Publications by authors named "Eun Hye Lee"

245 Publications

Nationwide "Pediatric Nutrition Day" survey on the nutritional status of hospitalized children in South Korea.

Nutr Res Pract 2021 Apr 22;15(2):213-224. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620, Korea.

Background/objectives: To evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children at admission and during hospitalization in South Korea.

Subjects/methods: This first cross-sectional nationwide "Pediatric Nutrition Day (pNday)" survey was conducted among 872 hospitalized children (504 boys, 368 girls; 686 medical, 186 surgical) from 23 hospitals in South Korea. Malnutrition risk was screened using the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) and the Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth. Nutritional status was assessed by z-scores of weight-for-age for underweight, weight-for-height for wasting, and height-for-age for stunting as well as laboratory tests.

Results: At admission, of the 872 hospitalized children, 17.2% were underweight, and the prevalence of wasting and stunting was 20.2% and 17.3%, respectively. During hospitalization till pNday, 10.8% and 19.6% experienced weight loss and decreased oral intake, respectively. During the aforementioned period, fasting was more prevalent in surgical patients (7.5%) than in medical patients (1.6%) ( < 0.001). According to the PYMS, 34.3% and 30% of the children at admission and on pNday, respectively, had a high-risk of malnutrition, requiring consultation with the nutritional support team (NST). However, only 4% were actually referred to the NST during hospitalization.

Conclusions: Malnutrition was prevalent at admission and during hospitalization in pediatric patients, with many children experiencing weight loss and poor oral intake. To improve the nutritional status of hospitalized children, it is important to screen and identify all children at risk of malnutrition and refer malnourished patients to the multidisciplinary NST for proper nutritional interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2021.15.2.213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007407PMC
April 2021

Development and Effectiveness of a Patient Safety Education Program for Inpatients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 22;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Nursing, Sahmyook University, Seoul 01795, Korea.

Background: Patient safety is considered an important issue in the field of healthcare, and most advanced countries.

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate a patient safety education program among hospitalized patients. Of the 69 participants, 33 completed the patient safety education program while the 36 remaining participants were given educational booklets. The program was used to measure knowledge about patient safety, patient safety perception, and willingness to participate in patient safety.

Methods: Patient safety education was developed by the analysis-design-development-implementation-evaluation model considering expert advice, patient needs, and an extensive literature review. Data were collected from 20 July to 13 November 2020. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical program. The effectiveness of the experimental and control groups before and after education was analyzed using paired -tests, and the difference in the amount of increase in the measured variables for each group was analyzed using independent -tests.

Results: The experimental group had significantly higher patient safety scores ( = 2.52, = 0.014) and patient safety perception ( = 2.09, = 0.040) than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the willingness to participate in patient safety.

Conclusion: The patient safety education program developed using mobile tablet PCs could be an effective tool to enhance patient involvement in preventing events that may threaten the safety of patients. Further studies are recommended to develop a variety of educational interventions to increase patient safety knowledge and perceptions of patients and caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004212PMC
March 2021

Immunoglobulins and Transcription Factors in Otitis Media.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 21;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

The causes of otitis media (OM) involve bacterial and viral infection, anatomo-physiological abnormalities of the Eustachian canal and nasopharynx, allergic rhinitis, group childcare centers, second-hand smoking, obesity, immaturity and defects of the immune system, formula feeding, sex, race, and age. OM is accompanied by complex and diverse interactions among bacteria, viruses, inflammatory cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells. The present study summarizes the antibodies that contribute to immune reactions in all types of otitis media, including acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, as well as the transcription factors that induce the production of these antibodies. The types and distribution of B cells; the functions of B cells, especially in otorhinolaryngology; antibody formation in patients with otitis media; and antibodies and related transcription factors are described. B cells have important functions in host defenses, including antigen recognition, antigen presentation, antibody production, and immunomodulation. The phenotypes of B cells in the ear, nose, and throat, especially in patients with otitis media, were shown to be CD5, CD23, CD43, B220, sIgM, sIgD, Mac-1, CD80(B7.1), CD86(B7.2), and Syndecam-1. Of the five major classes of immunoglobulins produced by B cells, three (IgG, IgA, and IgM) are mainly involved in otitis media. Serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM are lower in patients with OM with effusion (OME) than in subjects without otitis media. Moreover, IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations in the middle ear cavity are increased during immune responses in patients with otitis media. B cell leukemia/lymphoma-6 (Bcl-6) and paired box gene 5 (Pax-5) suppress antibody production, whereas B lymphocyte inducer of maturation program 1 (Blimp-1) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) promote antibody production during immune responses in patients with otitis media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004237PMC
March 2021

Can we Predict the Clinical Course of Immune Thrombocytopenia in Children by The Mean Platelet Volume? A Preliminary Study.

Clin Lab 2021 Mar;67(3)

Background: Mean platelet volume (MPV) is considered a marker of platelet function and is known to increase in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). We aimed to investigate the predictive value of MPV for predicting the clinical course of ITP in children.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed children aged < 18 years with ITP (n = 36) and healthy controls (n = 36) from June 2010 to November 2018. The subjects were stratified into: (i) Healthy controls [group I, n = 36]; (ii) Newly diagnosed ITP (nITP) and persistent ITP (pITP) [group II, n = 24]; and (iii) Chronic ITP (cITP) [group III, n = 12]. Hematological indices including MPV were measured and compared between the three groups.

