Publications by authors named "Eun-Jin Lee"

229 Publications

Prognostic Significance of HER3 Expression in Patients with Cervical Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Apr 25;14(9). Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.

HER3 has been recognized to have an oncogenic role in various types of cancer. However, its prognostic significance has not been elucidated in cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of HER3 expression in cervical cancer using immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER3 immunohistochemical staining was performed on the tumor tissue samples of 336 cervical cancer patients. The association between the clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival analysis was assessed according to HER3 expression. HER3 IHC staining was positive in 31.0% (104/336) of the cervical cancer patients. A higher proportion of adeno-/adenosquamous carcinoma was observed in the HER3-positive group (34.6%) than in the HER3-negative group (18.8%). In survival analysis, HER3 expression was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) ( 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis also indicated that HER3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-4.67, 0.002) and OS (HR = 3.21, 95% CI, 1.26-8.14, 0.014). HER3 protein expression was a poor prognostic factor of survival in patients with cervical cancer. This finding could help to provide individualized management for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9104480PMC
April 2022

Engineering 3D Printed Scaffolds with Tunable Hydroxyapatite.

J Funct Biomater 2022 Mar 23;13(2). Epub 2022 Mar 23.

American Dental Association Science & Research Institute, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.

Orthopedic and craniofacial surgical procedures require the reconstruction of bone defects caused by trauma, diseases, and tumor resection. Successful bone restoration entails the development and use of bone grafts with structural, functional, and biological features similar to native tissues. Herein, we developed three-dimensional (3D) printed fine-tuned hydroxyapatite (HA) biomimetic bone structures, which can be applied as grafts, by using calcium phosphate cement (CPC) bioink, which is composed of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), and a liquid [Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) dissolved in ethanol (EtOH)]. The ink was ejected through a high-resolution syringe nozzle (210 µm) at room temperature into three different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5) mol/L of the aqueous sodium phosphate dibasic (NaHPO) bath that serves as a hardening accelerator for HA formation. Raman spectrometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated the real-time HA formation in (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5) mol/L NaHPO baths. Under those conditions HA was formed at different amounts, which tuned the scaffolds' mechanical properties, porosity, and osteoclast activity. Overall, this method may pave the way to engineer 3D bone scaffolds with controlled HA composition and pre-defined properties, which will enhance graft-host integration in various anatomic locations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jfb13020034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9036238PMC
March 2022

A Study on the Development of a Model for Providing Traditional Korean Medicine and Welfare Services for Community Care.

J Pharmacopuncture 2022 Mar;25(1):15-23

Department of Policy Development, National Development Institute of Korean Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: This study aims to develop a community care model in traditional Korean medicine (TKM) by developing a community care participation model for the health of the elderly and deriving tasks to implement it.

Methods: This study implemented a group interview with experts. A fact-finding survey was conducted targeting 16 local governments that are implementing a leading project to identify the status of TKM service provision and welfare service linkage in all regions. An expert group interview (FGI) targeted public and private sector experts for each job role, the former represented by those in charge of the central government's health care policy and administrative delivery system, and the latter by professors majoring in social welfare, professors majoring in health, and local TKM societies. After forming the expert groups, three expert group interviews were conducted.

Results: Through collective interviews with experts, a model for providing TKM and welfare services in community integrated care was derived by dividing it into local and central government levels. The strategies and tasks for promoting TKM-oriented health welfare services were derived from 3 strategies, 8 tasks, and 20 detailed tasks.

Conclusion: The core direction of the TKM health care model is the region-centered provision of TKM and welfare services. To this end, policy support for the use and linkage of health care service resources is required at the central government level, and linkage and provision of health welfare services centered on TKM are necessary through linkage and convergence between service subjects and between government health care projects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.1.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8947973PMC
March 2022

Jasmonate resistant 1 and ethylene responsive factor 11 are involved in chilling sensitivity in pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.).

Sci Rep 2022 02 24;12(1):3141. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) is sensitive to chilling stress with chilling injuries occurring below 7 °C; however, chilling injuries occur at different temperatures depending on the genotype. The present study aimed to identify the factors that affect chilling sensitivity in pepper fruits. A total of 112 F pepper fruits crossed between chilling-insensitive 'UZB-GJG-1999-51' and chilling-sensitive 'C00562' pepper were grouped according to the seed browning rate, which is a typical chilling symptom of pepper fruit under chilling conditions. Physiological traits, amino acids, fatty acids, as well as ethylene responsive factor (ERF) and jasmonate resistant 1 (JAR1) expression levels were analyzed, and their correlations with the seed browning rate were confirmed. The expression level of JAR1 showed a strong negative correlation with the seed browning rate (r =  - 0.7996). The expression level of ERF11 and content of hydrogen peroxide showed strong positive correlation with the seed browning rate (r = 0.7622 and 0.6607, respectively). From these results, we inferred that JAR1 and ERF11 are important factors influencing the chilling sensitivity of pepper fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-07268-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8873250PMC
February 2022

Effects of auriculotherapy on addiction: a systematic review.

