Publications by authors named "Eugene MacCarthy"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparative proteomic profiling of newly acquired, virulent and attenuated Neoparamoeba perurans proteins associated with amoebic gill disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6830. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biopharmaceutical and Medical Science, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Co. Galway, Ireland.

The causative agent of amoebic gill disease, Neoparamoeba perurans is reported to lose virulence during prolonged in vitro maintenance. In this study, the impact of prolonged culture on N. perurans virulence and its proteome was investigated. Two isolates, attenuated and virulent, had their virulence assessed in an experimental trial using Atlantic salmon smolts and their bacterial community composition was evaluated by 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Soluble proteins were isolated from three isolates: a newly acquired, virulent and attenuated N. perurans culture. Proteins were analysed using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The challenge trial using naïve smolts confirmed a loss in virulence in the attenuated N. perurans culture. A greater diversity of bacterial communities was found in the microbiome of the virulent isolate in contrast to a reduction in microbial community richness in the attenuated microbiome. A collated proteome database of N. perurans, Amoebozoa and four bacterial genera resulted in 24 proteins differentially expressed between the three cultures. The present LC-MS/MS results indicate protein synthesis, oxidative stress and immunomodulation are upregulated in a newly acquired N. perurans culture and future studies may exploit these protein identifications for therapeutic purposes in infected farmed fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85988-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994405PMC
March 2021

Class imbalance in gradient boosting classification algorithms: Application to experimental stroke data.

Stat Methods Med Res 2021 Mar 28;30(3):916-925. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Enterprise Ireland Medical and Engineering Technologies Gateway, GMIT, Galway, Ireland.

Imbalance between positive and negative outcomes, a so-called class imbalance, is a problem generally found in medical data. Imbalanced data hinder the performance of conventional classification methods which aim to improve the overall accuracy of the model without accounting for uneven distribution of the classes. To rectify this, the data can be resampled by oversampling the positive (minority) class until the classes are approximately equally represented. After that, a prediction model such as gradient boosting algorithm can be fitted with greater confidence. This classification method allows for non-linear relationships and deep interactive effects while focusing on difficult areas by iterative shifting towards problematic observations. In this study, we demonstrate application of these methods to medical data and develop a practical framework for evaluation of features contributing into the probability of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0962280220980484DOI Listing
March 2021

An in-vitro evaluation of the flow haemodynamic performance of Gore-Tex extracardiac conduits for univentricular circulation.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 Sep 2;15(1):235. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology Children's Health Ireland, Crumlin, Dublin 12, Ireland.

Objective(s): The Fontan procedure is a common palliative intervention for sufferers of single ventricle congenital heart defects that results in an anastomosis of the venous return to the pulmonary arteries called the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). In patients with palliated single ventricular heart defects, the Fontan circulation passively directs systemic venous return to the pulmonary circulation in the absence of a functional sub-pulmonary ventricle. Therefore, the Fontan circulation is highly dependent on favourable flow and energetics, and minimal energy loss is of great importance. The majority of in vitro studies, to date, employ a rigid TCPC model. Recently, few studies have incorporated flexible TCPC models, without the inclusion of commercially available conduits used in these surgical scenarios.

Method: The methodology set out in this study successfully utilizes patient-specific phantoms along with the corresponding flowrate waveforms to characterise the flow haemodynamic performance of extracardiac Gore-Tex conduits. This was achieved by comparing a rigid and flexible TCPC models against a flexible model with an integrated Gore-Tex conduit.

Results: The flexible model with the integrated Gore-Tex graft exhibited greater levels of energy losses when compared to the rigid walled model. With this, the flow fields showed greater levels of turbulence in the complaint and Gore-Tex models compared to the rigid model under ultrasound analysis.

Conclusion: This study shows that vessel compliance along with the incorporation of Gore-Tex extracardiac conduits have significant impact on the flow haemodynamics in a patient-specific surgical scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-020-01269-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466829PMC
September 2020

Per-Pass Analysis of Thrombus Composition in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Undergoing Mechanical Thrombectomy.