Results: The median MPV values at diagnosis in group I, II, and III were 7.20, 8.15, and 8.65 fL, respectively (p = 0.0004). Cutoff value of MPV at diagnosis differentiating group I from group II + III was 7.6 fL, and group II from group III was 8.7 fL. MPV change (ΔMPV after three months minus MPV at diagnosis) in children with nITP and pITP (n = 22) was greater than in those with cITP (n = 6) (-2.18 fL vs. 0.66 fL, p = 0.0059).

Conclusions: This study revealed that group III had a higher MPV than group II at diagnosis. Therefore, an initial MPV value more than 8.7 fL may be used as a predictive factor for chronicity in children with ITP. The change in MPV over time as well as MPV at diagnosis, may be regarded as a prognostic marker to predict the course of ITP in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200715DOI Listing
March 2021

Integrated Bioactive Scaffold with Polydeoxyribonucleotide and Stem-Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Kidney Regeneration.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Sciences, CHA University, 335 Pangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do 13488, Republic of Korea.

Kidney tissue engineering and regeneration approaches offer great potential for chronic kidney disease treatment, but kidney tissue complexity imposes an additional challenge in applying regenerative medicine for renal tissue regeneration. In this study, a porous pneumatic microextrusion (PME) composite scaffold consisting of poly(lactic--glycolic acid) (PLGA, P), magnesium hydroxide (MH, M), and decellularized porcine kidney extracellular matrix (kECM, E) is functionalized with bioactive compounds, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)/interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-primed mesenchymal stem-cell-derived extracellular vesicles (TI-EVs) to improve the regeneration and maintenance of a functional kidney tissue. The combination of PDRN and TI-EVs showed a significant synergistic effect in regenerative processes including cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and inflammation. In addition, the PME/PDRN/TI-EV scaffold induced an effective glomerular regeneration and restoration of kidney function compared to the existing PME scaffold in a partial nephrectomy mouse model. Therefore, such an integrated bioactive scaffold that combines biochemical cues from PDRN and TI-EVs and biophysical cues from a porous PLGA scaffold containing MH and kECM can be used as an advanced tissue engineering platform for kidney tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01098DOI Listing
March 2021

Enhanced Stability of Indocyanine Green by Encapsulation in Zein-Phosphatidylcholine Hybrid Nanoparticles for Use in the Phototherapy of Cancer.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Feb 26;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Integrated Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea.

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a clinically approved near-infrared dye that has shown promise as a photosensitizer for the phototherapy of cancer. However, its chemical instability in an aqueous solution has limited its clinical application. Encapsulating ICG in liposomes, phosphatidylcholine nanoparticles (PC-NP), has shown partial effectiveness in stabilizing it. Prompted by our recent finding that the zein-phosphatidylcholine hybrid nanoparticles (Z/PC-NP) provide an advanced drug carrier compared to PC-NP, we herein investigated the potential of Z/PC-NP as an improved ICG formulation. Dynamic light scattering analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies showed that ICG was encapsulated in Z/PC-NP without hampering the high colloidal stability of the Z/PC-NP. During storage, the Z/PC-NP almost completely inhibited the ICG aggregation, whereas the PC-NP did so partially. The Z/PC-NP also more effectively blocked the ICG degradation compared to the PC-NP. The phototoxicity of ICG encapsulated in Z/PC-NP on cancer cells was twofold higher than that in the PC-NP. The ICG encapsulated in Z/PC-NP, but not in PC-NP, maintained its photocytotoxicity after four-day storage. These findings highlight the promising potential of Z/PC-NP as an ICG formulation that provides a higher stabilization effect than PC-NP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13030305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996753PMC
February 2021

Rapid weight gain in early life is associated with severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in children.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021 1;49(2):23-30. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether rapid weight gain in early life was associated with the severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in children.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 190 patients (1-24 months) hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. Parameters of bronchiolitis severity were compared between rapid (change in weight z-score from birth >0.67, n = 65) and normal weight gain groups (n = 125). We assessed for correlations between bronchiolitis severity and weight gain. Linear regression was performed to predict for bronchiolitis severity based on weight gain, controlling for covariates. SPSS was used for statistical analyses.

Results: The rapid weight gain group had longer mean durations of tachypnea (2.3±2.0 vs. 1.7±1.8 days, P = 0.027), wheezing (3.2±2.5 vs. 1.6±1.8 days, P < 0.001), and chest retractions (1.5±2.2 vs. 0.6±1.3 days, P = 0.007). Correlations of weight gain with tachypnea (r = 0.146), wheezing (r = 0.279), and chest retractions (r = 0.179) were statistically significant. Weight gain predicted for tachypnea (B = 0.485, P = 0.013) and wheezing (B = 0.846, P = 0.001) durations after adjusting for covariates of severity (age, sex, current weight, RSV type, coinfection, recurrent bronchiolitis, hospital stay, fever, oxygen supplementation, maximal respiratory and heart rates, and laboratory indices).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between weight gain and severity of RSV bronchiolitis in young children. Weight gain was significantly associated with the durations of tachypnea and wheezing. The trajectory of weight gain in early life may play a significant role in the clinical course of RSV bronchiolitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15586/aei.v49i2.51DOI Listing
March 2021

