Publications by authors named "Eugenio I Vivas"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gut microbiome variation modulates the effects of dietary fiber on host metabolism.

Microbiome 2021 05 20;9(1):117. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Background: There is general consensus that consumption of dietary fermentable fiber improves cardiometabolic health, in part by promoting mutualistic microbes and by increasing production of beneficial metabolites in the distal gut. However, human studies have reported variations in the observed benefits among individuals consuming the same fiber. Several factors likely contribute to this variation, including host genetic and gut microbial differences. We hypothesized that gut microbial metabolism of dietary fiber represents an important and differential factor that modulates how dietary fiber impacts the host.

Results: We examined genetically identical gnotobiotic mice harboring two distinct complex gut microbial communities and exposed to four isocaloric diets, each containing different fibers: (i) cellulose, (ii) inulin, (iii) pectin, (iv) a mix of 5 fermentable fibers (assorted fiber). Gut microbiome analysis showed that each transplanted community preserved a core of common taxa across diets that differentiated it from the other community, but there were variations in richness and bacterial taxa abundance within each community among the different diet treatments. Host epigenetic, transcriptional, and metabolomic analyses revealed diet-directed differences between animals colonized with the two communities, including variation in amino acids and lipid pathways that were associated with divergent health outcomes.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that interindividual variation in the gut microbiome is causally linked to differential effects of dietary fiber on host metabolic phenotypes and suggests that a one-fits-all fiber supplementation approach to promote health is unlikely to elicit consistent effects across individuals. Overall, the presented results underscore the importance of microbe-diet interactions on host metabolism and suggest that gut microbes modulate dietary fiber efficacy. Video abstract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01061-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138933PMC
May 2021

Differential Catabolism of an Anthocyanin-Rich Elderberry Extract by Three Gut Microbiota Bacterial Species.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Feb 18;68(7):1837-1843. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Bacteriology , University of Wisconsin-Madison , Madison , Wisconsin 53706 , United States.

Elderberries are good sources of anthocyanins, which are poorly absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract but extensively transformed into phenolic metabolites at the colonic level. Because different gut microbiota strains have different metabolism, the catabolism of anthocyanins may lead to interindividual differences in metabolite production. In this work, an anthocyanin-rich elderberry extract was incubated with three single gut microbial strains (, , and ) up to 4 days, to assess differences in their phenolic metabolism. All of the strains degraded the elderberry anthocyanins, but the metabolic pathways followed were different. Although some metabolites were common for all of the strains, a wide disparity was observed in the kind and amount of several phenolic metabolites produced by each species. These preliminary results may be of help in the interpretation of the bioavailability of anthocyanins and give a clue to understand interindividual variability in metabolite production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00247DOI Listing
February 2020

Loss of Gut Microbiota Alters Immune System Composition and Cripples Postinfarction Cardiac Repair.

Circulation 2019 01;139(5):647-659

Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang Ming University and Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (T.W.H.T., P.C.C.H.).

Background: The impact of gut microbiota on the regulation of host physiology has recently garnered considerable attention, particularly in key areas such as the immune system and metabolism. These areas are also crucial for the pathophysiology of and repair after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the role of the gut microbiota in the context of MI remains to be fully elucidated.

Methods: To investigate the effects of gut microbiota on cardiac repair after MI, C57BL/6J mice were treated with antibiotics 7 days before MI to deplete mouse gut microbiota. Flow cytometry was applied to examine the changes in immune cell composition in the heart. 16S rDNA sequencing was conducted as a readout for changes in gut microbial composition. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) species altered after antibiotic treatment were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fecal reconstitution, transplantation of monocytes, or dietary SCFA or Lactobacillus probiotic supplementation was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of microbiota on the mice after MI.

Results: Antibiotic-treated mice displayed drastic, dose-dependent mortality after MI. We observed an association between the gut microbiota depletion and significant reductions in the proportion of myeloid cells and SCFAs, more specifically acetate, butyrate, and propionate. Infiltration of CX3CR1+ monocytes to the peri-infarct zone after MI was also reduced, suggesting impairment of repair after MI. Accordingly, the physiological status and survival of mice were significantly improved after fecal reconstitution, transplantation of monocytes, or dietary SCFA supplementation. MI was associated with a reorganization of the gut microbial community such as a reduction in Lactobacillus. Supplementing antibiotic-treated mice with a Lactobacillus probiotic before MI restored myeloid cell proportions, yielded cardioprotective effects, and shifted the balance of SCFAs toward propionate.

