Publications by authors named "Eugenia Mariné Barjoan"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The severity of symptoms is insufficient to predict major alterations to quality of life of patients with fecal incontinence or chronic constipation.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2020 Nov 5;35(11):2041-2048. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Digestive Center, University Hospital of Nice, 151 route de Saint Antoine de Ginestière - CS 23079, 06202, Nice Cedex, France.

Purpose: Evaluate the impact of fecal incontinence (FI) and chronic constipation (CC) on the quality of life (QoL) in a large population and determine if a threshold of symptom scores was associated with alterations to QoL.

Methods: A total of 422 outpatients with FI (n = 186), CC (n = 186), and mixed FI-CC (n = 50) referred for anorectal manometry were included prospectively. All patients completed a set of questionnaires to evaluate the severity of FI and CC (respectively Jorge and Wexner and KESS scores) and their impact on QoL (Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI)).

Results: The study population included 81.8% women. The QoL was altered to the same degree for both FI and CC, with significant more marked impairments in patients with mixed FI-CC (median GIQLI: 91 (71-108) vs. 91 (73-108) vs. 81 (57-97) respectively, p = 0.05). The symptom severity significantly but weekly correlated with the GIQLI score (r = - 0.454 for FI and r = - 0.483 for CC, p < 0.001). Thus, the large dispersion of the data flawed the identification of a threshold for symptom severity that could predict major impairment to QoL.

Conclusion: The QoL was equally altered for FI and CC. Although the symptom score severity was slightly but significantly associated with alterations to QoL, it was not possible to determine a threshold for symptom scores that predict an alteration to QoL. Therefore, the evaluation of QoL in parallel to the assessment of the symptom score is required to endorse the entire spectrum of the severity of CC or FI.
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November 2020

Cancer incidence in the vicinity of a waste incineration plant in the Nice area between 2005 and 2014.

Environ Res 2020 09 20;188:109681. Epub 2020 May 20.

Université Côte d'Azur, Public Health Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, France.

Introduction: Few studies on cancer incidence have been conducted since the adoption of the EU 2000/76/EC waste incineration directive which aimed to limit dioxin emission levels to less than 0.1 ng TEQ/m before December 31, 2005.

Objective: To measure cancer incidence among the population exposed to atmospheric emissions from the waste incineration plant near the town of Nice (South-Eastern France), compared to the unexposed population of the Alpes-Maritimes department (A-M).

Methods: All primary invasive cancers and haematological malignancies diagnosed among AM residents between 2005 and 2014 were recorded. The exposed surface was modeled on an average dioxin deposition model ≥4.25 ng/m/year. Each case was geolocated and assigned to one of 36 predefined geographic units of exposed area, or one of 462 units in the unexposed area. The adjusted incidence rate, the standardized incidence ratio and the Comparative Morbidity Figure were calculated for two periods: 2005-2009/2010-2014.

Results: We recorded 80,865 new cancers in the A-M population. Between 2005 and 2009, we observed a higher incidence among exposed women of acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloma and, among exposed men, of soft tissue sarcomas, myeloma and lung cancer. Between 2010 and 2014, there was no excess incidence among women, while among men incidence of myeloma and lung cancer remained higher.

Conclusion: Only among men, the incidence of myeloma and lung cancer remained higher in the exposed area during the second period. The EU directive resulting in the limitation of atmospheric emissions from incinerators could explain the decrease in incidence of cancers with protracted latency. Consideration of other risk factors and further data collection will be necessary to validate this hypothesis.
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September 2020

Dietary habits during the 2 months following the Chernobyl accident and differentiated thyroid cancer risk in a population-based case-control study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2018 02 8;52:142-147. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Inserm, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), U1018, Radiation Epidemiology Group, Villejuif, F-94805, France; Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, F-94805, France; University of Paris-Sud, Villejuif, F-94800, France. Electronic address:

Background: The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred in Ukraine on April 26th 1986. In France, the radioactive fallout and thyroid radiation doses were much lower than in highly contaminated areas. However, a number of risk projections have suggested that a small excess in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) might occur in eastern France due to this low-level fallout. In order to investigate this potential impact, a case-control study on DTC risk factors was started in 2005, focusing on cases who were less than 15 years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Here, we aim to evaluate the relationship between some specific reports of potentially contaminated food between April and June 1986 - in particular fresh dairy products and leafy vegetables - and DTC risk.

Methods: After excluding subjects who were not born before the Chernobyl accident, the study included 747 cases of DTC matched with 815 controls. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression models and were reported for all participants, for women only, for papillary cancer only, and excluding microcarcinomas.

