Publications by authors named "Eugene Mazimpaka"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Seroprevalence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Small-Animal Veterinarians and Nurses in the Japanese Prefecture with the Highest Case Load.

Viruses 2021 02 2;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is the causative agent of SFTS, an emerging tick-borne disease in East Asia, and is maintained in enzootic cycles involving ticks and a range of wild animal hosts. Direct transmission of SFTSV from cats and dogs to humans has been identified in Japan, suggesting that veterinarians and veterinary nurses involved in small-animal practice are at occupational risk of SFTSV infection. To characterize this risk, we performed a sero-epidemiological survey in small-animal-practice workers and healthy blood donors in Miyazaki prefecture, which is the prefecture with the highest per capita number of recorded cases of SFTS in Japan. Three small-animal-practice workers were identified as seropositive by ELISA, but one had a negative neutralization-test result and so was finally determined to be seronegative, giving a seropositive rate of 2.2% (2 of 90), which was significantly higher than that in healthy blood donors (0%, 0 of 1000; < 0.05). The seroprevalence identified here in small-animal-practice workers was slightly higher than that previously reported in other high-risk workers engaged in agriculture and forestry in Japan. Thus, enhancement of small-animal-practice workers' awareness of biosafety at animal hospitals is necessary for control of SFTSV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13020229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912989PMC
February 2021

Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Enhances the Adherence of to Bovine Lower Respiratory Tract Epithelial Cells by Upregulating the Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor.

Front Microbiol 2020 31;11:1676. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Graduate School of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Coinfection by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and (PM) frequently has been observed in cattle that develop severe pneumonia. We recently reported that BRSV infection significantly increased PM adherence to bovine lower respiratory tract epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of enhanced PM adherence are not completely understood. To investigate whether BRSV infection regulates any cellular adherence receptors on bovine bronchus- and lung-epithelial cells, we performed proteomic and functional analyses. The proteomic analysis showed that BRSV infection increased the accumulation of the platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) in both cell types. Molecular experiments, including specific blockade, knockdown, and overexpression of PAFR, indicated that PM adherence to these cell types depended on PAFR expression. These findings highlight the role, in cattle with severe pneumonia, of the synergistic effect of coinfection by BRSV and PM in the lower respiratory tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411089PMC
July 2020

Poultry production and constraints in Eastern Province of Rwanda: case study of Rukomo sector, Nyagatare district.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Apr 14;50(4):753-759. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

University of Rwanda-Nyagatare Campus, P.O. Box 57, Nyagatare, Rwanda.

A study was conducted in Rukomo sector, Nyagatare district, to determine the status of poultry production. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 poultry farmers randomly as 20 farmers from each of the five cells. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and presented in chart and tables. The majority of the farmers (84%) reared their poultry in free range system while 10% practiced semi-intensive and only 6% did intensive production. Only 12% of the respondents kept exotic poultry breeds. The breeding stock were mostly obtained from local markets (63%) and the average flock size was about 1-10 birds per homestead (70%). The confinement of poultry at night was either in the main domestic house (33%), in kitchen (32%), or in separate poultry house (35%). Flock records were rare and kept by only 9% of respondents. Poultry products were reportedly at high demand by 87% of respondents and 89% farmers reported profit from their enterprises. Lack of veterinary and financial assistance was reported by 72% of respondents. Newcastle disease (57%) was the main health constraint followed by ectoparasites and internal worms. Many farmers (50%) were in dire need of veterinary assistance and financial support to improve their poultry enterprises. Poor management practices were reported to be one of the crucial factors leading to poor production. Lack of quality feeds (38%) and feeding of poultry, credit (20%), and poor market accessibility (19%) were the main challenges reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1491-5DOI Listing
April 2018

Current status of cattle production system in Nyagatare District-Rwanda.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Dec 19;49(8):1645-1656. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture Animal Sciences, Veterinary Medicine University, Nyagatare Campus, P.O. Box 57, Nyagatare, Rwanda.

A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53.9%) had only primary education. Most respondents (52.6%) were in the age bracket of 41-50 years and were mainly (48.3%) located within 3 km from trading centers. The farm size averaged 6.5 ± 0.8 ha and most farms (64.7%) were fenced except in Rukomo Sector (50%) where zero grazing prevailed. Natural pastures (savanna grass land) were the main feed resource; tethering (9%) and communal grazing had diminished. Napier grass was the main planted forage (93.2%), followed by Chloris guyana (3.1%) and Brachiara (1.2%). Leguminous forages were rarely (2.5%) reported. Vita-mineral and salt block supplements, hay, and crop residues were the predominant supplementary feed stuffs used except in Karangazi and Rwemiyaga Sectors where only vita-mineral block predominated. However, maize and rice brans were reported to be the main feed stuffs used in supplementary feeding of lactating cows. Most farmers (89.7%) reported shortage of water as most of the farmers trekked their cattle to the nearest valley dams (59.2%), rivers (21.1%), and a few 6% had water on farms. Indigenous cattle were predominant (67.03%) followed by cross-breeds (28.37%) and exotics (4.6%) while all farmers kept small ruminants. Natural breeding predominated (74.9%) and most farms (60.6%) had animal houses most of which were temporary (52.8%). The reported mean age at first calving (AFC) was highest (40.2 ± .33) for Ankole and the lowest (29.1 ± .50) months for exotic cattle. Calving interval was shorter in local breeds than 65.7 ± 3.0 in exotic. The mean dairy milk yield was lowest for Ankole cattle 2.4 ± .08 as compared to the exotics (10.42 ± .36) and their crosses (7.2 ± .34). The main challenges were diseases, shortage of water, feeds, and inadequate extension services. Same observation was reported by Okello (African Journal of Range and Forage Science 22(3), 2005) in Uganda.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1372-yDOI Listing
December 2017