Conclusions: Gut microbiota-derived SCFAs play an important role in maintaining host immune composition and repair capacity after MI. This suggests that manipulation of these elements may provide opportunities to modulate pathological outcome after MI and indeed human health and disease as a whole.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.035235DOI Listing
January 2019

Interactions between Roseburia intestinalis and diet modulate atherogenesis in a murine model.

Nat Microbiol 2018 12 5;3(12):1461-1471. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Humans with metabolic and inflammatory diseases frequently harbour lower levels of butyrate-producing bacteria in their gut. However, it is not known whether variation in the levels of these organisms is causally linked with disease development and whether diet modifies the impact of these bacteria on health. Here we show that a prominent gut-associated butyrate-producing bacterial genus (Roseburia) is inversely correlated with atherosclerotic lesion development in a genetically diverse mouse population. We use germ-free apolipoprotein E-deficient mice colonized with synthetic microbial communities that differ in their capacity to generate butyrate to demonstrate that Roseburia intestinalis interacts with dietary plant polysaccharides to: impact gene expression in the intestine, directing metabolism away from glycolysis and toward fatty acid utilization; lower systemic inflammation; and ameliorate atherosclerosis. Furthermore, intestinal administration of butyrate reduces endotoxaemia and atherosclerosis development. Together, our results illustrate how modifiable diet-by-microbiota interactions impact cardiovascular disease, and suggest that interventions aimed at increasing the representation of butyrate-producing bacteria may provide protection against atherosclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0272-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280189PMC
December 2018

Fecal Aliquot Straw Technique (FAST) allows for easy and reproducible subsampling: assessing interpersonal variation in trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) accumulation.

Microbiome 2018 05 18;6(1):91. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Background: Convenient, reproducible, and rapid preservation of unique biological specimens is pivotal to their use in microbiome analyses. As an increasing number of human studies incorporate the gut microbiome in their design, there is a high demand for streamlined sample collection and storage methods that are amenable to different settings and experimental needs. While several commercial kits address collection/shipping needs for sequence-based studies, these methods do not preserve samples properly for studies that require viable microbes.

Results: We describe the Fecal Aliquot Straw Technique (FAST) of fecal sample processing for storage and subsampling. This method uses a straw to collect fecal material from samples recently voided or preserved at low temperature but not frozen (i.e., 4 °C). Different straw aliquots collected from the same sample yielded highly reproducible communities as disclosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing; operational taxonomic units that were lost, or gained, between the two aliquots represented very low-abundance taxa (i.e., < 0.3% of the community). FAST-processed samples inoculated into germ-free animals resulted in gut communities that retained on average ~ 80% of the donor's bacterial community. Assessment of choline metabolism and trimethylamine-N-oxide accumulation in transplanted mice suggests large interpersonal variation.

Conclusions: Overall, FAST allows for repetitive subsampling without thawing of the specimens and requires minimal supplies and storage space, making it convenient to utilize both in the lab and in the field. FAST has the potential to advance microbiome research through easy, reproducible sample processing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0458-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960144PMC
May 2018

Metabolic, Epigenetic, and Transgenerational Effects of Gut Bacterial Choline Consumption.

Cell Host Microbe 2017 Sep 24;22(3):279-290.e7. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Choline is an essential nutrient and methyl donor required for epigenetic regulation. Here, we assessed the impact of gut microbial choline metabolism on bacterial fitness and host biology by engineering a microbial community that lacks a single choline-utilizing enzyme. Our results indicate that choline-utilizing bacteria compete with the host for this nutrient, significantly impacting plasma and hepatic levels of methyl-donor metabolites and recapitulating biochemical signatures of choline deficiency. Mice harboring high levels of choline-consuming bacteria showed increased susceptibility to metabolic disease in the context of a high-fat diet. Furthermore, bacterially induced reduction of methyl-donor availability influenced global DNA methylation patterns in both adult mice and their offspring and engendered behavioral alterations. Our results reveal an underappreciated effect of bacterial choline metabolism on host metabolism, epigenetics, and behavior. This work suggests that interpersonal differences in microbial metabolism should be considered when determining optimal nutrient intake requirements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2017.07.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5599363PMC
September 2017

Host Genotype and Gut Microbiome Modulate Insulin Secretion and Diet-Induced Metabolic Phenotypes.