Stroke 2019 05;50(5):1156-1163

Cerenovus, Galway Neuro Technology Centre, Ireland (S.D., R.M., M.G.).

Background and Purpose- Mechanical thrombectomy may involve multiple attempts to retrieve the occluding thrombus. This study examined the composition of thrombus fragments retrieved with each pass of a device during the thrombectomy procedure. Second, the per-pass composition was compared with procedural and clinical data including angiographic outcome and stroke etiology. Methods- Thrombi were retrieved from 60 patients with acute ischemic stroke, where thrombus fragments retrieved in each pass were segregated as individual samples and maintained throughout the histological analysis as independent samples. All samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Martius Scarlet Blue. The relative composition of red blood cells, fibrin, and white blood cells in thrombus fragments from each pass was quantified. Results- Over the 60 cases, thrombus material was retrieved in 106 of 138 passes. The number of passes required to complete the cases ranged from 1 to 6 passes. The analysis of thrombus fragments retrieved in each pass provided a greater insight into the thrombectomy procedure progression than the overall thrombus composition; the red blood cell content of thrombus fragments retrieved in passes 1 and 2 was significantly higher than that retrieved in passes 3 to 6. The removal of thrombus material in a total of 1, 2, or 3 passes was associated with the highest percentage of final modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score of 2c-3. There was no association between modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score and per-pass thrombus composition. Conclusions- The differentiation achieved through the per-pass analysis of acute ischemic stroke thrombi provides a greater insight into the thrombectomy procedure progression than the combined per-case thrombus analysis. Insights gained may be a useful consideration in determining the treatment strategy as a case evolves and may be useful for the development of new devices to increase rates of 1-pass recanalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023419DOI Listing
May 2019

Gene expression analysis of Atlantic salmon gills reveals mucin 5 and interleukin 4/13 as key molecules during amoebic gill disease.

Sci Rep 2018 09 12;8(1):13689. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Fish Pathology Group, Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Castellón, 12595, Spain.

Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is one of the main diseases affecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. Hallmarks of AGD are hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium and increased production of gill mucus. This study investigated the expression of genes involved in mucus secretion, cell cycle regulation, immunity and oxidative stress in gills using a targeted 21-gene PCR array. Gill samples were obtained from experimental and natural Neoparamoeba perurans infections, and sampling points included progressive infection stages and post-freshwater treatment. Up-regulation of genes related to mucin secretion and cell proliferation, and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic genes were associated with AGD severity, while partial restoration of the gill homeostasis was detected post-treatment. Mucins and Th2 cytokines accoun ted for most of the variability observed between groups highlighting their key role in AGD. Two mucins (muc5, muc18) showed differential regulation upon disease. Substantial up-regulation of the secreted muc5 was detected in clinical AGD, and the membrane bound muc18 showed an opposite pattern. Th2 cytokines, il4/13a and il4/13b2, were significantly up-regulated from 2 days post-infection onwards, and changes were lesion-specific. Despite the differences between experimental and natural infections, both yielded comparable results that underline the importance of the studied genes in the respiratory organs of fish, and during AGD progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32019-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135806PMC
September 2018

Local and systemic humoral immune response in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under a natural amoebic gill disease outbreak.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 10;66:207-216. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, protease, anti-protease, esterase, alkaline phosphatase), IgM levels, and the terminal carbohydrate profile in the gill mucus. Overall, greater variations between groups were noted in the immune parameters determined in gill mucus than the equivalent in the serum. In gill mucus, IgM levels and peroxidase, lysozyme, esterase and protease activities were decreased in fish showing longer exposure time to the infection and higher disease severity, then showed a sequential increase after treatment. Results obtained highlight the capacity of gills to elicit a local response to the infection, indicate an impaired immune response at the later stages of the disease, and show partial reestablishment of the host immune status after freshwater treatment. In addition to providing data on the humoral response to AGD, this study increases knowledge on gill mucosal humoral immunity, since some of the parameters were analysed for the first time in gill mucus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.05.029DOI Listing
July 2017

Novel methodology to replicate clot analogs with diverse composition in acute ischemic stroke.