Diagnosis of severe sepsis using phospholipids enzymatic assay based on cyclic voltammetry.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Mar 16;144:109728. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this work phospholipid quantification was carried out using an enzymatic assay based on cyclic voltammetry of the condensation product of N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-3,5-dimethoxyaniline sodium salt (DAOS) and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AP) with a graphite electrode. For the optimization of electrochemical measurement for the product, electrochemical properties such as the electrochemical window, double layer capacitance (Cdl) and electron transfer rate (kapp) were analyzed for a graphite-electrode and Au-electrode. The phospholipid enzymatic assay based the on electrochemical measurement using the graphite electrode was applied to the diagnosis of sepsis for sera from healthy volunteers (n = 16), patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, n = 16) and severe sepsis patients (n = 24). Finally, the phospholipid quantification results from the electrochemical measurement were statistically compared with the conventional method based on optical density measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2020.109728DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of a new cryotherapy device on an itchy sensation in patients with mild atopic dermatitis.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea.

Background: The existence of an itchy sensation is a common complaint in patients with atopic dermatitis. More therapeutic modalities to address the itchy sensation in atopic dermatitis are still required.

Objective: We sought to assess the effect of a new cryotherapy device on the itchy sensation experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis.

Methods: A total of 28 patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis participated in this study. A split-body clinical trial was conducted for 2 months, where one side of each participant was treated with the novel cryotherapy device, and the other side of each participant was observed as a control. The cryotherapy device was set to -5°C and applied for five seconds. We evaluated the visual analog scale (VAS) score for itch at 10, 30, and 60 minutes and at 1, 2 and 8 weeks after cryotherapy application. In addition, the level of patient satisfaction and adverse events were evaluated every visit.

Results: On the day immediately after treatment, the VAS score for itch in the treated-side group was lower following cryotherapy application than as compared within the control-side group. Further, the VAS score for itch in the treated-side group at baseline (before treatment) was higher than at 1, 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. The proportion of patients reporting good or excellent satisfaction was 14.3%. No serious adverse events were recorded.

Conclusions: The novel cryotherapy tested herein may be a valuable antipruritic therapeutic remedy in patients with atopic dermatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13975DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of a new cryotherapy device on an itchy sensation in patients with mild atopic dermatitis.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea.

Background: The existence of an itchy sensation is a common complaint in patients with atopic dermatitis. More therapeutic modalities to address the itchy sensation in atopic dermatitis are still required.

Objective: We sought to assess the effect of a new cryotherapy device on the itchy sensation experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis.

Methods: A total of 28 patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis participated in this study. A split-body clinical trial was conducted for 2 months, where one side of each participant was treated with the novel cryotherapy device, and the other side of each participant was observed as a control. The cryotherapy device was set to -5°C and applied for five seconds. We evaluated the visual analog scale (VAS) score for itch at 10, 30, and 60 minutes and at 1, 2 and 8 weeks after cryotherapy application. In addition, the level of patient satisfaction and adverse events were evaluated every visit.

Results: On the day immediately after treatment, the VAS score for itch in the treated-side group was lower following cryotherapy application than as compared within the control-side group. Further, the VAS score for itch in the treated-side group at baseline (before treatment) was higher than at 1, 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. The proportion of patients reporting good or excellent satisfaction was 14.3%. No serious adverse events were recorded.

Conclusions: The novel cryotherapy tested herein may be a valuable antipruritic therapeutic remedy in patients with atopic dermatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13975DOI Listing
February 2021

Optimization of extracellular matrix extraction from human perirenal adipose tissue.

J Biomater Appl 2021 Apr 12;35(9):1180-1191. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea.

Human adipose tissue includes useful substrates for regenerative medicine such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), but most perirenal fat tissue is wasted after kidney surgery. Since a lot of adipose tissue can be procured after a kidney, we extracted ECM from human perirenal adipose tissue and optimized the extraction process. To verify the efficacy for ECM extraction, we compared the products in several steps. Perirenal adipose tissue was either finely homogenized or underwent crude manual dissection. The amount of extracted ECM was quantified with ELISA for verification of the initial tissue downsizing effect. To validate the drying effect for fast and complete delipidation, tissues were prepared in a dry or wet phase, and residual lipids were visualized with Oil-Red-O staining. The extracted lipid was assayed at each time point to quantify the appropriate delipidation time. To select the optimal decellularization method, tissues were treated with physical, chemical, or enzymatic method, and the residual cell debris were identified with histological staining. The biochemical properties of the ECM extracted by the above methods were analyzed. The ECM extracted by fine homogenization showed a significantly enhanced amount of collagen, laminin and fibronectin compared to the crude dissection method. The dried tissue showed fast and complete lipid elimination compared to the wet tissue. Complete delipidation was achieved at 45 min after acetone treatment. Additionally, 1% triton X-100 chemical treatment showed complete decellularization with well-preserved collagen fibers. Biochemical analysis revealed preserved ECM proteins, a high cell proliferation rate and normal cell morphology without cell debris or lipids. The established process of homogenization, drying, delipidation with acetone, and decellularization with Triton X-100 treatment can be an optimal method for ECM extraction from human perirenal adipose tissue. Using this technique, human perirenal adipose tissue may be a valuable source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885328220984594DOI Listing
April 2021

Telmisartan Inhibits the NLRP3 Inflammasome by Activating the PI3K Pathway in Neural Stem Cells Injured by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 6;58(4):1806-1818. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Neurology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, 153, Gyeongchun-ro, Guri, 11923, South Korea.