Results: The DTC risk was slightly higher for participants who had consumed locally produced leafy vegetables. However, this association was not stronger in the more contaminated areas than in the others. Conversely, the reported consumption of fresh dairy products was not statistically associated with DTC risk.

Conclusion: Because the increase in DTC risk associated with a higher consumption of locally produced vegetables was not more important in the most contaminated areas, our study lacked power to provide evidence for a strong association between consumption of potentially contaminated food and DTC risk.
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February 2018

Recreational Physical Activity and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of Two Case-Control Studies.

Eur Thyroid J 2016 Jul 21;5(2):132-8. Epub 2016 May 21.

U1018, Centre d'Epidémiologie et de Santé des Populations (CESP), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Villejuif, France; Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: Physical activity has been hypothesized to influence cancer occurrence through several mechanisms. To date, its relation with thyroid cancer risk has been examined in relatively few studies. We pooled 2 case-control studies conducted in Cuba and Eastern France to assess the relationship between self-reported practice of recreational physical activity since childhood and thyroid cancer risk.

Methods: This pooled study included 1,008 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) matched with 1,088 controls (age range 9-35 and 17-60 years in the French and Cuban studies, respectively). Risk factors associated with the practice of recreational physical activity were estimated using OR and 95% CI. Logistic regressions were stratified by age class, country, and gender and were adjusted for ethnic group, level of education, number of pregnancies for women, height, BMI, and smoking status.

Results: Overall, the risk of thyroid cancer was slightly reduced among subjects who reported recreational physical activity (OR = 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.0). The weekly frequency (i.e. h/week) seems to be more relevant than the duration (years).

Conclusion: Long-term recreational physical activity, practiced since childhood, may reduce the DTC risk. However, the mechanisms whereby the DTC risk decreases are not yet entirely clear.
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July 2016

Anthropometric Risk Factors for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Young Men and Women From Eastern France: A Case-Control Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2015 Aug 30;182(3):202-14. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

The incidence of thyroid cancer has risen over the past decade, along with a rise in obesity. We studied the role of anthropometric risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer at the time of diagnosis and at age 20 years in a case-control study conducted in eastern France between 2005 and 2010. The study included 761 adults diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer before 35 years of age between 2002 and 2006. They were matched with 825 controls from the general population. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression models and were reported for all participants, those with papillary cancer only, and women only. The risk of thyroid cancer was higher for participants with a high body surface area (BSA), great height, or excess weight and for women with a high body fat percentage. Conversely, no significant association was found between body mass index and the risk of thyroid cancer. In the present study, we provide further evidence of the role of BSA and excess weight in the risk of thyroid cancer. These epidemiologic observations should be confirmed by further exploration of the biological mechanisms responsible for the associations of obesity and BSA with thyroid cancer.
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August 2015

Menstrual and reproductive factors in the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young women in France: a population-based case-control study.

Am J Epidemiol 2014 Nov 30;180(10):1007-17. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in eastern Europe since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Although the radioactive fallout was much less severe and the thyroid radiation dose was much lower in France, a case-control study was initiated in eastern France. The present study included 633 young women who were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer before 35 years of age between 2002 and 2006 and matched with 677 controls. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from 2005 to 2010. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regressions and were reported in the total group and by histopathological type of cancer ("only papillary" and "excluding microcarcinomas"). The risk of thyroid cancer was higher in women who had a higher number of pregnancies, used a lactation suppressant, or had early menarche. Conversely, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and late age at first pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of thyroid cancer. No association was observed between thyroid cancer and having irregular menstrual cycle, undergoing treatment for menstrual cycle regularity shortly after menarche, having a cessation of menstruation, use of another contraceptive, history of miscarriage or abortion for the first pregnancy, or having had gestational diabetes. This study confirms the role of hormonal and reproductive factors in thyroid cancer, and our results support the fact that exposure to estrogens increases thyroid cancer risk.
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November 2014

Perception of lactose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Oct;26(10):1167-75

Departments of aGastroenterology bPublic Health cImmunology, CHU de Nice, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France dDigestive System Research Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: The importance of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not well defined and these patients often complain of lactose intolerance. To objectively measure lactose malabsorption, a hydrogen breath test (HBT) can be performed, but a discrepancy emerges between the results of the HBT and the symptomatic response during the HBT.

Aims: To determine in a group of IBS patients whether self-perceived lactose intolerance and the symptomatic response to lactose HBT were conditioned by other factors besides the presence of lactose malabsorption.

Materials And Methods: Oral challenge to lactose (50 g) was tested in 51 IBS patients to assess HBT malabsorption and the symptomatic response to lactose intolerance was scored on a validated questionnaire. Allergological screening for common inhalants and food allergens (including cow's milk) was performed. The presence of psychological factors (e.g. anxiety, depression, fatigue) was evaluated using validated questionnaires.