Authors:
Eun Jin Lee

J Addict Dis 2022 Feb 18:1-13. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Nursing Department, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea.

Auriculotherapy has been used to reduce withdrawal symptoms during drug detoxication. The purpose of this study was to review the results of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the impact of auriculotherapy on addiction. This study aimed to find an effective protocol involving auricular acupuncture points, intervention duration and frequency, and stimulating methods. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Medline for articles published between January 1, 1994, and March 31, 2021. The keywords used were auricular, acupuncture, addiction, substance misuse, smoking, randomized controlled trial, clinical trial, and human. Each RCT was evaluated for quality applying the risk of bias tool by the Cochrane group. Effect size (Hedges's g) was calculated using the mean values and standard deviation of the experimental and control groups. The risk for bias of these studies was moderate to high and only four studies (11.1%) earned scores of 6, indicating the lowest risk of bias and highest quality RCT. Out of 36 studies, 23 (64%) reported that auriculotherapy was effective for treating addiction such as opioids, cocaine, alcohol, heroin, nicotine, and gambling. The most commonly used combination of acupuncture points (four of 36 studies) was shenmen, sympathetic, liver, lung, and kidney, which are called NADA protocol. The following most frequently used combination of acupressure points (four out of 36 studies) was shenmen, subcortex, heart, lung, and liver. Acupressure could be considered to be used for the treatment of addiction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2021.2016011DOI Listing
February 2022

Traditional Korean Medicine Home Care for the Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 01 3;19(1). Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02453, Korea.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the status of community care services regarding traditional Korean medicine (TKM) for older adults and raise awareness on current opinions and services of TKM institutions.

Methods: The National Development Institute of Korean Medicine conducted a survey of 16 local governments by sending official letters through an electronic document system from October 2020 to November 2020. The survey items included basic demographic information and information about TKM service.

Results: Eleven (68.8%) of the 16 local governments provided TKM home care services. A total of 136 TKM clinics provided home care services for 598 older adults with musculoskeletal disorders. The number of TKM services provided in five or more local governments were cupping 11 (100.0%), acupuncture 11 (100.0%), education and consulting 10 (90.9%), and moxibustion 9 (81.8%). Moreover, pain (recorded on visual analogue scale) and quality of life significantly improved following TKM services ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: Covered under medical policy, TKM homecare services could function as a viable alternative for continued medical care disrupted during the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic. In addition, standardisation and legalisation of these services could ensure and improve their efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8744707PMC
January 2022

Set1-mediated H3K4 methylation is required for virulence by regulating intracellular level of reactive oxygen species.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):2648-2658

Department of Molecular Bioscience College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Korea.

is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that exists in normal flora but can cause infection in immunocompromised individuals. The transition to pathogenic requires a change of various gene expressions. Because histone-modifying enzymes can regulate gene expression, they are thought to control the virulence of . Indeed, the absence of H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase Set1 has been shown to reduce the virulence of ; however, Set1-regulated genes responsible for this attenuated virulence phenotype remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Set1 positively regulates the expression of mitochondrial protein genes by methylating H3K4. In particular, levels of cellular mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher in than in the wild-type due to the defect of those genes' expression. Set1 deletion also increases HO sensitivity and prevents proper colony formation when interacting with macrophage , consistent with its attenuated virulence . Together, these findings suggest that Set1 is required to regulate proper cellular ROS production by positively regulating the expression of mitochondrial protein genes and subsequently sustaining mitochondrial membrane integrity. Consequently, maintains proper ROS levels via Set1-mediated transcriptional regulation, thus establishing a rapid defense against external ROS generated by the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1980988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8555521PMC
December 2021

uORF-mediated riboregulation controls transcription of whiB7/wblC antibiotic resistance gene.

Mol Microbiol 2022 01 2;117(1):179-192. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

School of Biological Sciences, and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

WhiB7/WblC is a transcriptional factor of actinomycetes conferring intrinsic resistance to multiple translation-inhibitory antibiotics. It positively autoregulates its own transcription in response to the same antibiotics. The presence of a uORF and a potential Rho-independent transcription terminator in the 5' leader region has suggested a possibility that the whiB7/wblC gene is regulated via a uORF-mediated transcription attenuation. However, experimental evidence for the molecular mechanism to explain how antibiotic stress suppresses the attenuator, if any, and induces transcription of the whiB7/wblC gene has been lacking. Here we report that the 5' leader sequences of the whiB7/wblC genes in sub-clades of actinomycetes include conserved antiterminator RNA structures. We confirmed that the putative antiterminator in the whiB7/wblC leader sequences of both Streptomyces and Mycobacterium indeed suppresses Rho-independent transcription terminator and facilitates transcription readthrough, which is required for WhiB7/WblC-mediated antibiotic resistance. The antibiotic-mediated suppression of the attenuator can be recapitulated by amino acid starvation, indicating that translational inhibition of uORF by multiple signals is a key to induce whiB7/wblC expression. Our findings of a mechanism leading to intrinsic antibiotic resistance could provide an alternative to treat drug-resistant mycobacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14834DOI Listing
January 2022