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to exert neuroprotective effects by suppressing inflammatory and apoptotic responses. In the present study, the effects of the ARB telmisartan on the NLRP3 inflammasome induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in neural stem cells (NSCs) were investigated, as well as their possible association with the activation of the PI3K pathway. Cultured NSCs were treated with different concentrations of telmisartan and subjected to various durations of OGD. Cell counting, lactate dehydrogenase, bromodeoxyuridine, and colony-forming unit assays were performed to measure cell viability and proliferation. In addition, the activity of intracellular signaling pathways associated with the PI3K pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome was evaluated. Telmisartan alone did not affect NSCs up to a concentration of 10 μM under normal conditions but showed toxicity at a concentration of 100 μM. Moreover, OGD reduced the viability of NSCs in a time-dependent manner. Nevertheless, treatment with telmisartan increased the viability and proliferation of OGD-injured NSCs. Furthermore, telmisartan promoted the expression of survival-related proteins and mRNA while inhibiting the expression of death-related proteins induced by OGD. In particular, telmisartan attenuated OGD-dependent expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its related signaling proteins. These beneficial effects of telmisartan were blocked by a PI3K inhibitor. Together, these results indicate that telmisartan attenuated the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by triggering the PI3K pathway, thereby contributing to neuroprotection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02253-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Changes in cancer detection and false-positive recall in mammography using artificial intelligence: a retrospective, multireader study.

Lancet Digit Health 2020 03 6;2(3):e138-e148. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science and Center for Clinical Imaging Data Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Mammography is the current standard for breast cancer screening. This study aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm for diagnosis of breast cancer in mammography, and explore whether it could benefit radiologists by improving accuracy of diagnosis.

Methods: In this retrospective study, an AI algorithm was developed and validated with 170 230 mammography examinations collected from five institutions in South Korea, the USA, and the UK, including 36 468 cancer positive confirmed by biopsy, 59 544 benign confirmed by biopsy (8827 mammograms) or follow-up imaging (50 717 mammograms), and 74 218 normal. For the multicentre, observer-blinded, reader study, 320 mammograms (160 cancer positive, 64 benign, 96 normal) were independently obtained from two institutions. 14 radiologists participated as readers and assessed each mammogram in terms of likelihood of malignancy (LOM), location of malignancy, and necessity to recall the patient, first without and then with assistance of the AI algorithm. The performance of AI and radiologists was evaluated in terms of LOM-based area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and recall-based sensitivity and specificity.

Findings: The AI standalone performance was AUROC 0·959 (95% CI 0·952-0·966) overall, and 0·970 (0·963-0·978) in the South Korea dataset, 0·953 (0·938-0·968) in the USA dataset, and 0·938 (0·918-0·958) in the UK dataset. In the reader study, the performance level of AI was 0·940 (0·915-0·965), significantly higher than that of the radiologists without AI assistance (0·810, 95% CI 0·770-0·850; p<0·0001). With the assistance of AI, radiologists' performance was improved to 0·881 (0·850-0·911; p<0·0001). AI was more sensitive to detect cancers with mass (53 [90%] vs 46 [78%] of 59 cancers detected; p=0·044) or distortion or asymmetry (18 [90%] vs ten [50%] of 20 cancers detected; p=0·023) than radiologists. AI was better in detection of T1 cancers (73 [91%] vs 59 [74%] of 80; p=0·0039) or node-negative cancers (104 [87%] vs 88 [74%] of 119; p=0·0025) than radiologists.

Interpretation: The AI algorithm developed with large-scale mammography data showed better diagnostic performance in breast cancer detection compared with radiologists. The significant improvement in radiologists' performance when aided by AI supports application of AI to mammograms as a diagnostic support tool.

Funding: Lunit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30003-0DOI Listing
March 2020

Relationship between telomere shortening and age in Korean individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease compared to that in healthy controls.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 12 15;13(2):2089-2100. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Neurology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, South Korea.

Although telomere length (TL) is highly variable, a shorter TL indicate increased biological age. This multicenter study was conducted to identify the overall correlation between age and TL in Koreans and investigate the associations between age and TL in healthy individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). TL was measured in peripheral leukocyte DNA. MCI and AD were diagnosed based on clinical examinations and amyloid deposition on positron emission tomography. This study enrolled 437 individuals. Multivariable linear analysis showed an overall approximate TL decrease of 37 bp per 1-year increase in age in all individuals (B=-0.037; P=0.002). There was no significant difference in the mean TL between healthy individuals and individuals with AD. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that the mean rate of telomere shortening was 60 bp per year in individuals with AD (B=-0.060; P=0.006). There was a negative association between age and TL in our study. Our study results showed more significant telomere shortening per year in women than that in men. In addition, individuals with AD had greater telomere shortening every year than healthy individuals and individuals with MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880372PMC
December 2020

Comparison of vibration characteristics of file systems for root canal shaping according to file length.