J Neurointerv Surg 2017 May 28;9(5):486-491. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Neuravi Ltd, Galway, Ireland.

Background: Translational research on clot composition may be advanced by the use of clot analogs for the preclinical evaluation of mechanical thrombectomy devices. This work describes a novel set of clot analogs to represent a diverse range of fibrin and red blood cell (RBC) compositions for use in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) occlusion models.

Method: Fresh whole blood obtained from ovine species was used to create seven different clot analog types. Five replicates were formed for each clot type. Varying amounts of whole blood constituents were mixed with thrombotic factors to create clots of varying compositions. Following histological processing, five sections from each clot were stained with H&E and Martius Scarlet Blue. Fibrin, RBC and white blood cell compositions were quantified.

Results: Histological examination demonstrated that the clot types had a distinct RBC and fibrin composition. No significant difference in composition was shown between replicates (p>0.05), indicating that the method of clot formation was reproducible. Percentage fibrin composition of the clot types was 1%, 8%, 31%, 38%, 64%, 79%, and 100%. A significant difference in fibrin and RBC composition between clot types was observed (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Seven different clot types were developed to replicate common AIS thrombi. These clot analogs may be beneficial for the preclinical evaluation of endovascular therapies, and may be applied to interventional technique training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2016-012308DOI Listing
May 2017

Pathological and physiological effects of nicking on brown crab (Cancer pagurus) in the Irish crustacean fishery.

J Invertebr Pathol 2013 Jan 24;112(1):49-56. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway, Ireland.

Nicking is used in fisheries to immobilize claws of brown crab (Cancer pagurus) in order to prevent cannibalism and fighting during storage. Nicking fractures the apodemes creating an open wound and damage to the internal claw tissues, which is the most valuable product of brown crab. In turn, this results in a reduction of quality of product and possibly compromises the host's defence mechanisms to other physiological challenges experienced throughout the post-harvest process. This study assessed the effects of nicking on the physiology and pathology of brown crab from the Irish fishery over 7 days. Results showed significantly elevated levels of muscle necrosis (P=0.005), total pathologies (P=0.022) and encirculating granulocytes in nicked crab compared to non-nicked crab. Mean glucose (212.0 μg/mL±108.4), lactate (36.52 μg/mL±38.74) and RI (11.05n±1.78) levels were higher in nicked crab indicating increased stress levels. Overall, histology results showed a significantly higher (P=0.022) occurrence of pathologies, such as melanised nodules, in nicked animals. In addition to an observed reduction in the quality of claw muscle, nicked crab also showed significantly higher (P=0.005) levels of necrosis in claw muscle. From the results of this study it is recommended that alternative retention methods are used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2012.08.006DOI Listing
January 2013

Serum CRP-like protein profile in common carp Cyprinus carpio challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

Dev Comp Immunol 2008 13;32(11):1281-9. Epub 2008 May 13.

School of Life Sciences, Huxley Building, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK.

The potential of C-reactive protein (CRP)-like proteins to be used as a biomarker of health status in cultured carp obtained from various European fish lines has been assessed. Varying CRP-like protein levels in the serum of carp were monitored using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CRP-like protein basal levels in normal fish varied between carp lines, ranging on average from 2.9+/-0.15 to 12.57+/-1.19 microg ml(-1). Serum levels of CRP-like protein in carp were observed to increase several fold in fish infected with the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. However, carp injected with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serotype 0111:B4 did not exhibit an increase in CRP-like proteins levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2008.04.004DOI Listing
October 2008