Foliar-Applied Glutathione Mitigates Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Stress by Modulating Antioxidant-Scavenging, Redox-Regulating, and Hormone-Balancing Systems in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 13;12:700413. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Asian Pear Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) mitigates adverse physio-metabolic effects and defends against abiotic types of stress, such as cadmium (Cd) stress. However, its function and role in resisting Cd phytotoxicity by leveraging plant antioxidant-scavenging, redox-regulating, and hormone-balancing systems have not been comprehensively and systematically demonstrated in the Cd-hyperaccumulating plant L. cv. Tammi (oilseed rape). In this study, the effects of exogenously applied GSH to the leaves of seedlings exposed to Cd (10 μM) were investigated. As a result, Cd stress alone significantly inhibited growth and increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the bioaccumulation of Cd in the seedlings compared with those in unstressed controls. Furthermore, Cd stress induced an imbalance in plant stress hormone levels and decreases in endogenous GSH levels and GSH redox ratios, which were correlated with reductions in ascorbate (AsA) and/or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) redox states. However, the exogenous application of GSH to Cd-stressed seedlings reduced Cd-induced ROS levels and enhanced antioxidant-scavenging defenses and redox regulation by both increasing seedling AsA, GSH, and NADPH concentrations and rebalancing stress hormones, thereby enhancing Cd uptake and accumulation. These results demonstrate that GSH improved plant redox status by upregulating the AsA-GSH-NADPH cycle and reestablishing normal hormonal balance. This indicates that exogenously applied GSH can mitigate Cd phytotoxicity in and possibly other plants. Therefore, GSH can potentially be applied to Cd-polluted soil for plant remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.700413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473890PMC
September 2021

ATF6 is required for efficient rhodopsin clearance and retinal homeostasis in the P23H rho retinitis pigmentosa mouse model.

Sci Rep 2021 08 11;11(1):16356. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding disease that arises from loss of rods and subsequently cones. The P23H rhodopsin knock-in (P23H-KI) mouse develops retinal degeneration that mirrors RP phenotype in patients carrying the orthologous variant. Previously, we found that the P23H rhodopsin protein was degraded in P23H-KI retinas, and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) promoted P23H rhodopsin degradation in heterologous cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of a UPR regulator gene, activating transcription factor 6 (Atf6), in rhodopsin protein homeostasis in heterozygous P23H rhodopsin (Rho) mice. Significantly increased rhodopsin protein levels were found in Atf6Rho retinas compared to Atf6Rho retinas at early ages (~ P12), while rhodopsin mRNA levels were not different. The IRE1 pathway of the UPR was hyper-activated in young Atf6Rho retinas, and photoreceptor layer thickness was unchanged at this early age in Rho mice lacking Atf6. By contrast, older Atf6Rho mice developed significantly increased retinal degeneration in comparison to Atf6Rho mice in all retinal layers, accompanied by reduced rhodopsin protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that Atf6 is required for efficient clearance of rhodopsin protein in rod photoreceptors expressing P23H rhodopsin, and that loss of Atf6 ultimately accelerates retinal degeneration in P23H-KI mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95895-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357971PMC
August 2021

High-CO Treatment Prolongs the Postharvest Shelf Life of Strawberry Fruits by Reducing Decay and Cell Wall Degradation.

Foods 2021 Jul 16;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Improved methods are needed to extend the shelf life of strawberry fruits. The objective of this study was to determine the postharvest physiological mechanism of high-CO treatment in strawberries. Harvested strawberries were stored at 10 °C after 3 h of exposure to a treatment with 30% CO or air. Pectin and gene expression levels related to cell wall degradation were measured to assess the high-CO effects on the cell wall and lipid metabolism. Strawberries subjected to high-CO treatment presented higher pectin content and firmness and lower decay than those of control fruits. Genes encoding cell wall-degrading enzymes (pectin methylesterase, polygalacturonase, and pectate lyase) were downregulated after high-CO treatment. High-CO induced the expression of oligogalacturonides, thereby conferring defense against in strawberry fruits, and lowering the decay incidence at seven days after its inoculation. Our findings suggest that high-CO treatment can maintain strawberry quality by reducing decay and cell wall degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304637PMC
July 2021