Restor Dent Endod 2020 Nov 14;45(4):e51. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Korea.

Objectives: No studies have yet assessed vibration characteristics according to endodontic file length. Accordingly, the objective of the present study was to examine the vibration characteristics according to nickel-titanium file length and to compare these characteristics between different file systems.

Materials And Methods: A total of 45 root canal models were divided into 3 experimental groups ( = 15 each) based on the file system used (ProTaper Gold [PTG], ProTaper Next, or WaveOne Gold [WOG]). Each experimental group was further divided into 3 subgroups according to file length (21, 25, or 31 mm). An electric motor (X-SMART PLUS) was used in the experiment. For each file system, vibrations generated when using a size 25 file were measured and used to calculate the average vibration acceleration. The differences in vibrations were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé test with a confidence interval of 95%.

Results: In the PTG file system, significantly lower vibration acceleration was observed when using a 21-mm file than when using a 31-mm file. In the WOG file system, significantly stronger vibration acceleration was observed when using a 31-mm file than when using 21- or 25-mm files. Regardless of the file length, the WOG group exhibited significantly stronger vibration acceleration than the other 2 experimental groups.

Conclusions: In clinical practice, choosing a file with the shortest length possible could help reduce vibrations. Additionally, consideration should be given to vibrations that could be generated when using WOG files with reciprocating motion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2020.45.e51DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691267PMC
November 2020

A cone-beam computed tomography study of the prevalence and location of the second mesiobuccal root canal in maxillary molars.

Restor Dent Endod 2020 Nov 3;45(4):e46. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and location of the second mesiobuccal root (MB2) canal in maxillary molars with the aid of various measuring points and lines using cone-beam computed tomography (CT).

Materials And Methods: A total of 205 images of patients who underwent cone-beam CT examinations between 2011 and 2015 as part of their dental diagnosis and treatment were included. There were 76 images of the maxillary first molar and 135 images of the maxillary second molar. Canal orifices were detected at -1 mm from the top of the pulpal floor on cone-beam CT images. Image assessment was performed by 2 observers in reformatted image planes using software. Assessments included measurement of the distance between the MB1 and MB2 canals, and the angles between the lines connecting the MB1-MB2 and distobuccal (DB)-palatal (P) canals. The data were analyzed using the student's -test.

Results: The prevalence of the MB2 canal was 86.8% in the first molar and 28.9% in the second molar. The angle between the lines connecting the MB1-MB2 and DB-P canals was 2.3° ± 5.7° in the first molar and -3.95° ± 7.73° in the second molar. The distance between the MB1 and MB2 canals was 2.1 ± 0.44 mm in the first molar and 1.98 ± 0.42 mm in the second molar.

Conclusions: The angles between the lines connecting the MB1-MB2 and DB-P canals was almost parallel. These findings may aid in the prediction of the location of the MB2 canal orifice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2020.45.e46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691260PMC
November 2020

Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid Mono-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Study.

Yonsei Med J 2020 Dec;61(12):1034-1041

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Isoniazid (INH) mono-resistant tuberculosis (Hr-TB) is a highly prevalent type of drug-resistant TB, possibly associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes. However, definitive guidelines on an optimal treatment regimen and duration for Hr-TB are currently under discussion. We evaluated the characteristics and treatment outcomes of Hr-TB patients.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Hr-TB patients treated at a South Korean tertiary referral hospital from January 2005 to December 2018.

Results: We included 195 Hr-TB patients. 113 (57.9%) were male, and the median age was 56.6 [interquartile range, 40.2-68.6] years. Mutations in were the most frequent [54 (56.3%)], followed by those in the [34 (35.4%)]. Favorable and unfavorable outcomes were noted in 164 (84.1%) and 31 (15.9%) patients, respectively. Smoking history [odds ratio (OR)=5.606, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.695-18.543, =0.005], low albumin level (OR=0.246, 95% CI: 0.104-0.578, =0.001), and positive acid-fast bacilli culture at 2 months (OR=7.853, 95% CI: 1.246-49.506, =0.028) were associated with unfavorable outcomes.

Conclusion: A tailored strategy targeting high-risk patients is imperative for improved treatment outcomes. Further research on the rapid and accurate detection of resistance to INH and other companion drugs is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2020.61.12.1034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700875PMC
December 2020

Monothiol and dithiol glutaredoxin-1 from : identification of domain-swapped structures by NMR, X-ray crystallography and HDX mass spectrometry.

