, p < 0.001) and smoking intensity (HR = 1.30 per 10 cigarettes per day, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with increased SPLC risk. Individuals who met the 2013 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's screening criteria at IPLC diagnosis also had an increased SPLC risk (HR = 1.92; p < 0.001). Validation studies with the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition revealed consistent results. Meta-analysis yielded pooled HRs of 1.16 per 10 pack-years (p < 0.001), 1.25 per 10 cigarettes per day (p < 0.001), and 1.99 (p < 0.001) for meeting the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's criteria. In MEC, smoking cessation after IPLC diagnosis was associated with an 83% reduction in SPLC risk (HR = 0.17; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for SPLC. Smoking cessation may reduce the risk of SPLC. Additional strategies for SPLC surveillance and screening are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.02.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159872PMC
June 2021

The Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Capsella Bursa-Pastoris Is Mediated via SREBP2 and HNF-1α-Regulated PCSK9 Inhibition in Obese Mice and HepG2 Cells.

Foods 2021 Feb 12;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 55365, Korea.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which capsella bursa-pastoris ethanol extract (CBE), containing 17.5 milligrams of icaritin per kilogram of the extract, and icaritin, mediate hypocholesterolemic activity via the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in obese mice and HepG2 cells. CBE significantly attenuated serum total and LDL cholesterol levels in obese mice, which was associated with significantly decreased PCSK9 gene expression. HepG2 cells were cultured using delipidated serum (DLPS), and CBE significantly reduced PCSK9 and maintained the LDLR level. CBE co-treatment with rosuvastatin attenuated statin-mediated PCSK9 expression, and further increased LDLR. The icaritin contained in CBE decreased intracellular PCSK9 and LDLR levels by suppressing transcription factors SREBP2 and HNF-1α. Icaritin also significantly suppressed the extracellular PCSK9 level, which likely contributed to post-translational stabilization of LDLR in the HepG2 cells. PCSK9 inhibition by CBE is actively attributed to icaritin, and the use of CBE and icaritin could be an alternative therapeutic approach in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918551PMC
February 2021

TXNIP Regulates Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Innate Immunity by Inhibiting IFN-γ Production during Bacterial Infection.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 14;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Korea.

The function of natural killer (NK) cell-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expands to remove pathogens by increasing the ability of innate immune cells. Here, we identified the critical role of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in the production of IFN-γ in NK cells during bacterial infection. TXNIP inhibited the production of IFN-γ and the activation of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activity in primary mouse and human NK cells. TXNIP directly interacted with TAK1 and inhibited TAK1 activity by interfering with the complex formation between TAK1 and TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1). (KO) NK cells enhanced the activation of macrophages by inducing IFN-γ production during Pam3CSK4 stimulation or Staphylococcus aureus () infection and contributed to expedite the bacterial clearance. Our findings suggest that NK cell-derived IFN-γ is critical for host defense and that TXNIP plays an important role as an inhibitor of NK cell-mediated macrophage activation by inhibiting the production of IFN-γ during bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765025PMC
December 2020

Trend analysis of process quality indicators for the Korean National Cervical Cancer Screening Program from 2005 to 2013.

J Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jan 7;32(1):e14. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Objective: This study sought to examine changes in trends for quality indicators of the population-based Korean National Cancer Screening Program (KNCSP) for cervical cancer from years 2005 to 2013.

Methods: Our study data were derived from the KNCSP database. Cervical cancer diagnosis information was ascertained through linkage with the Korean National Cancer Registry and the KNCSP database. Performance measures for cervical cancer screening were estimated, including participation rate, positive rate, crude detection rate (CDR), interval cancer rate (ICR), positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, and specificity. Joinpoint analysis was applied to calculate annual percentage changes (APCs) in all indicators according to socio-demographic factors.