Results: A total of 21 out of 51 patients (41.1%) were self-perceived to be lactose intolerant, 24/51 (47%) had a positive HBT, and 14/51 (27.4%) presented with symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT. The serological screening for inhalant and food allergens was positive in 6/21 (28.6%) and 4/21 (19%) of patients who self-perceived lactose intolerance and in 5/14 (37.5%) and 3/14 (21.4%) in intolerant patients symptomatic during HBT. Only 1/51 (1.9%) presented evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cow's milk. Patients who experienced symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT presented more severe IBS symptoms [326 (296-398) vs. 215 (126-295) P=0.05] and a higher score of anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Factors influencing the symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT resulted in an increase in hydrogen produced and in the severity of IBS.

Conclusion: In a cohort of 51 IBS patients, the symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT were influenced by the capacity to absorb lactose and the severity of IBS. Other factors, such as the psychological status or an adverse reaction to milk, merit consideration as potential cofactors involved in lactose perception and tolerance.
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October 2014

Obstetric management does not influence vertical transmission of HCV infection: results of the ALHICE group study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 May 23;27(7):664-70. Epub 2013 Aug 23.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, Reproduction and Fetal Medicine .

Objective: To investigate the impact of variation in obstetric practice during labor and childbirth upon the rate of neonatal transmission of HCV.

Methods: Pregnant mothers were included in this prospective study from six hospitals in Southern France on the basis of positive HCV serology. Data recorded for the study included maternal factors, delivery details and laboratory data concerning mother and child. Pediatric follow-up was documented for a minimum of 1 year and for up to 2 years for children with circulating HCV RNA.

Results: Two hundred and fourteen mother-child pairs were investigated. HIV/HCV co-infected mothers had a rate of HCV transmission significantly higher (11%) than that observed for mono-infected mothers (3.8%) (odds ratio=3.08 [95% CI:0.95 to 9.99] p=0.05). When the HCV viral load was greater than or equal to 6 log copies/ml, the transmission rate was 14.3% [95% CI:5.4-28.5], this representing a risk of transmission four times higher than for women with a lower viral load (OR=4 [95% CI:1.3-12.4]). Among co-infected mothers, the risk of transmission was significantly increased even when the load was less than 6 log copies/ml (p=0.006). Risk factors were identified related to labor (duration and induction type); the birth process (rupture of the amniotic sac, complete opening of the sac, appearance of the amniotic fluid); fetal characteristics (prematurity) and obstetric maneuvers (instrumental extractions, spontaneous or induced perineal trauma) and none of these factors were associated with an increased rate of HCV maternal-fetal transmission.

Conclusions: HCV infection does not appear to be a legitimate indication for modifying obstetric practices with regards to type of induction, monitoring of labor, route of delivery, fetal and perineal obstetric maneuvers or care of the newborn in the delivery room.
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May 2014

Regular coffee but not espresso drinking is protective against fibrosis in a cohort mainly composed of morbidly obese European women with NAFLD undergoing bariatric surgery.

J Hepatol 2012 Nov 20;57(5):1090-6. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Institut National de Santé et de Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, Hepatic Complications in Obesity, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France.

Background & Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of coffee and other caffeinated drinks on liver fibrosis of severely obese European patients.

Methods: A specific questionnaire exploring various types of coffee (regular filtrated coffee and espresso), caffeinated drinks, and chocolate was filled in by 195 severely obese patients. All patients had liver biopsies that were analyzed according to the NASH Clinical Research Network Scoring System. Univariate and multivariate analyses of significant fibrosis were performed.

Results: Caffeine came mainly from coffee-containing beverages (77.5%). Regular coffee and espresso were consumed in 30.8% and 50.2% of the patients, respectively. Regular coffee, espresso, and total caffeine consumption was similar between patients with and without NASH. While consumption of espresso, caffeinated soft drinks, and chocolate was similar among patients, with respect to the level of fibrosis, regular coffee consumption was lower in patients with significant fibrosis (F ≥2). According to logistic regression analysis, consumption of regular coffee was an independent protective factor for fibrosis (OR: 0.752 [0.578-0.980], p=0.035) in a model including level of AST (OR: 1.04 [1.004-1.076], p=0.029), presence of NASH (OR: 2.41 [1.007-5.782], p=0.048), presence of the metabolic syndrome (NS), and level of HOMA-IR (NS). Espresso, but not regular coffee consumption was higher in patients with lower HDL cholesterol level, higher triglyceride level, and the metabolic syndrome.