IUCrJ 2020 Nov 19;7(Pt 6):1019-1027. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS, Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

Protein dimerization or oligomerization resulting from swapping part of the protein between neighboring polypeptide chains is known to play a key role in the regulation of protein function and in the formation of protein aggregates. Glutaredoxin-1 from (cGrx1) was used as a model to explore the formation of multiple domain-swapped conformations, which were made possible by modulating several hinge-loop residues that can form a pivot for domain swapping. Specifically, two alternative domain-swapped structures were generated and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray crystallography, circular-dichroism spectroscopy and hydrogen/deuterium-exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry. The first domain-swapped structure (β3-swap) was formed by the hexameric cGrx1-cMsrA complex. The second domain-swapped structure (β1-swap) was formed by monothiol cGrx1 (C16S) alone. In summary, the first domain-swapped structure of an oxidoreductase in a hetero-oligomeric complex is presented. In particular, a single point mutation of a key cysteine residue to serine led to the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond, as opposed to an intermolecular disulfide bond, and resulted in modulation of the underlying free-energy landscape of protein oligomerization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2052252520011598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642778PMC
November 2020

Bladder Regeneration Using a Polycaprolactone Scaffold with a Gradient Structure and Growth Factors in a Partially Cystectomized Rat Model.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Oct 26;35(41):e374. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Background: Tissue engineering can be used for bladder augmentation. However, conventional scaffolds result in fibrosis and graft shrinkage. This study applied an alternative polycaprolactone (PCL)-based scaffold (diameter = 5 mm) with a noble gradient structure and growth factors (GFs) (epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor) to enhance bladder tissue regeneration in a rat model.

Methods: Partially excised urinary bladders of 5-week-old male Slc:SD rats were reconstructed with the scaffold (scaffold group) or the scaffold combined with GFs (GF group) and compared with sham-operated (control group) and untreated rats (partial cystectomy group). Evaluations of bladder volume, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular markers were performed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation.

Results: The bladder volumes of the scaffold and GF group recovered to the normal range, and those of the GF group showed more enhanced augmentation. Histological evaluations revealed that the GF group showed more organized urothelial lining, dense extracellular matrix, frequent angiogenesis, and enhanced smooth muscle bundle regeneration than the scaffold group. IHC for α-smooth muscle actin, pan-cytokeratin, α-bungarotoxin, and CD8 revealed that the GF group showed high formation of smooth muscle, blood vessel, urothelium, neuromuscular junction and low immunogenicity. Concordantly, real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed that the GF group showed a higher expression of transcripts associated with smooth muscle and urothelial differentiation. In a 6-month in vivo safety analysis, the GF group showed normal histology.

Conclusion: This study showed that a PCL scaffold with a gradient structure incorporating GFs improved bladder regeneration functionally and histologically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590654PMC
October 2020

An easy way to tidy up long hair with rubber bands during scalp surgery.

Pediatr Dermatol 2020 Nov 3;37(6):1221-1222. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea.

One of the most challenging steps in preparing for dermatologic operations on the scalp can be securing a clean surgical field without long and messy hair. We present a simple and painless way to remove hair from the scalp surgical field utilizing three rubber bands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.14382DOI Listing
November 2020

Identifying Stabilin-1 and Stabilin-2 Double Knockouts in Reproduction and Placentation: A Descriptive Study.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 30;21(19). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea.

The placenta undergoes reconstruction at different times during fetal development to supply oxygen and nutrients required throughout pregnancy. To accommodate the rapid growth of the fetus, small spiral arteries undergo remodeling in the placenta. This remodeling includes apoptosis of endothelial cells that line spiral arteries, which are replaced by trophoblasts of fetal origin. Removal of dead cells is critical during this process. Stabilin-1 (Stab1) and stabilin-2 (Stab2) are important receptors expressed on scavenger cells that absorb and degrade apoptotic cells, and Stab1 is expressed in specific cells of the placenta. However, the role of Stab1 and Stab2 in placental development and maintenance remain unclear. In this study, we assessed Stab1 and Stab2 expression in the placenta and examined the reproductive capacity and placental development using a double-knockout mouse strain lacking both Stab1 and Stab2 (Stab1/2 dKO mice). Most pregnant Stab1/2 dKO female mice did not produce offspring and exhibited placental defects, including decidual hemorrhage and necrosis. Findings of this study offer the first description of the phenotypic characteristics of placentas and embryos of Stab1/2 dKO females during pregnancy, suggesting that Stab1 and Stab2 are involved in placental development and maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583024PMC
September 2020

Four-Week, Home-Based, Robot Cognitive Intervention for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

Dement Neurocogn Disord 2020 Sep;19(3):96-107

Department of Neurology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Purpose: Previous studies suggest that cognitive intervention can mitigate the development of dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the previous cognitive intervention was mostly provided as a group session, in which MCI patients sometimes had difficulty in regularly attending sessions or were reluctant to participate in group-based classes. Additionally, experienced instructors for traditional cognitive intervention may be unavailable in some chronic-care facilities or community centers. Considering these reasons, we have developed 5 programs for home-based cognitive intervention using a personal robot for MCI patients. In this preliminary study, we aimed to demonstrate the effects of our newly developed home-based cognitive intervention with robots on cognitive function in MCI patients.

Methods: We conducted a single-blind randomized controlled trial enrolling 46 MCI patients. Participants were randomized into 2 groups: the robot cognitive intervention (robot) (=24) group and without cognitive intervention (control) (=22) group. The interventions comprised 60-min sessions per day for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in cognitive function measured using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery.

Results: There were no significant baseline demographic or clinical differences between the robot and control groups. After the 4-week cognitive intervention, the robot group showed greater improvement in working memory than did the control group.

Conclusions: Our home-based cognitive intervention with a personal robot improved the working memory in MCI patients. Further studies with larger samples and longer study periods are required to demonstrate the effects of these programs in other cognitive domains in MCI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12779/dnd.2020.19.3.96DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521954PMC
September 2020

Inhibition of Pendrin by a small molecule reduces Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute Lung Injury.