Results: A significant increasing trend was noted in participation rates (APC=13.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=10.5, 16.4). PPV and specificity increased from years 2005 to 2009 and remained stable till 2013. An increasing trend was discovered in CDRs for cervical cancer in situ (APC=3.9%; 95% CI=1.0, 6.9), whereas a decreasing trend was observed in ICRs for invasive cervical cancer (APC=-2.5%; 95% CI=-4.5, -0.5). Medical Aid recipients and women older than 70 years showed the lowest participation rates, but higher CDRs and ICRs, compared to other groups. In general, most of the quality indicators for cervical cancer screening improved from 2005 to 2009 and remained stable to 2013.

Conclusion: The KNCSP for cervical cancer in Korea has improved in terms of participation rate and accuracy of the screening test. These results may be attributed to the National Quality Improvement Program for KNCSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767658PMC
January 2021

Association of a dysbiotic oral microbiota with the development of focal lymphocytic sialadenitis in IκB-ζ-deficient mice.

NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2020 10 30;6(1):49. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Microbiology, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Mice lacking IκB-ζ, a protein encoded by the Nfkbiz gene, spontaneously develop a Sjögren's syndrome-like disease involving the lachrymal glands, but no salivary gland symptoms have been reported. We found that Nfkbiz female mice presented a significantly reduced salivary flow rate, focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (FLS), and a dysbiotic oral microbiota at week 24. To dissect the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the salivary gland phenotype, Nfkbiz and Nfkbiz mice were cohoused after weaning and evaluated at week 20. Cohousing alleviated the salivary gland phenotype of Nfkbiz mice but did not induce any disease phenotype in Nfkbiz mice. Additionally, the oral microbiota in the cohoused mice was synchronized toward that in Nfkbiz mice. In conclusion, IκB-ζ-deficient mice developed hyposalivation and FLS, in which a dysbiotic oral microbiota played an important role. This finding suggests that the dysbiotic oral microbiota could be a therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41522-020-00158-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599236PMC
October 2020

Graphene Oxide Nanoribbon Hydrogel: Viscoelastic Behavior and Use as a Molecular Separation Membrane.

ACS Nano 2020 09 9;14(9):12195-12202. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, YONSEI University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, (03722), Republic of Korea.

The preparation of carbon materials based hydrogels and their viscoelastic properties are essential for their broad application and scale-up. However, existing studies are mainly focused on graphene derivatives and carbon nanotubes, and the behavior of graphene nanoribbon (GNR), a narrow strip of graphene, remains elusive. Herein, we demonstrate the concentration-driven gelation of oxidized GNR (graphene oxide nanoribbon, GONR) in aqueous solvents. Exfoliated individual GONRs sequentially assemble into strings (∼1 mg/mL), nanoplates (∼20 mg/mL), and a macroporous scaffold (50 mg/mL) with increasing concentration. The GONR hydrogels exhibit viscoelastic shear-thinning behavior and can be shear-coated to form large-area GONR films on substrates. The entangled and stacked structure of the GONR film contributed to outstanding nanofiltration performance under high pressure, cross-flow, and long-term filtration, while the precise molecular separation with 100% rejection rate was maintained for sub-nanometer molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c05902DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of Awareness of Breast Density on Perceived Risk, Worry, and Intentions for Future Breast Cancer Screening among Korean Women.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan 18;53(1):55-64. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

National Cancer Center, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: This study sought to examine perceived risk and concerns for breast cancer according to awareness of breast density and states thereof among Korea women and to identify the impact of such awareness on screening intentions.

Materials And Methods: This study was based on the 2017 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey of a nationally representative and randomly selected sample of Koreans. Ordinal logistic regression was conducted to examine associations for awareness of and knowledge on breast density in relation to psychological factors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate significant factors associated with intentions to undergo breast cancer screening.

Results: Among a total of 1,609 women aged 40-69 years, 62.0% were unaware of their breast density, and only 29.7% had good breast density knowledge. Awareness of one's breast density and knowledge about breast density were positively associated with perceptions of absolute and comparative risk and cancer worry. Women aware of their breast density (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.35 for women aware of having a non-dense breast; aOR, 4.17 for women aware of having a dense breast) and women with a good level of breast density knowledge (aOR, 1.65) were more likely to undergo future breast cancer screening.