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) are localized in the nucleus of retinal Müller glial cells and modulated by cytokines and oxidative stress.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0253915. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Mary D. Allen Vision Research Laboratory, USC Roski Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathology of numerous inflammatory retinal degenerations, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Our previous work revealed that intravitreal injections with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) reduce the progression of rod cell death and inhibit cone cell remodeling that involves reactive gliosis in retinal Müller glial cells (MGCs) in rodent models. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of how TIMP-1 functions in the retina remain to be resolved; however, MGCs are involved in structural homeostasis, neuronal cell survival and death. In the present study, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression patterns were investigated in a human MGC line (MIO-M1) under inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (H2O2) conditions. First, both IL-1β and TNF-α, but not H2O2, have a mild in vitro pro-survival effect on MIO-M1 cells. Treatment with either cytokine results in the imbalanced secretion of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. H2O2 treatment has little effect on their secretion. The investigation of their intracellular expression led to interesting observations. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 are both expressed, not only in the cytoplasm, but also inside the nucleus. None of the treatments alters the MMP-9 intracellular distribution pattern. In contrast to MMP-9, TIMP-1 is detected as speckles. Intracellular TIMP-1 aggregation forms in the cytoplasmic area with IL-1β treatment. With H2O2 treatments, the cell morphology changes from cobbles to spindle shapes and the nuclei become larger with increases in TIMP-1 speckles in an H2O2 dose-dependent manner. Two TIMP-1 cell surface receptors, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and cluster of differentiation 82 (CD82), are expressed within the nucleus of MIO-M1 cells. Overall, these observations suggest that intracellular TIMP-1 is a target of proinflammatory and oxidative insults in the MGCs. Given the importance of the roles for MGCs in the retina, the functional implication of nuclear TIMP-1 and MMP-9 in MGCs is discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253915PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284794PMC
November 2021

Clusterin enhances cell survival by suppressing neuronal nitric-oxide synthase expression in the rhodopsin S334ter-line3 retinitis pigmentosa model.

Brain Res 2021 10 6;1768:147575. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Mary D. Allen Vision Research Laboratory, USC Roski Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States; VA Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, CA, United States; Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Environmental changes in the retina, including oxidative stress-induced cell death, influence photoreceptor degeneration in Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). Previously, we tested and discovered that a cytoprotective chaperone protein, clusterin, produced robust preservation of rod photoreceptors of a rat autosomal dominant rhodopsin transgenic model of RP, S334ter-line3. To investigate the biochemical and molecular cytoprotective pathways of clusterin, we examined and compared a known source of cone cell death, nitric oxide (NO), observing nNOS expression using antibody against nNOS in RP retinas with intravitreal injections of saline, clusterin (10 μg/ml), or a non-isoform-selective NOS inhibitor (25 mM), L-NAME, or with an intraperitoneal injection (IP) of L-NAME (100 mg/kg). Rhodopsin-immunoreactive rod photoreceptor cells and nNOS-immunoreactive cells were quantified with immunohistochemistry in the presence or absence of L-NAME or clusterin, and the total nNOS retinal expression was determined by immunoblot analysis. In this study, the level of nNOS expression was significantly up-regulated postnatally (P) at P15 (P < 0.05), P30 (P < 0.001) and P60 (P < 0.0001) in RP retinas compared to normal controls. Clusterin treatment suppressed the up-regulated nNOS expression in RP retinas (P < 0.0001) and was enhanced in Type II amacrine cells. Additionally, IP injection of L-NAME at P15 prolonged rod survival in the later stage of RP retinas (P < 0.001). Conversely, rod survival in L-NAME-treated RP retinas was not equivalent to the rod survival number seen in clusterin-treated retinas, which suggests induction of nNOS expression in RP retinas and its reduction by clusterin is only partly responsible for the rescue observed through the reduction of nNOS expression in S334ter-line3 rat retinas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147575DOI Listing
October 2021

Level of Acculturation and Acculturative Stress Perceived by Asian Immigrant Women Married to South Korean Men.

J Transcult Nurs 2022 Jan 15;33(1):49-56. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Daegu Catholic University, Daegu, Korea (ROK).

Introduction: Married immigrant women experience cultural conflicts due to different values, and customs. This study examined the factors associated with the acculturation and acculturative stress of Asian immigrant women in South Korea.

Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. A total of 142 participants were recruited from Incheon Multicultural Centers in 2016 using a convenience sampling method. Acculturation and acculturative stress were measured by Suinn-Lew Self-Identity Acculturation Scale and Social Attitudinal Familial Environment. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis.

Results: Time since immigration was negatively associated with the level of acculturation, while alcohol consumption ( < .050). Some demographic variables (age, religion, anxiety, and time since immigration) were associated with acculturative stress ( < .050).

Discussion: These findings can help health care providers to increase their awareness and be more sensitive when providing services to these women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10436596211023977DOI Listing
January 2022

Expanded transcriptomic view of strawberry fruit ripening through meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(6):e0252685. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Strawberry is an important fruit crop and a model for studying non-climacteric fruit ripening. Fruit ripening and senescence influence strawberry fruit quality and postharvest storability, and have been intensively studied. However, genetic and physiological differences among cultivars preclude consensus understanding of these processes. We therefore performed a meta-analysis by mapping existing transcriptome data to the newly published and improved strawberry reference genome and extracted meta-differentially expressed genes (meta-DEGs) from six cultivars to provide an expanded transcriptomic view of strawberry ripening. We identified cultivar-specific transcriptome changes in anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes and common changes in cell wall degradation, chlorophyll degradation, and starch metabolism-related genes during ripening. We also identified 483 meta-DEGs enriched in gene ontology categories related to photosynthesis and amino acid and fatty acid biosynthesis that had not been revealed in previous studies. We conclude that meta-analysis of existing transcriptome studies can effectively address fundamental questions in plant sciences.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252685PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168840PMC
November 2021

Current Status of Traditional Korean Medicine Services in Public Sector: A Study for Integrating Traditional Korean Medicine into Community Care System.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Woosuk University, Wanju 55338, Korea.