Conclusions: Consumption of regular coffee but not espresso is an independent protective factor for liver fibrosis in severely obese European patients.
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November 2012

Osteopathy improves the severity of irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot randomized sham-controlled study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012 Aug;24(8):944-9

Osteopathic Center ATMAN, Sophia-Antipolis, France.

Background: Effective therapies for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are disappointing. Therefore, IBS patients have a growing interest for alternative medicines including osteopathy.

Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of osteopathy on the severity of IBS in a randomized sham-controlled trial.

Methods: We prospectively assigned 30 patients with IBS (23F, 7M, mean age 45.8±16.4 years) fulfilling the Rome III criteria in a 2/1 ratio to receive either osteopathy or sham osteopathy. Two separate sessions were performed at a 7-day interval (days 0 and 7) with a further 3 weeks of follow-up (day 28). The primary outcome included at least a 25% improvement in the IBS severity score at day 7. The secondary outcomes included the impact of IBS on quality of life, psychological factors, and bowel habits.

Results: The severity of IBS decreased in both groups at days 7 and 28. At day 7, this decrease was significantly more marked in patients receiving osteopathy compared with those receiving the sham procedure (-32.2±29.1 vs. -9.0±16.0, mean difference normalized to the baseline P=0.01). This difference did not persist at day 28 (P=0.4). Both anxiety and depression scores decreased without difference between groups. Stool frequency and consistency were not significantly modified.

Conclusion: Osteopathy improves the severity of IBS symptoms and its impact on quality of life. Osteopathy should therefore be considered for future research as an effective complementary alternative medicine in the management of IBS symptoms.
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August 2012

Role of serological markers of activated eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012 Apr;24(4):393-7

Division of Digestive Diseases, Archet 2 Hospital, University of Nice, 151 route de Saint Antoine de Ginestière BP 3079, 06202 Nice Cedex 3, France.

Background: Activated eosinophils can infiltrate the intestinal mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and eosinophils are also implicated in the histological damage seen in allergic diseases.

Aim: To assess, in a group of patients with IBD in remission or with a mild disease activity, whether serological markers of eosinophil activation, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX), are related to evidence of IgE hypersensitivity and to the eosinophilia in gut mucosa.

Methods: Sixty-one patients with IBD (21 Crohn's disease and 40 ulcerative colitis) in remission or with a mild disease activity were screened for IgE hypersensitivity and serological levels of ECP and EPX. Colonic biopsies were taken to assess mucosal eosinophilic infiltration.

Results: Skin prick test were positive in 31.1% of the patients with IBD, showing skin reactions to food allergens in 17.7%. Skin prick test findings were unrelated to ECP or EPX levels, or to clinical activity or eosinophil counts in the gut mucosa. A significant correlation was found between ECP and EPX levels (r=0.77; P<0.0001).

Conclusion: Serological ECP and EPX findings did not correlate with IgE hypersensitivity findings or eosinophilic colonic infiltration in patients with IBD in remission or with mild disease activity. The role of eosinophils in IBD needs to be better characterized in the colonic mucosa, instead of relying on serological tests.
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April 2012

Investigating the completeness of a histopathological cancer registry: estimation by capture-recapture analysis in a French geographical unit Alpes-Maritimes, 2008.

Cancer Epidemiol 2011 Dec 17;35(6):e62-8. Epub 2011 Aug 17.

Département de Santé Publique, CHU Nice, Hôpital Archet 1. Niveau1. Route Saint Antoine de Ginestière BP 3079 06202, Nice cedex, France.

Introduction: Cancer population studies require reliable and complete baseline data, which should theoretically be available by collecting histopathology records. The completeness of such a collection was evaluated using capture-recapture analysis based on three data sources concerning breast and colorectal cancers over an identical period and within the same geographical area.

Method: The total number of breast and colon cancer cases was estimated using capture-recapture analysis based on the number of cases which were common or not between sources recording screened, diagnosed and treated cancers in the French Alpes Maritimes district.

Result: The estimated total number of new cases of breast cancer diagnosed among Alpes Maritimes residents women aged 50-75 was 791 (95% CI: 784-797) in 2008. Of these 791 cases, 729 were identified through histopathology records, thus amounting to 92.2% completeness (95% CI: 91.5-93.0%). The total estimated number of new cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed among Alpes Maritimes residents aged 50-75 was 527 (95% CI: 517-536). Of these 527 cases, 481 were identified through histopathology records, thus amounting to 91.3% completeness (95% CI: 89.7-93.0%).

Conclusion: The estimated completeness of cancer records collected from histopathology laboratories was higher than 90% for new cases of breast and colorectal cancer within the age range concerned by the screening programme. A verified and validated histopathology data collection may be useful for cancer population studies.
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December 2011

Effect of detoxification on liver stiffness assessed by Fibroscan® in alcoholic patients.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2011 Mar 8;35(3):566-70. Epub 2010 Dec 8.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, France.