Conclusion: Breast density awareness and knowledge showed positive associations with psychological factors and breast cancer screening intentions. However, the majority of Korean women were not aware of their breast density status and demonstrated poor knowledge about breast density. These results demonstrate a need for better health communication concerning breast density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812003PMC
January 2021

ARS2/MAGL signaling in glioblastoma stem cells promotes self-renewal and M2-like polarization of tumor-associated macrophages.

Nat Commun 2020 06 12;11(1):2978. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

The interplay between glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promotes progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between these two cell types remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ARS2 (arsenite-resistance protein 2), a zinc finger protein that is essential for early mammalian development, plays critical roles in GSC maintenance and M2-like TAM polarization. ARS2 directly activates its novel transcriptional target MGLL, encoding monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), to regulate the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of GSCs through production of prostaglandin E (PGE), which stimulates β-catenin activation of GSC and M2-like TAM polarization. We identify M2-like signature downregulated by which MAGL-specific inhibitor, JZL184, increased survival rate significantly in the mouse xenograft model by blocking PGE production. Taken together, our results suggest that blocking the interplay between GSCs and TAMs by targeting ARS2/MAGL signaling offers a potentially novel therapeutic option for GBM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16789-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293269PMC
June 2020

Rubidium analysis as a possible approach for discriminating between Korean and Chinese perilla seeds distributed in Korea.

Food Chem 2020 May 23;312:126067. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04310, South Korea. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to discriminate between Korean and Chinese perilla seeds by using inorganic elemental analysis data combined with orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Inorganic element content data were obtained from 29 Korean and 11 Chinese perilla seed samples distributed in Korea. Using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, 11 species of inorganic elements were detected in the perilla seed samples and eight of them were quantified. The Rb content was selected as the variable to best discriminate between Korean and Chinese perilla seeds using an S-plot generated from OPLS-DA. An accurate range for the Rb content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The Rb content is remarkably higher in Chinese perilla seeds (8.7-19.0 mg/kg) than in Korean perilla seeds (0.0-7.6 mg/kg), thereby suggesting that Rb analysis may be an appropriate approach to discriminate Chinese perilla seeds from Korean perilla seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.126067DOI Listing
May 2020

Weight control behaviors according to body weight status and accuracy of weight perceptions among Korean women: a nationwide population-based survey.

Sci Rep 2019 06 24;9(1):9127. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine Research Institute, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

This study aimed to identify associations among self-perceived weight status, accuracy of weight perceptions, and weight control behaviors, including both healthy and unhealthy behaviors, in a large, nationally representative sample from an East Asian country. Data were collected from the 2016 Korean Study of Women's Health Related Issues, a population-based, nationwide survey. Accurate weight perceptions were investigated by comparing body mass index (BMI) categories, based on self-reported height and weight, and weight perceptions. Weight control behaviors over the previous 12 months were additionally surveyed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented as an index of associations. Among normal weight, overweight, and obese women, 12.8%, 44.3%, and 17.4% under-assessed their weight; 17.9% of normal weight women over-assessed their weight. Both weight status according to BMI category and weight perceptions were strongly associated with having tried to lose weight. Exercise and diet (ate less) were the most commonly applied weight control behaviors. Misperception of weight was related to more unhealthy weight control behaviors and less healthy behaviors: Women who under-assessed their weight showed a lower tendency to engage in dieting (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.75) and a greater tendency to fast/skip meals (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.07-1.99). Meanwhile, normal weight or overweight women who over-assessed their weight were more likely to have engaged in fasting/skipping meals or using diet pills (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.45-13.56 for fasting/skipping meal in overweight women; OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.15-2.29 and OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.15-8.23 for using diet pills in normal and overweight women). Inaccuracy of weight perceptions in any direction (over/under) were related to more unhealthy weight control behaviors and less healthy weight control behaviors, especially in normal and overweight women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45596-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6591250PMC
June 2019

Determinants of undergoing thyroid cancer screening in Korean women: a cross-sectional analysis from the K-Stori 2016.