Korea is currently executing a pilot program for community care of its aging population and aims to implement community care systems on a national scale by 2025. This study examines the traditional Korean medicine (TKM) service to be provided within community care by understanding the current status of TKM services. The Ministry of Health and Welfare (MoHW) sent official letters to 242 local governments (cities, districts, and counties) from October to November 2019 to survey the status of the public TKM services provided in 2018. The items of the survey included basic demographic information as well as information that could reveal how the program was implemented. In 112 local government jurisdictions (response rate 46.3%), a total of 867 TKM service programs were in place. As a result of the survey, it was revealed that they did not have any service manuals or evaluation results. To provide home-care-based TKM service for the elderly as an integrated part of a community care system, it is necessary to develop, distribute, and evaluate a standard service manual including an evaluation index by the central government.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143512PMC
April 2021

The Use of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) by Children: A Correlational Study between Parent's Perception and Their Children's Use Reported by Parents.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Policy Development, National Development Institute of Korean Medicine, Seoul 04554, Korea.

This cross-sectional study investigated the correlation between parents' perception and their children's traditional Korean medicine (TKM) use reported by parents in order to discover policy intervention points and provide a reference for establishing generalized TKM policies. Participant data from a 2017 national survey on TKM usage was divided into two groups based on the children's TKM use reported by parents. The female participants' children had a higher rate of experience in using TKM (8.1%; = 0.029). Additionally, 91.4% of the parent group with a child who used TKM turned out to have used TKM, which was higher than 71.9% of the parents whose children never used TKM ( < 0.001). As for the awareness on the use of TKM, 44.0% of the parents with a child who experienced TKM answered they were aware of it, while only 35.3% of the parent group whose child never experienced TKM did so ( = 0.033). The present study suggests that parental experience in using TKM could have an impact on the children's TKM use reported by parents. Further study is necessary to assess which parental factor (awareness level, medical disorder to be treated, therapy, therapeutic efficacy, the purpose of visit, sex, age, etc.) has a close relationship with TKM usage experience of their children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066526PMC
April 2021

A Translation-Aborting Small Open Reading Frame in the Intergenic Region Promotes Translation of a Mg Transporter in Typhimurium.

mBio 2021 04 13;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea

Bacterial mRNAs often harbor upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Translation of the uORF usually affects downstream gene expression at the levels of transcription and/or translation initiation. Unlike other uORFs mostly located in the 5' UTR, we discovered an 8-amino-acid ORF, designated , in the intergenic region between the virulence gene and the Mg transporter gene in the operon. Translation of promotes downstream Mg transporter expression at the level of translation by releasing the ribosome-binding sequence of the gene that is sequestered in a translation-inhibitory stem-loop structure. Interestingly, Asp2 and Glu5 codons that induce ribosome destabilization are required for -mediated translation. Moreover, the Asp and Glu codons-mediated translation is counteracted by the ribosomal subunit L31 that stabilizes ribosome. Substitution of the Asp2 and Glu5 codons in decreases MgtB Mg transporter production and thus attenuates virulence in mice, likely by limiting Mg acquisition during infection. Translation initiation regions in mRNAs that include the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and the start codon are often sequestered within a secondary structure. Therefore, to initiate protein synthesis, the mRNA secondary structure must be unfolded to allow the RBS to be accessible to the ribosome. Such unfolding can be achieved by various mechanisms that include translation of a small upstream open reading frame (uORF). In the intracellular pathogen serovar Typhimurium, translation of the Mg transporter gene is enhanced by an 8-amino-acid upstream ORF, namely, , that harbors Asp and Glu codons, which are likely to destabilize ribosome during translation. Translation of the ORF promotes the formation of a stem-loop mRNA structure sequestering anti-RBS and thus releases the RBS. Because -mediated MgtB Mg transporter production is required for virulence, this pathogen seems to control the virulence determinant production exquisitely via this uORF during infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03376-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092293PMC
April 2021

AWP1 Restrains the Aggressive Behavior of Breast Cancer Cells Induced by TNF-α.