Aims: The aims of this study were to determine whether alcohol consumption or cessation influences transient elastography (TE) measurements and whether TE is a useful tool to monitor alcoholic patients.

Patients: Twenty-three consecutive heavy drinkers (20 men and 3 women; mean age 47.2 years) admitted for a 7-day hospitalization for alcohol detoxification were included. On admission (D0), a detailed medical history was taken and the following laboratory tests were performed [aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), gamma glutamyltransferase (γGT), and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) levels, and Fibroscan(®)]. All examinations were repeated on D8, D30, and D60. Variation in the median Fibroscan value of >20% was considered significant.

Results: After 1 week of detoxification, the % variation in TE was -21.67 ± -27.6%. The median variation in TE between D8 and D60 was -20% in the abstinent group and 32% in the relapse group (p = 0.007). An increase in proportion of patients with a significant decrease in TE was observed with an increased duration of abstinence: 41.7% at D8 and 66.7% at D60. TE values were significantly correlated with ASAT, γGT, and CDT at D0 and D8, and with ASAT and γGT at D60.

Conclusions: TE in alcoholics is influenced by major variations in the biochemical activity of the disease. The kinetics of variation of TE suggest that this method may be useful to assess alcohol abuse and control.
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March 2011

[Data quality of cancer registration by Adicap codes, used by French pathologists from Paca, 2005-2006].

Ann Pathol 2009 Apr 21;29(2):74-9. Epub 2009 Mar 21.

Département de santé publique, niveau 1, hôpital Archet-I, CHU de Nice, route Saint-Antoine-de-Ginestière, BP 3079, 06202 Nice cedex, France.

Aim: To assess the reliability of systematic and exhaustive cancer Adicap code registration by French pathology laboratories within the Crisap of Paca East network.

Methods: The Adicap code includes tumour site, histology and pathology technique. A quality control programme was applied to malignant and in situ tumours with an Adicap code to assess data quality, correct errors and supply missing data, based on IARC recommendations.

Results: In 2005 and 2006, 45,980 pathology examinations were entered in the Crisap of Paca East database. There was at least one Adicap code per examination, patients, surgeons and pathologists were identified and date of diagnosis was completed, as recommended by the HAS-Afaqap 2005 French pathologist professional quality control. Discrepancies between histopathology tissue and tumour site were found in 0.32% of cases (n=147), between age and histopathology in 0.04% of cases (n=19), and between genital tumour and sex in 0.01% of cases (n=3). In 2006, within 9535 subjects, dates of birth and postcodes of residence were missing, respectively, in 0.39% (n=37) and 22.46% (n=2142) of cases.

Conclusion: Data quality for the Adicap code database may be considered satisfactory. Extended to Paca in 2007, Crisap Paca database can now be exploited for Paca regional cancer control strategy.
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April 2009

HCV/HIV co-infection, HCV viral load and mode of delivery: risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus?

AIDS 2007 Aug;21(13):1811-5

Department of Public Health, Liver Unit, CHU Nice, Hôpital de l'Archet 1, Niveau 1, 06202 Nice cedex 3, France.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children is mainly acquired via maternal transmission. Our aim was to identify mother-to-child-transmission (MTC) risk factors, namely those associated with maternal virological characteristics and mode of delivery.

Methods: Women were included between October 1998 and September 2002 in six hospitals in Southern France on the basis of positive HCV serological status. Recorded data included maternal characteristics, circumstances of delivery and laboratory data concerning mother and child. Paediatric follow-up lasted 1 year, and 2 years for children with circulating HCV RNA.

Results: A total of 214 mother-and-child pairs were analysed; 55 (26%) were HCV/HIV co-infected. The probability of HCV transmission was three-fold higher for HCV/HIV-co-infected women (P = 0.05). Twelve children were HCV RNA positive at 1 year of age (MTC = 5.6%); three became HCV RNA negative between 12 (M12) and 18 months of age (M18) and recovered normal alanine aminotransferase levels. Circulating HCV RNA was found in 137 (69%) mothers. Mothers of infected children all displayed HCV viraemia (MTC = 8.8%): six children were born of HCV/HIV-co-infected HCV RNA positive women (MTC = 13.6%) and six from HCV monoinfected women with positive HCV RNA (MTC = 6.5%). When maternal HCV RNA levels were below 6 log-IU/ml, the rate of transmission was significantly higher in the case of HCV/HIV co-infection (odds ratio = 8.3, 95% confidence interval, 1.4-47.5) P = 0.01. This association did not, however, exist for HCV RNA-positive mothers with levels of at least 6 log-IU/ml. Rate of transmission did not differ significantly between children born by vaginal delivery or caesarean section after membrane rupture and those born by elective caesarean section independently of HIV status.
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August 2007

Factors predictive of alcohol abstention after resident detoxication among alcoholics followed in an hospital outpatient center.

Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2007 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):595-9

Fédération d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie et Nutrition Clinique; Hôpital l'Archet II, 151 route Saint-Antoine de Ginestière, 06202 Nice.

Objectives: A cohort of patient hospitalized for alcohol detoxification between January 2004 and January 2005 were followed prospectively to search for factors predictive factors of sustained abstinence.

Patients And Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients (79 males, 36 females, median age 45.9+/-10.7 years), were hospitalized for alcohol detoxification. Demographic, social, and medical data including daily alcohol intake and co-addictions were noted at inclusion and six months later. Patients who did not attend their six-month visit were contacted by phone.

Results: Among the 115 included patients, six month follow-up data could be collected for 73. Abstinence rate was 54.8%. Factors predictive of unsuccessful cessation were homelessness (P=0.004), duration of alcohol consumption (P=0.004), smoking (P=0.02), drug substitution (P=0.04) and multiple addictions (P=0.04). At multivariate analysis, multiple addictions was the only independent factor predictive of unsuccessful detoxification. Naltrexone or acamprosate treatments were not associated with a better rate of alcohol detoxification.

Conclusion: Patient follow-up is problematic due to the large number of dropouts among alcoholics. Early screening in search for factors predictive of unsuccessful detoxification (long duration of alcohol consumption, multiple addiction) would be helpful in elaborating appropriate pluridisciplinary management.
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December 2007

Glucose intolerance and hypoadiponectinemia are already present in lean patients with chronic hepatitis C infected with genotype non-3 viruses.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007 Aug;19(8):671-7

Centre Hospitalier de Nice, Pôle digestif, Nice, France.

Objectives: Steatosis and metabolic abnormalities seem to be frequent and deleterious in chronic hepatitis C. Changes in glucose homeostasis and in adiponectin levels, an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitive properties, were evaluated in patients with chronic hepatitis C according to steatosis, liver fibrosis and body mass index.

Methods: Seventy-three patients with chronic hepatitis C (40 men, 33 women) infected with genotypes non-3 and 22 healthy controls (11 men and 11 women) were included in the study and all had a biochemical evaluation, including metabolic parameters, adiponectin measurement, and a liver biopsy. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the HOMA 1-IR insulin resistance model.

Results: Steatosis was found in 65.7% of the patients and significant fibrosis (METAVIR F2-F4) was present in 28.7%. The presence of steatosis could only be predicted by fibrosis, whereas significant fibrosis could be predicted by steatosis and age. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (-32%) with the severity of the steatosis. Although overweight chronic hepatitis C patients (body mass index>or=25 kg/m2) had insulin resistance and hypoadiponectinemia, lean chronic hepatitis C patients (body mass index<25 kg/m2) had already significantly higher glycemia and lower adiponectin levels than in controls.

Conclusions: This study confirms the high incidence of steatosis in patients infected by hepatitis C virus genotypes non-3, well linked to the development of fibrosis and metabolic abnormalities. Importantly, the present findings put emphasis on the early development of these metabolic abnormalities as they were already found in lean patients with chronic hepatitis C. The direct implication of hepatitis C virus is thus further stressed in the development of steatosis and insulin resistance, with or without involvement of host factors.
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August 2007

Hepatitis C awareness among adolescents in the Alpes-Maritimes area of France.

Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2007 May;31(5):485-92

Réseau Hépatite C Ville-Hôpital Côte d'Azur.

Objectives: Certain practices with a potential risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission begin early, during adolescence. In 2004, primary prevention interventions targeting adolescents aged 13-17 years attending school in the Alpes-Maritimes region of France were conducted by the "Réseau Hépatite C Ville Hôpital Côte d'Azur". The aim of this study was to assess the adolescents' knowledge about HCV and to evaluate the impact of such interventions.

Methods: A random sample of secondary state schools in the Alpes-Maritimes was invited to participate in the study. Before and after presenting a slide show about HCV in the selected classrooms, the investigators asked the students to complete an anonymous self-administered questionnaire designed to assess their knowledge about HCV infection.

Results: The intervention concerned a study population of 2,946 students, mean age 14.4 +/- 2.5 years. Before the interventions, 21% had good knowledge of HCV infection and 24% had good know-ledge of disease contagion. These percentages increased significantly after the interventions to 95% and 84% respectively. Knowledge improvement was more significant among high school students and among students whose parents had an employment.