Cell Rep 2017 02;18(7):1739-1750

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease. Animals harboring microbial communities with enhanced capacity for processing dietary sugars and for generating hydrophobic bile acids showed increased susceptibility to metabolic disease. Notably, differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion between different mouse strains were partially recapitulated via gut microbiota transfer. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome contributes to the genetic and phenotypic diversity observed among mouse strains and provide a link between the gut microbiome and insulin secretion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.01.062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5325228PMC
February 2017

Diet-Microbiota Interactions Mediate Global Epigenetic Programming in Multiple Host Tissues.

Mol Cell 2016 12 23;64(5):982-992. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, Madison, WI 53715, USA; Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health - Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA; Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison, WI 53715, USA. Electronic address:

Histone-modifying enzymes regulate transcription and are sensitive to availability of endogenous small-molecule metabolites, allowing chromatin to respond to changes in environment. The gut microbiota produces a myriad of metabolites that affect host physiology and susceptibility to disease; however, the underlying molecular events remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that microbial colonization regulates global histone acetylation and methylation in multiple host tissues in a diet-dependent manner: consumption of a "Western-type" diet prevents many of the microbiota-dependent chromatin changes that occur in a polysaccharide-rich diet. Finally, we demonstrate that supplementation of germ-free mice with short-chain fatty acids, major products of gut bacterial fermentation, is sufficient to recapitulate chromatin modification states and transcriptional responses associated with colonization. These findings have profound implications for understanding the complex functional interactions between diet, gut microbiota, and host health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2016.10.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5227652PMC
December 2016

Intestinal microbiota composition modulates choline bioavailability from diet and accumulation of the proatherogenic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide.

mBio 2015 Mar 17;6(2):e02481. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Unlabelled: Choline is a water-soluble nutrient essential for human life. Gut microbial metabolism of choline results in the production of trimethylamine (TMA), which upon absorption by the host is converted in the liver to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Recent studies revealed that TMAO exacerbates atherosclerosis in mice and positively correlates with the severity of this disease in humans. However, which microbes contribute to TMA production in the human gut, the extent to which host factors (e.g., genotype) and diet affect TMA production and colonization of these microbes, and the effects TMA-producing microbes have on the bioavailability of dietary choline remain largely unknown. We screened a collection of 79 sequenced human intestinal isolates encompassing the major phyla found in the human gut and identified nine strains capable of producing TMA from choline in vitro. Gnotobiotic mouse studies showed that TMAO accumulates in the serum of animals colonized with TMA-producing species, but not in the serum of animals colonized with intestinal isolates that do not generate TMA from choline in vitro. Remarkably, low levels of colonization by TMA-producing bacteria significantly reduced choline levels available to the host. This effect was more pronounced as the abundance of TMA-producing bacteria increased. Our findings provide a framework for designing strategies aimed at changing the representation or activity of TMA-producing bacteria in the human gut and suggest that the TMA-producing status of the gut microbiota should be considered when making recommendations about choline intake requirements for humans.

Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and increased trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels have been causally linked with CVD development. This work identifies members of the human gut microbiota responsible for both the accumulation of trimethylamine (TMA), the precursor of the proatherogenic compound TMAO, and subsequent decreased choline bioavailability to the host. Understanding how to manipulate the representation and function of choline-consuming, TMA-producing species in the intestinal microbiota could potentially lead to novel means for preventing or treating atherosclerosis and choline deficiency-associated diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02481-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4453578PMC
March 2015

Isolation and characterization of Xenorhabdus nematophila transposon insertion mutants defective in lipase activity against Tween.

J Bacteriol 2009 Aug 19;191(16):5325-31. Epub 2009 Jun 19.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

We identified Xenorhabdus nematophila transposon mutants with defects in lipase activity. One of the mutations, in yigL, a conserved gene of unknown function, resulted in attenuated virulence against Manduca sexta insects. We discuss possible connections between lipase production, YigL, and specific metabolic pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00173-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2725573PMC
August 2009
-->