Front Oncol 2021 18;11:631469. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in cancer initiation and progression by enhancing cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Even though the known functional role of AWP1 (zinc finger AN1 type-6, ZFAND6) is as a key mediator of TNF-α signaling, its potential role in the TNF-α-dependent responses of cancer cells remains unclear. In our current study, we found that an AWP1 knockdown using short hairpin RNAs increases the migratory potential of non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells with no significant alteration of their proliferation in response to TNF-α. A CRISPR/Cas9-mediated AWP1 knockout in MCF-7 cells led to mesenchymal cell type morphological changes and an accelerated motility. TNF-α administration further increased this migratory capacity of these AWP1-depleted cells through the activation of NF-κB accompanied by increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related gene expression. In particular, an AWP1 depletion augmented the expression of Nox1, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating enzymes, and ROS levels and subsequently promoted the migratory potential of MCF-7 cells mediated by TNF-α. These TNF-α-mediated increases in the chemotactic migration of AWP1 knockout cells were completely abrogated by an NF-κB inhibitor and a ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that a loss-of-function of AWP1 alters the TNF-α response of non-aggressive breast cancer cells by potentiating ROS-dependent NF-κB activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.631469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012775PMC
March 2021

Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment/Motivational Interviewing School-Based Therapy Pilot Study.

J Addict Nurs 2021 Jan-Mar 01;32(1):14-19

Abstract: Substance abuse and comorbid psychological disorders are significant problems among adolescents. Hence, school-based interventions could be a promising approach for tackling substance use and mental health symptoms in at-risk youth. This pilot study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of interventions like Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment and motivational interviewing (MI) on depressive anxiety and substance use symptoms in middle school participants. Student psychiatric nurse practitioners who were trained and competent in MI conducted a combined Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment/MI intervention with 19 participants using measurement tools such as the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7, and the Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble Screening Test. Depressive and anxiety symptoms decreased after the intervention. Because the pre-post Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble screening period was 4 weeks, there were no significant pre-post differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JAN.0000000000000380DOI Listing
August 2021

Protective coating of strawberries with cellulose nanofibers.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 22;258:117688. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Since shelf life of perishable foods is short, a compelling challenge is to prolong the freshness of foods with a cost-effective strategy. A perishable fruit, the strawberry, is chosen as a model perishable food and an edible film coating is applied to it using carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibers (CM-CNFs) stabilized by cationic salts. A transparent and impermeable CM-CNF film is formed at the strawberry surface using a dip coating process. The formation of the film is dependent on the electrostatic interaction between anionic CM-CNF and salt cations. Physical properties of the film are characterized and the effectiveness of edible film coating on the freshness of perishable fruit is evaluated by the measurement of weight loss, CO release, firmness, total solid sugar and acidity. Cellulose nanofiber is a promising cost-effective material appropriate for use as an edible coating that contributes to the long-term storage and prolonged freshness of foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117688DOI Listing
April 2021

Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Subclass Distribution of Anti-galactose-Alpha-1,3-Galactose and Anti-N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid Antibodies in Healthy Korean Adults.

Transplant Proc 2021 Jun 10;53(5):1762-1770. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Xenotransplantation Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Endemic Diseases, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Human preformed antibodies (Abs), anti-galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (Gal) and anti-N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), can react with porcine antigens of wild-type pigs. To provide basic population data of the Abs for potential application in clinical xenotransplantation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods and investigated the serum titers of anti-Gal and anti-Neu5Gc Abs, including immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG along with its subclasses, in humans.

Methods: Anti-Gal and anti-Neu5Gc Abs serum titers were measured in 380 healthy Korean adults using the in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The frequency and median values of anti-Gal and anti-Neu5Gc were measured, and their class and subclass distribution were evaluated.

Results: The detection frequencies of anti-Gal were 99.2%, 95.0%, 23.2%, 94.5%, 12.4%, and 3.4% for IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, respectively. The detection frequencies of anti-Neu5Gc Abs were 87.4%, 96.6%, 1.6%, 46.3%, 0.0%, and 0.0% for IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, respectively. The median values of anti-Gal IgM (1001.6 ng/mL) and IgG (1198.3 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those of anti-Neu5Gc Abs (IgM, 328.4 ng/mL; IgG, 194.7 ng/mL; P < .001). IgG2 titers of both anti-Gal and anti-Neu5Gc Abs correlated better with the IgG class than the titers of other IgG subclasses.

Conclusions: The titers of anti-Gal Abs were higher than those of anti-Neu5Gc Abs. IgG2 was the main IgG subclass in both anti-Gal and anti-Neu5Gc Abs. Variation in the titers of anti-Gal or anti-Neu5Gc Abs may partly explain the biological and immunologic changes that occur in recipients of xenotransplants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.01.011DOI Listing
June 2021