BMJ Open 2019 04 3;9(4):e026366. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea (the Republic of).

Objectives: Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer among Korean women. Studies suggest that the incidence of thyroid cancer might be associated with overdiagnosis resulting from thyroid cancer screening. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of participation in thyroid cancer screening in Korean women.

Methods: Data were obtained from the 2016 Korean Study of Women's Health-Related Issues, a nationwide cross-sectional survey of women according to the reproductive life cycle. A total of 8697 cancer-free women of ages between 20 and 79 years were included for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to analyse factors associated with adherence to thyroid cancer screening based on Andersen's health behavioural model.

Results: Over the last 2 years, the rate of thyroid cancer screening was 39.2%. In multivariable models, older age, higher household income, high school education level and higher perceived risk of cancer were positively associated with thyroid cancer screening participation. Moreover, women who underwent cervical cancer screening (adjusted OR [aOR] 3.67; 95% CI 2.90 to 4.64) and breast cancer screening (aOR 10.91; 95% CI 8.41 to 14.14) had higher odds of attending thyroid cancer screening than women who did not attend cancer screening.

Conclusions: These findings highlight the need to increase awareness of different recommendations on screening for various cancers to improve cost-effectiveness and to prevent unnecessary treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500224PMC
April 2019

Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean women aged 19-79 years: the 2016 Korean Study of Women's Health-Related Issues.

Epidemiol Health 2019 13;41:e2019005. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine Research Institute, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: While the prevalence of obesity in Asian women has remained stagnant, studies of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Asian women are scarce. This study aimed to examine the recent prevalence of obesity in Korean women aged between 19 years and 79 years and to analyze socioeconomic inequalities in obesity.

Methods: Data were derived from the 2016 Korean Study of Women's Health-Related Issues. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity using Asian standard body mass index (BMI) categories: low (<18.5 kg/m2 ), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥25.0 kg/ m2 ). As inequality-specific indicators, the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were calculated, with adjustment for age and self-reported health status.

Results: Korean women were classified into the following BMI categories: underweight (5.3%), normal weight (59.1%), overweight (21.2%), and obese (14.4%). The SII and RII revealed substantial inequalities in obesity in favor of more urbanized women (SII, 4.5; RII, 1.4) and against of women who were highly educated (SII, -16.7; RII, 0.3). Subgroup analysis revealed inequalities in obesity according to household income among younger women and according to urbanization among women aged 65-79 years.

Conclusions: Clear educational inequalities in obesity existed in Korean women. Reverse inequalities in urbanization were also apparent in older women. Developing strategies to address the multiple observed inequalities in obesity among Korean women may prove essential for effectively reducing the burden of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446067PMC
April 2019

"Male Hair Cannot Extend Below Plane of the Shoulder" and "No Cross Dressing": Critical Queer Analysis of High School Dress Codes in the United States.

J Homosex 2020 Jul 22;67(9):1290-1340. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Apparel, Events, and Hospitality Management, Iowa State University , Ames, Iowa, USA.

In this study, we questioned how high school dress codes outlined in official handbooks were written or presented in regard to the gender binary, either/or perspective. We critically analyzed how or if they allowed for flexibility in expression of gender and sexual identity and if they supported, encouraged, or affirmed a variety of expressions, in particular transgender and gender non-conforming expressions, throughout the text or images. The content analysis method was used to analyze 735 handbooks from the 2016 to 2017 school year. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) support of fluid gender expression, yet not overt support; (2) passive marginalization of gender non-conforming or transgender identities or expressions; and (3) active marginalization of gender non-conforming or transgender identities or expressions. The "LGBTQ+ Dress Code Analysis Tool" was developed for policy makers to use to analyze their dress codes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2019.1585730DOI Listing
July 2020

Self-perceptions of body weight status according to age-groups among Korean women: A nationwide population-based survey.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(1):e0210486. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine Research Institute, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