Theranostics 2020 7;10(22):9913-9922. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Pendrin is encoded by and its mutation leads to congenital hearing loss. Additionally, pendrin is up-regulated in inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. In this study, the effects of a novel pendrin inhibitor, YS-01, were investigated in an LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice model, and the mechanism underlying the effect of YS-01 was examined. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg) was intranasally instilled in wild type (WT) and pendrin-null mice. YS-01 (10 mg/kg) was administered intra-peritoneally before or after LPS inhalation. Lung injury parameters were assessed in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pendrin levels in the BALF of 41 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to pneumonia and 25 control (solitary pulmonary nodule) patients were also measured. LPS instillation induced lung injury in WT mice but not in pendrin-null mice. Pendrin expression was increased by LPS stimulation both and . YS-01 treatment dramatically attenuated lung injury and reduced BALF cell counts and protein concentration after LPS instillation in WT mice. Proinflammatory cytokines and NFB activation were suppressed by YS-01 treatment in LPS-induced ALI mice. In BALF of patients whose ARDS was caused by pneumonia, pendrin expression was up-regulated compared to that in controls (mean, 24.86 vs. 6.83 ng/mL, 0.001). A novel pendrin inhibitor, YS-01, suppressed lung injury in LPS-induced ALI mice and our data provide a new strategy for the treatment of inflammatory airway diseases including sepsis-induced ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.46417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481407PMC
August 2020

Preclinical Research on a Mixture of Red Ginseng and Licorice Extracts in the Treatment and Prevention of Obesity.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 9;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea.

The anti-obesity effects of RL (a 3:1 mixture of saponin fractions and L. extracts) on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C57BL/6J obese mice were evaluated at different concentrations. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of RL through lipid accumulation inhibition rate, serum lipid composition analysis, adipose tissue size, adipogenic transcription factors and AMPK pathway. RL inhibited the lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 50-200 μg/mL without cytotoxicity (50-400 μg/mL). Oral administration of RL at the highest concentration (400 mg/kg/day) did not cause significant liver toxicity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. RL stimulated adiponectin secretion in a dose-dependent manner and primarily mediates the AMPK pathway to inhibit triglyceride synthesis and attenuate adipocyte hypertrophy. RL significantly reduced weight in obese mice, but none of the body weight, adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride level, and AMPK pathway activation degree showed any difference between dosing concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day. Therefore, 200 mg/kg/day of RL is the optimal preclinical concentration, which can be a reference concentration for conversion into a human clinical trial dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12092744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551630PMC
September 2020

Knockdown of TRPM7 prevents tumor growth, migration, and invasion through the Src, Akt, and JNK pathway in bladder cancer.

BMC Urol 2020 Sep 9;20(1):145. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Joint Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. The role of transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) in BC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the function and signal transduction pathway of TRPM7 in BC.

Methods: T24 and UMUC3 cells were used to evaluate the molecular mechanism of TRPM7 by immunoblot analysis. Small interfering RNA was used to knockdown TRPM7, and the effect of silencing TRPM7 was studied by wound healing, migration, and invasion assays in T24 and UMUC3 cells. Xenograft model study was obtained to analyze the effect of TRPM7 inhibition in vivo.

Results: Silencing of TRPM7 decreased the migration and invasion ability of T24 and UMUC3 cells. The phosphorylation of Src, Akt, and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) was also suppressed by TRPM7 silencing. Src, Akt, and JNK inhibitors effectively inhibited the migration and invasion of T24 and UMUC3 cells. In addition, the TRPM7 inhibitor, carvacrol, limited the tumor size in a xenograft model.

Conclusion: Our data reveal that TRPM7 regulates the migration and invasion of T24 and UMUC3 cells via the Src, Akt, and JNK signaling pathway. Therefore, TRPM7 suppression could be a potential treatment for BC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-020-00714-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488071PMC
September 2020

Development of peptide aptamers as alternatives for antibody in the detection of amyloid-beta 42 aggregates.

Anal Biochem 2020 11 20;609:113921. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes cognitive impairment and serious social isolation. However, there are no effective treatments and even no established confirmatory diagnostic tools for the disease. Amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation in the brain is the best-known pathognomonic mechanism of AD, so various methods for Aβ detection have been developed for the diagnosis of this disease. We synthesized two novel, ultra-sensitive peptide probes specialized in detecting Aβ aggregates, and examined their potential for future diagnostic application. The peptides are produced through phage high-throughput screening (HTS) and amplified through a serial process called biopanning, which is a repeating method of elution and amplification of probes. We picked phages specific for amyloid from two kinds of phage display. The synthesized peptides were confirmed to have excellent binding affinity to Aβ aggregates, by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting using the brains of 3X transgenic (Tg) AD mice at different stages (5-7, 12-17 months old) of AD severity. In the present study, it was confirmed that newly developed amyloid-binding peptides could be used as novel probes for the detection of Aβ aggregates, which can be used for clinical diagnosis of AD in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2020.113921DOI Listing
November 2020

Characteristics and risk factors associated with missed diagnosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 03 20;36(Suppl 1):S151-S159. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Delayed diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are major concerns for TB control. We evaluated characteristics of patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB who received a delayed diagnosis and identified risk factors that may have contributed to this delay.