Transcriptome Analysis of the Fruit of Two Strawberry Cultivars "Sunnyberry" and "Kingsberry" That Show Different Susceptibility to after Harvest.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 3;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Gray mold () is a fungal plant pathogen causing postharvest decay in strawberry fruit. Here, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis to identify differences in gene expression between the immature-green (IG) and mature-red (MR) stages of the "Sunnyberry" (gray mold-resistant) and "Kingsberry" (gray mold susceptible) strawberry cultivars. Most of the genes involved in lignin and alkane-type wax biosynthesis were relatively upregulated in "Sunnyberry". However, pathogenesis-related proteins encoding R- and antioxidant-related genes were comparatively upregulated in "Kingsberry". Analysis of gene expression and physiological traits in the presence and absence of inoculation revealed that the defense response patterns significantly differed between IG and MR rather than the cultivars. "Kingsberry" showed higher antioxidant induction at IG and upregulated hemicellulose-strengthening and R genes at MR. Hence, "Sunnyberry" and "Kingsberry" differed mainly in terms of the expression levels of the genes forming cuticle, wax, and lignin and controlling the defense responses. These discrepancies might explain the relative difference between these strawberry cultivars in terms of their postharvest responses to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913547PMC
February 2021

Ascorbate-Mediated Modulation of Cadmium Stress Responses: Reactive Oxygen Species and Redox Status in .

Front Plant Sci 2020 30;11:586547. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Plant Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, South Korea.

The role of ascorbate (AsA) in antioxidant defense system-associated resistance to cadmium (Cd) in oilseed rape plants has not yet been clearly demonstrated. The present study investigated the critical role of exogenous AsA on the physiological and biochemical responses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant scavenging defense systems in oilseed rape ( L. cv. Tammi) seedlings exposed to Cd. Cd (10 μM) treatment led to significant reductions in plant growth; increases in the levels of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde; and increases in Cd uptake and accumulation by the roots and shoots in hydroponically grown 10-day-old seedlings. Moreover, it reduced AsA content and AsA redox ratios, which have been correlated with reductions in glutathione (GSH) and/or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) redox status. However, exogenously applying AsA to Cd-exposed seedlings decreased Cd-induced ROS, improved antioxidant defense systems by increasing AsA, GSH, and NADPH contents, and increased Cd uptake and accumulation in both roots and shoots of the plants. These results provided evidence that the enhancement in AsA redox status can be linked to an increase in the GSH and/or NADPH redox ratios through the induction of the AsA-GSH-NADPH cycle. Thus, these results suggest that exogenous AsA application to oilseed rape seedlings under Cd stress might alleviate the overall Cd toxicity by regulating the homeostasis of the AsA-GSH-NADPH cycle, which reestablishes the steady-state cellular redox status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.586547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733925PMC
November 2020

Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicle-Mediated Cytosolic Delivery of Flagellin Triggers Host NLRC4 Canonical Inflammasome Signaling.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:581165. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Bacteria-released components can modulate host innate immune response in the absence of direct host cell-bacteria interaction. In particular, bacteria-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were recently shown to activate host caspase-11-mediated non-canonical inflammasome pathway deliverance of OMV-bound lipopolysaccharide. However, further precise understanding of innate immune-modulation by bacterial OMVs remains elusive. Here, we present evidence that flagellated bacteria-released OMVs can trigger NLRC4 canonical inflammasome activation flagellin delivery to the cytoplasm of host cells. -derived OMVs caused a robust NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1β secretion in macrophages in an endocytosis-dependent, but guanylate-binding protein-independent manner. Notably, OMV-associated flagellin is crucial for OMV-induced inflammasome response. Flagellated -released OMVs consistently promoted robust NLRC4 inflammasome activation, while non-flagellated -released OMVs induced NLRC4-independent non-canonical inflammasome activation leading to NLRP3-mediated interleukin-1β secretion. Flagellin-deficient OMVs caused a weak interleukin-1β production in a NLRP3-dependent manner. These findings indicate that OMV triggers NLRC4 inflammasome activation OMV-associated flagellin in addition to a mild induction of non-canonical inflammasome signaling OMV-bound lipopolysaccharide. Intriguingly, flagellated -derived OMVs induced more rapid inflammasome response than flagellin-deficient OMV and non-flagellated -derived OMVs. Supporting these results, -deficient mice showed significantly reduced interleukin-1β production after intraperitoneal challenge with -released OMVs. Taken together, our results here propose that NLRC4 inflammasome machinery is a rapid sensor of bacterial OMV-bound flagellin as a host defense mechanism against bacterial pathogen infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.581165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708323PMC
June 2021

Comparative transcriptome and metabolome analyses of two strawberry cultivars with different storability.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(12):e0242556. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Postharvest storability is an important trait for breeding strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). We evaluated the postharvest fruit quality of five strawberry cultivars ('Durihyang', 'Kingsberry', 'Maehyang', 'Seolhyang', and 'Sunnyberry') and identified differences in their fruit ripening during the transition from the big-green to fully-red stage between two cultivars with the highest ('Sunnyberry') and lowest ('Kingsberry') storability, using comparative transcriptome and -metabolome analysis. The differentially expressed genes revealed transcriptome changes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and cell walls. Consistently, the metabolites of both cultivars showed general changes during ripening along with cultivar-specific characteristics in sugar and amino acid profiles. To identify the genes responsible for storability differences, we surveyed the expression of transcription factors, and found that the expression levels of WRKY31, WRKY70, and NAC83 correlated with delayed senescence and increased storability. Among them, the expression levels of NAC83, and its downstream target genes, in the five cultivars suggested that NAC83 expression can be used to predict postharvest strawberry fruit storability.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242556PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710044PMC
January 2021

Biofabrication of 3D printed hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone regeneration.