While numerous studies have investigated body image, including body weight perception, most of which have focused on adolescents or young women, few studies have attempted to evaluate body weight perceptions in adult women according to age groups. This study was conducted to investigate the accuracy of self-perceived weight and actual body mass index (BMI) values among adult Korean women according to age. We used data from the 2016 Korean Study of Women's Health Related Issues, a population-based, nationwide, cross-sectional survey. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height. Participants were asked to describe their body image by choosing one of the following descriptions: very underweight, underweight, about right, overweight, or obese. The proportions of women aged 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years who underestimated their body weight relative to their actual BMI category were 12.6%, 15.1%, 22.2%, 34.0%, 45.6%, and 50.7%, respectively; those who overestimated their body weight comprised 18.7%, 17.8%, 14.3%, 10.8%, and 7.4%. In all BMI categories, the proportion of those who overestimated their weight status increased as age decreased, while those who underestimated their weight status increased as age increased. After adjusting for possible covariates, age was strongly associated with both underestimation and overestimation. The odds ratio for underestimating one's weight status among women aged 70-79 yeas was 2.96 (95% CI: 2.10-4.18), and that for overestimation was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35-0.79), compared to women aged 20-29 years. Age is the most important factor associated with weight perceptions among Korean women, affecting both underestimation and overestimation of weight status.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210486PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336301PMC
November 2019

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Korea, 2005-2015: After the Introduction of the National Cancer Screening Program.

Yonsei Med J 2018 Nov;59(9):1034-1040

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate inequalities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in Korea and trends therein using the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) across income and education groups.

Materials And Methods: Data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annually conducted, nationwide cross-sectional survey, were utilized. A total of 17174 men and women aged 50 to 74 years were included for analysis. Prior experience with CRC screening was defined as having either a fecal occult blood test within the past year or a lifetime colonoscopy. CRC screening rates and annual percentage changes (APCs) were evaluated. Then, SII and RII were calculated to assess inequality in CRC screening for each survey year.

Results: CRC screening rates increased from 23.4% in 2005 to 50.9% in 2015 (APC, 7.8%; 95% CI, 6.0 to 9.6). Upward trends in CRC screening rates were observed for all age, education, and household income groups. Education inequalities were noted in 2009, 2014, and overall pooled estimates in both indices. Income inequalities were inconsistent among survey years, and overall estimates did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: Education inequalities in CRC screening among men and women aged 50 to 74 years were observed in Korea. No apparent pattern, however, was found for income inequalities. Further studies are needed to thoroughly outline socio-economic inequalities in CRC screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2018.59.9.1034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192887PMC
November 2018

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening among Women in Korea, 2005-2015.

Yonsei Med J 2018 Nov;59(9):1026-1033

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: Consistent evidence indicates that cervical and breast cancer screening rates are low among socioeconomically deprived women. This study aimed to assess trends in cervical and breast cancer screening rates and to analyze socioeconomic inequalities among Korean women from 2005 to 2015.

Materials And Methods: Data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annual nationwide cross-sectional survey, were utilized. A total of 19910 women were finally included for analysis. Inequalities in education and household income status were estimated by slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII), along with calculation of annual percent changes (APCs), to show trends in cancer screening rates.

Results: Cervical and breast cancer screening rates increased from 54.8% in 2005 to 65.6% in 2015 and from 37.6% in 2005 to 61.2% in 2015, respectively. APCs in breast cancer screening rates were significant among women with higher levels of household income and education status. Inequalities by household income in cervical cancer screening uptake were observed with a pooled SII estimate of 10.6% (95% CI: 8.1 to 13.2) and RII of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6). Income inequalities in breast cancer screening were shown to gradually increase over time with a pooled SII of 5.9% (95% CI: 2.9 to 9.0) and RII of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9 to 1.3). Educational inequalities appeared to diminish over the study period for both cervical and breast cancer screening.

Conclusion: Our study identified significant inequalities among socioeconomically deprived women in cervical and breast cancer screening in Korea. Especially, income-related inequalities were greater than education-related inequalities, and these were constant from 2005 to 2015 for both cervical and breast cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2018.59.9.1026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192888PMC
November 2018
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