Conclusions: Adolescents are poorly informed about HCV infection. The present intervention enabled significant improvement in their knowledge about the infection and disease contagion, independently of gender, age and geographical area.
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May 2007

Fatigue in irritable bowel syndrome: characterization and putative role of leptin.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007 Mar;19(3):237-43

Department of Hepatogastroenterology, CHU, Nice, France.

Objectives: Fatigue has received little attention in the irritable bowel syndrome. Emerging evidence exists that leptin may be involved in the pathogenesis of fatigue in several conditions. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of fatigue and its characteristics in irritable bowel syndrome and to analyze the relationship between fatigue and leptin.

Methods: We enrolled 51 consecutive irritable bowel syndrome patients and 22 healthy controls without fatigue. None of them were depressed. The Fatigue Impact Scale was used to evaluate fatigue.

Results: In all, 62.7% of irritable bowel syndrome patients verbally expressed fatigue and rated more than 4 on the visual analog scale. The total score of fatigue was significantly higher in irritable bowel syndrome than in controls. In irritable bowel syndrome patients, but not in controls, a significant association was found between the total score of fatigue and leptin and this association was more pronounced in 32 irritable bowel syndrome patients who verbally expressed fatigue (r=0.60; P=0.0003). In irritable bowel syndrome, leptin correlated with fatigue independently from age, sex, fat mass and body mass index.

Conclusions: Our study shows that fatigue occurs in 62.7% of irritable bowel syndrome patients when systematically asked for. Fatigue influences all three domains of the Fatigue Impact Scale in irritable bowel syndrome, the most being the physical and the psychosocial domains. Fatigue is associated with circulating leptin levels independently from age, sex, fat mass and body mass index in irritable bowel syndrome. The metabolic sequence involved in the occurrence of fatigue remains to be determined.
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March 2007

Serum C-reactive protein: a non-invasive marker of alcoholic hepatitis.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2006 Dec;41(12):1473-9

Liver Unit, Hôpital L'Archet 2, Nice, France.

Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for alcoholic hepatitis in heavy drinkers.

Material And Methods: A total of 101 heavy drinkers (67 M, 34 F) with elevated transaminase activity and negative HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV antibodies were included in the study. All patients underwent standard liver function tests, CRP determination and liver biopsies. None of the patients had signs of infection or inflammatory disease and none of them were taking antibiotics. The severity of alcoholic hepatitis was assessed semi-quantitatively using a Metavir-derived scoring system. The receiver operating curve (ROC) for CRP was constructed to assess different areas under the curve (AUCs) and the best threshold value for predicting alcoholic hepatitis (an AUC of 1.0 for an ideal test and of 0.5 for a less indicative test).

Results: Pathological signs of alcoholic hepatitis were found in 29 patients (30%) and significant fibrosis (F > 1) in 46 (45.1%). CRP increased significantly with the severity of acute alcoholic hepatitis (p<0.001). Total bilirubin (OR = 1.03 CI 95% (1.01-1.06), p=0.04) and CRP (OR = 1.1 CI 95% (1.02-1.19), p=0.01) were independent factors for predicting alcoholic hepatitis. The area under the ROC curve of CRP was 0.78. Using optimized cut-off values (CRP > 19 mg/L), the sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 41%, 99%, 92%, 81% and 82%, respectively.

Conclusion: CRP is an accurate marker of alcoholic hepatitis.
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December 2006

[Peer visits to community-based general practitioners and pediatricians as part of the "Antibiotics only when necessary" campaign in the Alpes-Maritimes district. Methodology, feasibility, and interest].

Presse Med 2006 May;35(5 Pt 1):749-54

Département de santé publique, Hôpital de l'Archet, Nice (06).

Objectives: As part of a public health campaign promoting prudent antibiotic use to combat bacterial resistance in southeastern France, a multidisciplinary group organized peer-conducted educational outreach (academic detailing) visits to all the community-based general practitioners and pediatricians in the district. The visits, which took place in 2000 and were repeated in 2003, were intended to provide epidemiological data and professional guidelines to these doctors.

Method: A group of local experts created special academic detailing sheets based on French and international recommendations. Peers with similar experience received special training in the relevant scientific material and in communications skills and then visited the local physicians and discussed the detailing sheets.

Results: The project contacted 95% of the target doctors (1079/1174 in 2000 and 1119/1135 in 2003), 94% (1024/1079 and 1042/1119, respectively) of whom agreed to be visited. The visitors reported positive feedback in over 80% of cases. Many of the visited doctors showed keen interest that led to ongoing dialogue, including participation in a regional influenza surveillance program. A sample of the visited doctors received a questionnaire to evaluate the method in 2001: 93% of the responders endorsed the method and 92% requested for more recommendations and guidelines.