Biomed Mater 2021 03 8;16(4). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

American Dental Association Science and Research Institute, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, United States of America.

Biofabrication has been adapted in engineering patient-specific biosynthetic grafts for bone regeneration. Herein, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution, room-temperature printing approach to fabricate osteoconductive scaffolds using calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The non-aqueous CPC bioinks were composed of tetracalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, and Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) dissolved in either ethanol (EtOH) or tetrahydrofuran (THF). They were printed in an aqueous sodium phosphate bath, which performs as a hardening accelerator for hydroxyapatite formation and as a retainer for 3D microstructure. The PVB solvents, EtOH or THF, affected differently the slurry rheological properties, scaffold microstructure, mechanical properties, and osteoconductivity. Our proposed approach overcomes limitations of conventional fabrication methods, which require high-temperature (>50 °C), low-resolution (>400 μm) printing with an inadequate amount of large ceramic particles (>35 μm). This proof-of-concept study opens venues in engineering high-resolution, implantable, and osteoconductive scaffolds with predetermined properties for bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/abcf03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164647PMC
March 2021

Biofabrication of 3D printed hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone regeneration.

Biomed Mater 2021 03 8;16(4). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

American Dental Association Science and Research Institute, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, United States of America.

Biofabrication has been adapted in engineering patient-specific biosynthetic grafts for bone regeneration. Herein, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution, room-temperature printing approach to fabricate osteoconductive scaffolds using calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The non-aqueous CPC bioinks were composed of tetracalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, and Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) dissolved in either ethanol (EtOH) or tetrahydrofuran (THF). They were printed in an aqueous sodium phosphate bath, which performs as a hardening accelerator for hydroxyapatite formation and as a retainer for 3D microstructure. The PVB solvents, EtOH or THF, affected differently the slurry rheological properties, scaffold microstructure, mechanical properties, and osteoconductivity. Our proposed approach overcomes limitations of conventional fabrication methods, which require high-temperature (>50 °C), low-resolution (>400 μm) printing with an inadequate amount of large ceramic particles (>35 μm). This proof-of-concept study opens venues in engineering high-resolution, implantable, and osteoconductive scaffolds with predetermined properties for bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/abcf03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164647PMC
March 2021

Substrate specificity of bacterial endoribonuclease toxins.

BMB Rep 2020 Dec;53(12):611-621

Department of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02481, Korea.

Bacterial endoribonuclease toxins belong to a protein family that inhibits bacterial growth by degrading mRNA or rRNA sequences. The toxin genes are organized in pairs with its cognate antitoxins in the chromosome and thus the activities of the toxins are antagonized by antitoxin proteins or RNAs during active translation. In response to a variety of cellular stresses, the endoribonuclease toxins appear to be released from antitoxin molecules via proteolytic cleavage of antitoxin proteins or preferential degradation of antitoxin RNAs and cleave a diverse range of mRNA or rRNA sequences in a sequence-specific or codon-specific manner, resulting in various biological phenomena such as antibiotic tolerance and persister cell formation. Given that substrate specificity of each endoribonuclease toxin is determined by its structure and the composition of active site residues, we summarize the biology, structure, and substrate specificity of the updated bacterial endoribonuclease toxins. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(12): 611-621].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781912PMC
December 2020

Jasmonic acid and ERF family genes are involved in chilling sensitivity and seed browning of pepper fruit after harvest.

Sci Rep 2020 10 21;10(1):17949. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Depatment of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is sensitive to temperatures below 10 °C, which severely diminish fruit quality during cold chain distribution. Seed browning was a major chilling symptom in 36 genotypes of C. annuum fruit screened after storage at 2 °C for 3 weeks. Among them, pepper fruits of chilling-insensitive 'UZB-GJG-1999-51' and -sensitive 'C00562' were treated at 2 °C for 0 or 24 h, respectively. Analyses of integrated transcriptome-metabolome and relative gene expression in seeds obtained from the two genotypes were conducted to identify key factors involved in the seed browning induced by chilling. The relative contents of branched-chain amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine were significantly increased after chilling. Transcriptome identification showed 3,140 differentially expressed genes (log twofold change > 1.0 and FDR-corrected p value < 0.05) affected by chilling between the two genotypes. Particularly, genes related to jasmonic acid synthesis and signaling were differentially expressed. A regulatory network of jasmonic acid synthesis and signaling, and regulation of ERF family genes might contribute to chilling response in pepper fruit. The results of this study may help facilitate further studies to develop chilling-insensitive peppers and could be a basis for improving postharvest fruit quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75055-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577993PMC
October 2020
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