Methods: We reviewed medical records of patients with smear-negative culture-positive pulmonary TB treated at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea between January 2017 and December 2018. Patients who initiated anti-TB treatment after positive cultures were included in the missed TB group, and those who initiated empirical treatment before positive cultures were included in the control group.

Results: Of 220 patients included, 117 (53.2%) and 103 (46.8%) were in the missed TB and control groups, respectively. Patients in the missed TB group were older (p = 0.001) and had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.019). Comorbidities (66.9% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.003) and immunocompromised patients (33.1% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.035) were more common in the missed TB group than in the control group. Old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.030; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.012 to 1.048; p = 0.001), high BMI (OR, 1.114; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.237; p = 0.042), and negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results (OR, 9.551; 95% CI, 4.925 to 18.521; p < 0.001) were associated with delayed diagnosis.

Conclusion: In more than half of patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB, the diagnosis was delayed. Patients with delayed TB diagnosis were older, had higher BMI, and negative PCR results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2019.435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009164PMC
March 2021

Diagnosis and mortality prediction of sepsis via lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0 measured by MALDI-TOF MS.

Sci Rep 2020 08 14;10(1):13833. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Chest Diseases, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Sepsis remains a critical problem with high mortality worldwide, but there is still a lack of reliable biomarkers. We aimed to evaluate the serum lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 16:0 as a biomarker of sepsis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Patients admitted to intensive care unit at Severance Hospital from March 2017 through June 2018 were prospectively enrolled. The inclusion criteria were the fulfillment of at least two criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or the presence of sepsis. Of the 127 patients, 14 had non-infectious SIRS, 41 had sepsis, and 72 had septic shock. The mean serum LPC 16:0 concentration (µmol/L) in non-infectious SIRS was significantly higher than in patients with sepsis and septic shock (101.1 vs. 48.92, p < 0.05; 101.1 vs. 25.88, p < 0.001, respectively). The area under the curve (AUC) predicting 28-day mortality using ΔLPC16:0 (D1-D0) levels was 0.7, which was comparable with the APACHE II score (AUC 0.692) and SOFA score (AUC 0.67). Mechanical ventilation, CRRT, lactate, Δ LPC16:0 (D1-D0) less than the cut-off value were significantly associated with 28-day mortality in multivariable analysis. Our results suggest that LPC16:0 could be a useful biomarker for sepsis diagnosis and mortality prediction in ICU patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70799-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427783PMC
August 2020

A Pilot Study of Chronological Microbiota Changes in a Rat Apical Periodontitis Model.

Microorganisms 2020 Aug 2;8(8). Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Apical periodontitis caused by microbial infection in the dental pulp is characterized by inflammation, destruction of the pulpal and periradicular tissues, and alveolar bone resorption. We analyzed the chronological changes in microbiota using a pyrosequencing-based approach combined with radiologic and histopathologic changes in a rat apical periodontitis model. During the three-week observation, the pulp and periapical area showed a typical progress of apical periodontitis. A total of 27 phyla, 645 genera, and 1276 species were identified. The root apex had a lower bacterial species diversity than the pulp chamber. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were dominant phyla in both the pulp chamber and root apex. Remarkably, bacterial communities showed a tendency to change in the root apex based on the disease progression. At the genus level, , and were dominant genera in the pulp chamber. The most abundant genera in the root apex were , and . The species increased in the pulp chamber, whereas the species and were highly observed in the root apex as the disease progressed. The experimental rat model of apical periodontitis demonstrated a relationship between the microbiota and the apical periodontitis progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464309PMC
August 2020

Nationwide Population-Based Epidemiologic Study on Childhood Intussusception in South Korea: Emphasis on Treatment and Outcomes.

Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2020 Jul 3;23(4):329-345. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Purpose: This was a nationwide population-based study conducted to investigate the epidemiology, treatment, disease outcomes, and associated factors of childhood intussusception in South Korea.

Methods: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database on all patients <18 years old diagnosed with intussusception from 2007 to 2017 were analyzed.

Results: A total of 34,688 cases were identified among 30,444 patients. The overall incidence was 28.3/100,000 person-years with a male predominance. Most cases (83.1%) occurred in children <3 years old, with an annual incidence of 195.2, 200.1, and 118.6 cases per 100,000 children in their first, second, and third year of life, respectively. The median age at the first occurrence was 18.7 months, and it was higher in boys than in girls. The post-discharge recurrence rate was 10.6% (3,226/30,444) and the in-hospital recurrence rate was 6.1% (1,842/30,444). The total recurrence rate (post-discharge recurrence and/or in-hospital recurrence) was 15.0% (4,580/30,444). Enema reduction was successful in 90.0% of cases. Enema reduction was more successful in girls than in boys. A total of 3,296 (10.8%) patients underwent 3,481 surgeries, including 735 (21.1%) laparoscopic surgeries. Post-discharge recurrence and surgery were significantly affected by age, sex, and hospital type. Mortality was noted in nine cases (0.03%).

Conclusion: Our study provides accurate epidemiologic data on the treatment and outcomes of intussusception through complete enumeration during an 11-year-period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5223/pghn.2020.23.4.329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354872PMC
July 2020