Discussion: Carefully prepared individual academic detailing visits conducted by peers succeeded in visiting nearly all the physicians in the district twice, two years apart, and provided them with useful support for implementing important guidelines in everyday practice. This method can be used to improve cooperation between healthcare providers and improve the quality of health care in France.
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May 2006

Impact of antiretroviral treatment on progression of hepatic fibrosis in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients.

AIDS 2004 Nov;18(16):2163-70

Service d'Hépato-gastroentérologie, CHU Nice, Hôpital de l'Archet, France.

Background: The impact of immune reconstitution on liver fibrosis in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients is unknown. In this case-control study, we investigated the impact of HIV infection on the severity of liver fibrosis and identified related factors.

Methods: We studied 116 HIV/HCV patients and 235 HCV only patients all untreated for HCV. Each co-infected patient was matched with two singly-infected patients according to gender, age at contamination and duration of infection. Liver biopsy was analysed using the METAVIR score.

Results: Alcohol consumption and route of contamination differed between HCV-infected and HCV/HIV co-infected patients. Among co-infected patients, a F3-F4 Metavir score was significantly more frequent than in mono-infected patients. Co-infected patients with severe fibrosis (F3-F4) had higher transaminase, ferritin levels and lower CD4 T-cell count than patients with none to moderate fibrosis (F0-F2). Although median duration of treatment with nucleoside analogues, non-nucleoside analogues and protease inhibitors were comparable in both groups, the delay between the presumed date of contamination and treatment initiation with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was significantly longer for patients with severe fibrosis than those with none to moderate fibrosis. Finally, the mean rate of fibrosis progression was significantly slower among patients exposed to HAART.

Conclusion: Early antiretroviral therapy in co-infected HIV-HCV patients may slow liver fibrosis progression.
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November 2004

Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine-screening test (Multistix8SG) in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002 Nov;14(11):1257-60

Liver Unit and Department of Immunology, Archet 2 Hospital, Nice, France.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine-screening test (Multistix8SG) for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients.

Methods: Seventy-two consecutive patients (44 males, 28 females; mean age 61.6 years) with cirrhosis and ascites were included in the study. A diagnostic paracentesis was performed on hospital admission in all patients and 2 days after antibiotic treatment in the case of SBP (polymorphonuclear [PMN] count over 250/mm in ascitic fluid). Each fresh sample of ascitic fluid was also tested using the Multistix8SG urine test, and the results were scored as negative, trace or positive.

Results: Nine of the 72 patients had SBP and the Multistix8SG urine test was positive. After 48 h of antibiotic therapy, the PMN count of three of these nine patients was still above 250/mm and the Multistix8SG test remained positive. In three other patients with SBP, the PMN count dropped below 250/mm and the Multistix8SG test result had become negative. Two of the nine SBP patients died before 48 h, and paracentesis was not performed in the ninth case. In the other 63 patients, the PMN count in ascitic fluid was below 250/mm; the Multistix8SG test revealed 17 trace results and 46 negative results. At the threshold of 250 PMN/mm in ascitic fluid, this test had a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%.

Conclusion: A positive Multistix8SG urine test result in ascitic fluid appears to be an indication for antibiotic treatment.
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November 2002

[Registry of liver biopsies from hepatitis C infected patients in the Alpes-Maritimes (France). Results from the first 2 years].

Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2002 Jan;26(1):57-61

Réseau Hépatite C, Côte-d'Azur, Nice, France.

Objective: To perform a descriptive analysis of patients with chronic hepatitis C based on a local registry of liver biopsies.

Patients And Method: Collection of clinical, biological and histological data from all HCV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy between January 1997 and December 1998 in the Alpes-Maritimes (France).

Results: One thousand and fifty six patients including 924 who lived in the Alpes-Maritimes (515 male, 409 female, mean age: 44.9 years old) were included. Intravenous drug use (30.1%) was the major suspected source of infection before blood transfusion (28.2%). Among intravenous drug users, 38% of patients were infected with genotype 1a and 37.4% with genotype 3. The METAVIR fibrosis severity score was distributed as follows: F0: 10.8%, F1: 53.7%, F2: 15.9%, F3: 14.7%, and F4: 4.9%. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for the duration of infection, independent risk factors associated with the severity of fibrosis were age at contamination >=30 years, genotype other than 1a and alcohol intake >=50 g/day. Determination of HCV antibody and liver biopsy were performed an average of 12.5 and 14 years after presumed date of contamination, respectively.

Conclusions: These data provide a clearer view of the impact of this condition in this area and could help to define a comprehensive policy for patient management.
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January 2002